Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 10

Edited By: Michael S. Marks, Trina A. Schroer, Tom H. Stevens and Sharon A. Tooze

Online ISSN: 1600-0854

Virtual Issue Plants

PlantsVirtual Issue Plants

Trafficking in the endomembrane system of plants is a rapidly expanding field in cell biology, and Traffic has become a premier journal for the publication of papers reporting new discoveries this field. The most recent Traffic papers on all aspects of cytoskeletal research will now be collected together as Traffic - Plants.

Plant virtual issue cover legend:
The endomembrane system of arabidopsis leaf epidermal cells showing the endoplasmic reticulum tagged with GFP-HDEL (green) and Golgi bodies tagged with ST-mRFP (magenta). Note secretion of the Golgi marker into the apoplast outlining the cells and the presence of GFP containing fusiform bodies associated with the ER. See Sparkes et al.

Direct targeting of proteins from the cytosol to organelles: the ER versus endosymbiotic organelles

DH Kim and I Hwang

Traffic routes and signals for the tonoplast

E Pedrazzini, N Komarova, D Rentsch and A Vitale

Aquaporin trafficking in plant cells, an emerging membrane-protein model Disease
DT Luu and C Maurel

Cis-Golgi Cisternal Assembly and Biosynthetic Activation Occur Sequentially in Plants and Algae

Bryon S. Donohoe, Byung-Ho Kang, Mathias J. Gerl, Zachary R. Gergely, Colleen M. McMichael, Sebastian Y. Bednarek, L. Andrew Staehelin

Determinants for Arabidopsis Peptide Transporter Targeting to the Tonoplast or Plasma Membrane
Nataliya Y. Komarova, Stefan Meier, Anna Meier, Marianne Suter Grotemeyer and Doris Rentsch
Traffic, Early View, Abstract
Di- and tripeptide transporters of the PTR/NRT1 (peptide transporter/nitrate transporter1)-family are localized either at the tonoplast (TP) or plasma membrane (PM). As limited information is available on structural determinants required for targeting of plant membrane proteins, we performed gene shuffling and domain swapping experiments of ArabidopsisPTRs. A 7 amino acid fragment of the hydrophilic N-terminal region of PTR2, PTR4 and PTR6 was required for TP localization and sufficient to redirect not only PM-localized PTR1 or PTR5, but also sucrose transporter SUC2 to the TP...

Vacuolar Degradation of Two Integral Plasma Membrane Proteins, AtLRR84A and OsSCAMP1, Is Cargo Ubiquitination-Independent and Prevacuolar Compartment-Mediated in Plant Cells
Yi Cai, Xiaohong Zhuang, Junqi Wang, Hao Wang, Sheung Kwan Lam, Caiji Gao, Xiangfeng Wang and Liwen Jiang
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 7: 1023-1040, Abstract
In plant cells, how integral plasma membrane (PM) proteins are degraded in a cargo ubiquitination-independent manner remains elusive. Here, we studied the degradative pathway of two plant PM proteins: AtLRR84A, a type I integral membrane protein belonging to the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase protein family, and OsSCAMP1 (rice secretory carrier membrane protein 1), a tetraspan transmembrane protein located on the PM and trans-Golgi network (TGN) or early endosome (EE). Using wortmannin...

An N-Terminal Dileucine Motif Directs Two-Pore Channels to the Tonoplast of Plant Cells
Nina Larisch, Christina Schulze, Antony Galione and Petra Dietrich
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 7: 1012-1022,Abstract
Two-pore channels (TPCs) constitute a family of endolysosomal cation channels with functions in Ca2+ signaling. We used a mutational analysis to investigate the role of channel domains for the trafficking of the Arabidopsis TPC1 to the tonoplast, a process that is generally not well understood in plants. The results show that...

Subclass-Specific Localization and Trafficking of Arabidopsis p24 Proteins in the ER–Golgi Interface
Jun Chen, Xingyun Qi and Huanquan Zheng
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 3: 400–415, Abstract
We describe a comprehensive analysis of the subcellular localization and in vivo trafficking of Arabidopsis p24 proteins. In Arabidopsis, there are 11 p24 proteins, which fall into only δ and β subfamilies. Interestingly, the δ subfamily of p24 proteins in Arabidopsis is elaborated spectacularly in evolution, which can be grouped into two subclasses: p24δ1 and p24δ2. We found that, although all p24δ proteins possess ...

