Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 12

Edited By: Michael S. Marks, Trina A. Schroer, Tom H. Stevens and Sharon A. Tooze

Online ISSN: 1600-0854

Virtual Issue Neuroscience

NeuroscienceVirtual Issue Neuroscience

Trafficking in neurons is a rapidly expanding field in cell biology, and Traffic has become a premier journal for the publication of papers reporting new discoveries this field. The most recent Traffic papers on all aspects of trafficking in neurons will now be collected together as TRAFFIC- NEUROSCIENCE that can be found on the Traffic home page

Botulinum Neurotoxin A Impairs Neurotransmission Following Retrograde Transynaptic Transport
Laura Restani, Elena Novelli, David Bottari, Paola Leone, Ilaria Barone, Lucia Galli-Resta, Enrica Strettoi and Matteo Caleo
Traffic, Early View, Abstract
The widely used botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) blocks neurotransmission via cleavage of the synaptic protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa). Recent evidence demonstrating long-distance propagation of SNAP-25 proteolysis has challenged the idea that BoNT/A remains localized to the injection site. However, the extent to which distant neuronal networks are impacted by BoNT/A retrograde trafficking remains unknown. Importantly, no studies have addressed ...

Akt/PKB Controls the Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis of Synaptic Vesicles
Karen J. Smillie and Michael A. Cousin 
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 7: 1004–1011, Abstract
Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode during intense neuronal activity. The dephosphorylation of Ser774 on dynamin I is essential for triggering of ADBE, as is its subsequent rephosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). We show that...

Membrane Trafficking Pathways in Alzheimer's Disease
Lawrence Rajendran and Wim Annaert
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 6: 759–770, Abstract
Membrane proteins are constantly being trafficked in cells and the relevant proteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its processing enzymes, are not exempted from that. Molecular cell biologists have been endeavoring to ascertain a roadmap for APP processing and trafficking in various cell types including neurons. This has led to the identification of ...

HDAC6 at the Intersection of Neuroprotection and Neurodegeneration
Constantin d'Ydewalle, Elke Bogaert and Ludo Van Den Bosch
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 6: 771–779, Abstract
Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) catalyzes multiple reactions. We summarize the current knowledge on HDAC6, its targets and functions. Among others, HDAC6 recognizes damaged proteins and assures that these proteins are destroyed by autophagy. On the other hand, HDAC6 also modifies the tracks used by the clearance mechanism so that axonal transport becomes less efficient. We ...

Early and Selective Impairments in Axonal Transport Kinetics of Synaptic Cargoes Induced by Soluble Amyloid β-Protein Oligomers
Yong Tang, David A. Scott, Utpal Das, Steven D. Edland, Kryslaine Radomski, Edward H. Koo and Subhojit Roy
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 5: 681–693, Abstract
The downstream targets of amyloid β (Aβ)-oligomers remain elusive. One hypothesis is that Aβ-oligomers interrupt axonal transport. Although previous studies have demonstrated Aβ-induced transport blockade, early effects of low-n soluble Aβ-oligomers on axonal transport remain unclear. Furthermore, the cargo selectivity for such deficits (if any) or the specific effects of Aβ on the motility kinetics of ...

Axonal Targeting of the 5-HT1B Serotonin Receptor Relies on Structure-Specific Constitutive Activation
Damien Carrel, Anne Simon, Michel B. Emerit, Isabelle Rivals, Christophe Leterrier, Marc Biard, Michel Hamon, Michèle Darmon and Zsolt Lenkei
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 11: 1501–1520, Abstract
By analogy to other axonal proteins, transcytotic delivery following spontaneous endocytosis from the somatodendritic membrane is expected to be essential for polarized distribution of axonal G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). However, possible contribution from constitutive activation, which may also result in constitutive GPCR endocytosis, is poorly known. Using two closely related but ...

Endocytosis and Endosomes at the Crossroads of Regulating Trafficking of Axon Outgrowth-Modifying Receptors
Bettina Winckler and Chan Choo Yap
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 9: 1099–1108, Abstract
In neurons, many receptors must be localized correctly to axons or dendrites for proper function. During development, receptors for nerve growth and guidance are targeted to axons and localized to growth cones where receptor activation by ligands results in promotion or inhibition of axon growth. Signaling outcomes downstream of ligand binding are determined by the location, levels and ...

Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis at the Synaptic Terminal: Bridging the Gap Between Physiology and Molecules
Stephen J. Royle and Leon Lagnado
Traffic, Volume 11, Issue 12: 1489–1497, Abstract
It has long been known that the maintenance of fast communication between neurons requires that presynaptic terminals recycle the small vesicles from which neurotransmitter is released. But the mechanisms that retrieve vesicles from the cell surface are still not understood. Although we have a wealth of information about the molecular details of endocytosis in non-neuronal cells, it is clear ...

Subcellular Communication Through RNA Transport and Localized Protein Synthesis
Christopher J. Donnelly, Mike Fainzilber and Jeffery L. Twiss
Traffic, Volume 11, Issue 12: 1498–1505, Abstract
Interest in the mechanisms of subcellular localization of mRNAs and the effects of localized translation has increased over the last decade. Polarized eukaryotic cells transport mRNA–protein complexes to subcellular sites, where translation of the mRNAs can be regulated by physiological stimuli. The long distances separating distal neuronal processes from their cell body have made neurons ...

A New Form of Neurite Outgrowth Sustained by the Exocytosis of Enlargeosomes Expressed under the Control of REST
Carsten Schulte, Gabriella Racchetti, Rosalba D’Alessandro and Jacopo Meldolesi
Traffic, Accepted manuscript, Abstract
In neurons and neurosecretory (nerve) cells, neurite outgrowth requires surface enlargement sustained by exocytosis of specific but poorly characterized vesicles. A canonical, relatively slow form of outgrowth is known to require the v-SNARE Ti-VAMP. Recently, we ....

Limited Intermixing of Synaptic Vesicle Components upon Vesicle Recycling
Felipe Opazo, Annedore Punge, Johanna Bückers, Peer Hoopmann, Lars Kastrup, Stefan W. Hell and Silvio O. Rizzoli
Traffic, Volume 11, Issue 6: 800–812, Abstract
Synaptic vesicles recycle repeatedly in order to maintain synaptic transmission. We have previously proposed that upon exocytosis the vesicle components persist as clusters, which would be endocytosed as whole units. It has also been proposed that the vesicle ...

Selective Targeting of ER Exit Sites Supports Axon Development
Meir Aridor, Kenneth N. Fish
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 11: 1669 - 1684, Abstract
During neuron development, the biosynthetic needs of the axon initially outweigh those of dendrites. However, although a localized role for the early secretory pathway in dendrite development has been observed, such a role in axon growth remains undefined. We therefore studied the localization of Sar1, a small GTPase that controls ER export, during early stages of neuronal development that are characterized by selective and robust axon growth. At these early stages, Sar1 ...

Subcellular Localization of the Neuronal Glycine Transporter GLYT2 in Brainstem
Enrique Núñez, Gonzalo Pérez-Siles, Lara Rodenstein, Pablo Alonso-Torres, Francisco Zafra, Esperanza Jiménez, Carmen Aragón, Beatriz López-Corcuera
Traffic, Early View Article, Abstract
The neuronal glycine transporter GLYT2 belongs to the neurotransmitter:sodium:symporter (NSS) family and removes glycine from the synaptic cleft, thereby aiding the termination of the glycinergic signal and achieving the reloading of the presynaptic terminal. The task fulfilled by this transporter is fine tuned by regulating both transport activity and intracellular trafficking. Different stimuli such ...

Going with the Flow: Trafficking-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Serotonin Transport
Jennifer A. Steiner, Ana Marin D. Carneiro, Randy D. Blakely
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1393 - 1402, Abstract
Antidepressant-, cocaine- and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-sensitive serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporters (SERTs) are expressed on presynaptic membranes of 5-HT-secreting neurons to provide efficient uptake of ...

For Better or for Worse: Complexins Regulate SNARE Function and Vesicle Fusion
Nils Brose
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1403 - 1413, Abstract
In contrast to constitutive secretion, SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion is controlled by multiple regulatory proteins, which determine the Ca2+ sensitivity of the vesicle fusion process and the speed of excitation–secretion coupling. ...

Vesicle Docking in Regulated Exocytosis
Matthijs Verhage, Jakob B. Sørensen
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1414 - 1424, Abstract
In electron micrographs, many secretory and synaptic vesicles are found 'docked' at the target membrane, but it is unclear why and how. It is generally assumed that docking is a necessary first step in the secretory pathway before vesicles can ...

Trafficking of Vesicular Neurotransmitter Transporters
Hao Fei, Anna Grygoruk, Elizabeth S. Brooks, Audrey Chen, David E. Krantz
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1425 - 1436, Abstract
Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters are required for the storage of all classical and amino acid neurotransmitters in secretory vesicles. Transporter expression can influence neurotransmitter storage and release, and trafficking targets the  ...

Secretory Outposts for the Local Processing of Membrane Cargo in Neuronal Dendrites
Cyril Hanus, Michael D. Ehlers
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1437 - 1445, Abstract
The large size and geometric complexity of neuronal dendrites necessitate specialized mechanisms to both deliver postsynaptic cargo over extended distances and regulate dendritic composition on a submicron scale. Despite the fundamental importance of membrane trafficking in dendrite ...

ITSN-1 Controls Vesicle Recycling at the Neuromuscular Junction and Functions in Parallel with DAB-1
Wei Wang, Magali Bouhours, Elena O. Gracheva, Edward H. Liao, Keli Xu, Ameet S. Sengar, Xiaofeng Xin, John Roder, Charles Boone, Janet E. Richmond, Mei Zhen and Sean E. Egan
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 20-Feb-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00712.x, Abstract
Intersectins (Itsn) are conserved EH and SH3 domain containing adaptor proteins. In Drosophila melanogaster, ITSN is required to regulate synaptic morphology, to facilitate efficient synaptic vesicle recycling and for viability. Here, we report our ...

A Role for ARF6 and ARNO in the Regulation of Endosomal Dynamics in Neurons
Delia Hernández-Deviez, Alan Mackay-Sim Jean M. Wilson
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 12: 1750-1764, Abstract
During development, neuronal processes extend, branch and navigate to ultimately synapse with target tissue. We have shown a regulatory role for ARNO and ARF6 in dendritic branching and axonal elongation and branching during neuritogenesis, particularly with respect to cytoskeletal ...

Neurotrophins Redirect p75NTR from a Clathrin-Independent to a Clathrin-Dependent Endocytic Pathway Coupled to Axonal Transport
Katrin Deinhardt, Alessandra Reversi, Otto Berninghausen, Colin R. Hopkins Giampietro Schiavo
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 12: 1736-1749, Abstract
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays multiple roles in neuronal physiology through interactions with many ligands and coreceptors. However, its intracellular neuronal trafficking prior to and after neurotrophin activation is still poorly characterized. We have previously shown ...

Endocytosis at Ribbon Synapses
Lisamarie LoGiudice, Gary Matthews
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 9: 1123-1128, Abstract
Unlike conventional synaptic terminals that release neurotransmitter episodically in response to action potentials, neurons of the visual, auditory and vestibular systems encode sensory information in graded signals that are transmitted at their synapses b...

Traffic Jams: Dynamic Models for Neurofilament Accumulation in Motor Neuron Disease

Thomas B. Shea, William J. Beaty
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 4: 445-447, Abstract
The dynamics of axonal transport are often colloquially described using highway traffic as a model system. Examination of the physics of traffic patterns, with emphasis on traffic jams and accidents, provides unique and perhaps counterintuitive insight int...

Dynamic Stabilization: Structural Plasticity at Inhibitory Postsynaptic Sites 
Matthias Kneussel
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 12: 1604-1606, Abstract
Rearrangement of molecular structures at individual synapses can contribute to network plasticity. At mossy fiber presynaptic terminals, experience regulates both connectivity and structure of individual boutons. Moreover, dendritic spines and postsynaptic...

Antagonistic Forces Generated by Cytoplasmic Dynein and Myosin-II during Growth Cone Turning and Axonal Retraction
Kenneth A. Myers, Irina Tint, C. Vidya Nadar, Yan He, Mark M. Black Peter W. Baas
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 10: 1333-1351, Abstract
Cytoplasmic dynein transports short microtubules down the axon in part by pushing against the actin cytoskeleton. Recent studies have suggested that comparable dynein-driven forces may impinge upon the longer microtubules within the axon. Here, we examined...

Evidence for Early Endosome-like Fusion of Recently Endocytosed Synaptic Vesicles
Silvio O. Rizzoli, Ioanna Bethani, Daniel Zwilling, Dirk Wenzel, Tabrez J. Siddiqui, Dorothea Brandhorst Reinhard Jahn
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 9: 1163-1176, Abstract
Early endosomes are well-established acceptor compartments of endocytic vesicles in many cell types. Little evidence of their existence or function has been obtained in synapses, and it is generally believed that synaptic vesicles recycle without passing t...

Nonconventional Trafficking of Ras Associated with Ras Signal Organization
Uri Ashery, Ofer Yizhar, Barak Rotblat Yoel Kloog
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 9: 1119-1126, Abstract
Ras signaling to its downstream effectors appears to include combinations of extracellular-signal-regulated Ras activation at the plasma membrane (PM) and endomembranes, dynamic lateral segregation in the PM, and translocation of Ras from the PM to intrace...

Effects of Dynactin Disruption and Dynein Depletion on Axonal Microtubules
Fridoon J. Ahmad, Yan He, Kenneth A. Myers, Thomas P. Hasaka, Franto Francis, Mark M. Black and Peter W. Baas
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 5: 524-537, Abstract
We investigated potential roles of cytoplasmic dynein in organizing axonal microtubules either by depleting dynein heavy chain from cultured neurons or by experimentally disrupting dynactin. The former was accomplished by siRNA while the latter was accompl...

RNA Trafficking in Axons
Jose R. Sotelo-Silveira, Aldo Calliari, Alejandra Kun, Edward Koenig and Jose R. Sotelo
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 5: 508-515, Abstract
A substantial number of studies over a period of four decades have indicated that axons contain mRNAs and ribosomes, and are metabolically active in synthesizing proteins locally. For the most part, little attention has been paid to these findings until re...

Axonal Transport of Microtubules: the Long and Short of It
Peter W. Baas, C. Vidya Nadar and Kenneth A. Myers
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 5: 490-498, Abstract
Recent studies on cultured neurons have demonstrated that microtubules are transported down the axon in the form of short polymers. The transport of these microtubules is bidirectional, intermittent, asynchronous, and occurs at the fast rate of known motor...

Amyloid Precursor Protein and Notch Intracellular Domains are Generated after Transport of their Precursors to the Cell Surface
Christoph Kaether, Stephanie Schmitt, Michael Willem and Christian Haass
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 4: 408-415, Abstract
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by brain deposition of extracellular amyloid ß-peptide (Aß)-containing plaques. The cellular site of ?-secretase activity, which releases Aß and the corresponding amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain (AICD), r...

The Inner Tegument Promotes Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid Motility Along Microtubules in vitro
André Wolfstein, Claus-Henning Nagel, Kerstin Radtke, Katinka Döhner, Victoria J. Allan and Beate Sodeik
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 2: 227-237, Abstract
After viral fusion, capsids of the neurotropic herpes simplex virus are transported along microtubules (MT) to the nuclear pores for viral genome uncoating, nuclear transcription and replication. After assembly and egress from the nucleus, cytosolic capsid...

The Retention Factor p11 Confers an Endoplasmic Reticulum-Localization Signal to the Potassium Channel TASK-1
Vijay Renigunta, Hebao Yuan, Marylou Zuzarte, Susanne Rinné, Annett Koch, Erhard Wischmeyer, Günter Schlichthörl, Yadong Gao, Andreas Karschin, Ralf Jacob, Blanche Schwappach, Jürgen Daut and Regina Preisig-Müller
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 2: 168-181, Abstract
The interaction of the adaptor protein p11, also denoted S100A10, with the C-terminus of the two-pore-domain K+ channel TASK-1 was studied using yeast two-hybrid analysis, glutathione S-transferase pulldown, and co-immunoprecipitation. We found that p11 in...

Targeting of Proteins of the Striatin Family to Dendritic Spines: Role of the Coiled-Coil Domain
Stéphane Gaillard, Yannick Bailly, Marion Benoist, Tatiana Rakitina, Jean-Pierre Kessler, Laure Fronzaroli-Molinières, Bénédicte Dargent and Francis Castets
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 1: 74-84, Abstract
Striatin, SG2NA and zinedin, the three mammalian members of the striatin family are multimodular WD-repeat, calmodulin and calveolin-binding proteins. These scaffolding proteins, involved in both signaling and trafficking, are highly expressed in neurons....

A Yeast Model System for Functional Analysis of the Niemann–Pick Type C Protein 1 Homolog, Ncr1p
Adam C. Berger, Pamela K. Hanson, J. Wylie Nichols and Anita H. Corbett
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 10: 907-917, Abstract
Niemann–Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a progressive, ultimately fatal, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. The major biochemical hallmark of the disease is the endocytic accumulation of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol. The majority ...

Cytoplasmic Targeting of Mutant Poly(A)-Binding Protein Nuclear 1 Suppresses Protein Aggregation and Toxicity in Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy
Aida Abu-Baker, Simon Laganiere, Xueping Fan, Janet Laganiere, Bernard Brais and Guy A. Rouleau
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 9: 766-779, Abstract
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset disorder characterized by progressive eyelid drooping, swallowing difficulties and proximal limb weakness. The autosomal dominant form of this disease is caused by a polyalanine expansion from 10 ...

The Tetanus Neurotoxin-Sensitive and Insensitive Routes to and from the Plasma Membrane: Fast and Slow Pathways?
Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Rachel Rudge and Thierry Galli
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 5: 366-373, Abstract
Intracellular membrane trafficking in eukaryotes involves the budding of vesicles from a donor compartment, their translocation, and subsequent fusion with a target membrane. This last step has been shown to involve SNARE proteins, classified into two cate...

Exosomes: A Bubble Ride for Prions?
Benoît Février, Didier Vilette, Hubert Laude and Graça Raposo
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 1: 10-17, Abstract
In certain cell types, endosomal multivesicular bodies may fuse with the cell surface in an exocytic manner. During this process, the small 50–90-nm-diameter vesicles contained in their lumen are released into the extracellular environment. The released ve...

Dense Core Vesicle Dynamics in Caenorhabditis elegans Neurons and the Role of Kinesin UNC-104
Tobias R. Zahn, Joseph K. Angleson, Margaret A. MacMorris, Erin Domke, John F. Hutton, Cindi Schwartz and John C. Hutton
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 7: 544-559, Abstract
We have developed a model system in Caenorhabditis elegans to perform genetic and molecular analysis of peptidergic neurotransmission using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged IDA-1. IDA-1 represents the nematode ortholog of the transmembrane proteins I...

Amphiphysin is a Component of Clathrin Coats Formed During Synaptic Vesicle Recycling at the Lamprey Giant Synapse
Emma Evergren, Melissa Marcucci, Nikolay Tomilin, Peter Löw, Vladimir Slepnev, Fredrik Andersson, Helge Gad, Lennart Brodin, Pietro De Camilli and Oleg Shupliakov
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 7: 514-528, Abstract
Amphiphysin is a protein enriched at mammalian synapses thought to function as a clathrin accessory factor in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Here we examine the involvement of amphiphysin in synaptic vesicle recycling at the giant synapse in the lamprey. We...

Fractionation and Characterization of Kinesin II Species in Vertebrate Brain
Matthew A. Berezuk and Trina A. Schroer
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 7: 503-513, Abstract
Recent research on kinesin motors has outlined the diversity of the superfamily and defined specific cargoes moved by kinesin family (KIF) members. Owing to the difficulty of purifying large amounts of native motors, much of this work has relied on recombi...

Misfolding of the Prion Protein at the Plasma Membrane Induces Endocytosis, Intracellular Retention and Degradation
Sophia Kiachopoulos, Johanna Heske, Jörg Tatzelt and Konstanze F. Winklhofer
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 6: 426-436, Abstract
Suramin induces misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) and interferes with the propagation of infectious scrapie prions. A mechanistic analysis of this effect revealed that suramin-induced misfolding occurs at the plasma membrane and is dependent ...

A Mutant Impaired in SNARE Complex Dissociation Identifies the Plasma Membrane as First Target of Synaptobrevin 2
Sonia Martinez-Arca, Stefan Arold, Rachel Rudge, Fabrice Laroche and Thierry Galli
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 5: 371-382, Abstract
Membrane fusion depends on the formation of a complex of four SNARE motifs, three that bear a central glutamine and are localized in the target membrane (t-SNARE) and one that bears an arginine and is localized in the donor vesicle (v-SNARE). We have chara...

Recognition of Lumenal Prion Protein Aggregates by Post-ER Quality Control Mechanisms Is Mediated by the Preoctarepeat Region of PrP
Sabine Gilch, Max Nunziante, Alexa Ertmer, Franziska Wopfner, Lajos Laszlo and Hermann M. Schätzl
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 4: 300-313, Abstract
Prion diseases are fatal transmissible neurodegenerative disorders linked to an aberrant conformation of the cellular prion protein (PrPc). We have shown previously that the chemical compound suramin induced aggregation of fully matured PrPc in post-ER com...

Tying Everything Together: The Multiple Roles of Cysteine String Protein (CSP) in Regulated Exocytosis
Gareth J. O. Evans, Alan Morgan and Robert D. Burgoyne
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 10: 653-659, Abstract
In addition to the core vesicle fusion machinery, the SNARE proteins, a large number of regulatory proteins have been implicated in the process of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. How these exocytotic proteins are properly targeted and how their myriad interacti...

Alternatively Spliced Products of the Human Kinesin Light Chain 1 (KNS2) Gene
Amy E. McCart, Donna Mahony and Joseph A. Rothnagel
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 8: 576-580, Abstract
Conventional kinesin is a microtubule-based molecular motor involved in the transport of membranous and non-membranous cargoes. The kinesin holoenzyme exists as a heterotetramer, consisting of two heavy chain and two light chain subunits. It is thought tha...

Endocytosis of Synaptotagmin 1 Is Mediated by a Novel, Tryptophan-Containing Motif
Nadine Jarousse, Joshua D. Wilson, Demet Arac, Josep Rizo and Regis B. Kelly
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 7: 468-478, Abstract
The rate at which a membrane protein is internalized from the plasma membrane can be regulated by revealing a latent internalization signal in response to an appropriate stimulus. Internalization of the synaptic vesicle membrane protein, synaptotagmin 1, i...

Inhibition of Complex Glycosylation Increases the Formation of PrPsc
Konstanze F. Winklhofer, Ulrich Heller, Anja Reintjes and Jörg Tatzelt
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 5: 313-322, Abstract
N-linked glycans with complex structure have a major role in the biological activity of a wide variety of cell surface and secreted glycoproteins. Here, we show that geldanamycin, an inhibitor of Hsp90, interferes with the formation of complex glycosylated...

LDL Receptor-Related Proteins in Neurodevelopment
Petra May and Joachim Herz
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 5: 291-301, Abstract
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRPs) are evolutionarily ancient cell-surface receptors with diverse biological functions. All are expressed in the central nervous system and, for most receptors, animal models have shown that they are in...