Evidence for Sequential Action of Rab5 and Rab7 GTPases in Prevacuolar Organelle Partitioning
Francesca Bottanelli, David C. Gershlick and Jürgen Denecke
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 2: 338–354, Abstract
GTPases of the Rab5 and Rab7 families were shown to control vacuolar sorting but their specific subcellular localization is controversial in plants. Here, we show that both the canonical as well as the plant-specific Rab5 reside at the newly discovered ‘late prevacuolar compartment’ (LPVC) while Rab7 partitions to the vacuolar membrane when expressed at low levels. Higher expression levels of wild-type ....

Actin is Involved in Pollen Tube Tropism Through Redefining the Spatial Targeting of Secretory Vesicles
Firas Bou Daher and Anja Geitmann
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 11: 1537–1551, Abstract
In order to accurately target the embryo sac and deliver the sperm cells, the pollen tube has to find an efficient path through the pistil and respond to precise directional cues produced by the female tissues. Although many chemical and proteic signals have been identified to guide pollen tube growth, the mechanism by which the tube changes direction in response to these signals is poorly ...

An Exo2 Derivative Affects ER and Golgi Morphology and Vacuolar Sorting in a Tissue-Specific Manner in Arabidopsis
Mathias Sorieul, Markus Langhans, Lucie Guetzoyan, Stefan Hillmer, Guy Clarkson, John Michael Lord, Lynne M. Roberts, David G. Robinson, Robert A. Spooner and Lorenzo Frigerio
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 11: 1552–1562, Abstract
We screened a panel of compounds derived from Exo2—a drug that perturbs post-Golgi compartments and trafficking in mammalian cells—for their effect on the secretory pathway in Arabidopsis root epidermal cells. While Exo2 and most related compounds had no significant effect, one Exo2 derivative, named LG8, induced severe morphological alterations in both the Golgi (at high ...

Mechanisms of Functional Specificity Among Plasma-Membrane Syntaxins in Arabidopsis
Ilka Reichardt, Daniel Slane, Farid El Kasmi, Christian Knöll, Rene Fuchs, Ulrike Mayer, Volker Lipka and Gerd Jürgens
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 9: 1269–1280, Abstract
Syntaxins and interacting SNARE proteins enable membrane fusion in diverse trafficking pathways. The Arabidopsis SYP1 family of plasma membrane-localized syntaxins comprises nine members, of which KNOLLE and PEN1 play specific roles in cytokinesis and innate immunity, respectively. To identify mechanisms conferring specificity of action, we examined one member of each ...

Characterization of Aspergillus nidulans RabC/Rab6
Areti Pantazopoulou and Miguel A Peñalva
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 4: 386-406, Abstract
The Aspergillus nidulans Golgi is not stacked. Early and late Golgi equivalents (GEs) are intermingled but can be resolved by epifluorescence microscopy. RabC, the Aspergillus ortholog of mammalian Rab6, is present across the Golgi, preferentially associated with early GEs near the tip and with late GEs in tip-distal regions. rabCΔ mutants, showing markedly impaired apical extension, have ...

Electron Tomography of RafbA4b- and PI-4Kβ1-Labeled Trans Golgi Network Compartments in Arabidopsis
Byung-Ho Kang, Erik Nielsen, Mary Lai Preuss, David Mastronarde and L. Andrew Staehelin
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 3: 313–329, Abstract
The trans Golgi network (TGN) of plant cells sorts and packages Golgi products into secretory (SV) and clathrin-coated (CCV) vesicles. We have analyzed of TGN cisternae in Arabidopsis root meristem cells by cell fractionation and electron microscopy/tomography to establish reliable criteria for identifying TGN cisternae in plant cells, and to define their functional attributes. Transformation of a trans Golgi cisterna ...

Is There a COPII-Mediated Membrane Traffic in Chloroplasts?
Federica Brandizzi
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 1: 9–11, Abstract
COPII proteins facilitate membrane transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. They are highly conserved, although there are variations in their subcellular localization across plant, animal and yeast cells. Such variations may be needed to suit the unique organization of the ER and Golgi in the different cell systems. Earlier bioinformatics analyses have indicated that the ...

Novel PSI Domains in Plant and Animal H+-Inositol Symporters
Dorina Dotzauer, Susanne Wolfenstetter, Dorothee Eibert, Sabine Schneider, Petra Dietrich and Norbert Sauer
Traffic, Volume 11, Issue 6: 767–781, Abstract
Inositols are indispensable components of cellular signaling molecules, and impaired cytoplasmic inositol concentrations affect cellular development. Although most cells can synthesize inositol de novo, plasma membrane-localized inositol uptake systems are ...

Glucosylceramide Biosynthesis is Involved in Golgi Morphology and Protein Secretion in Plant Cells
Su Melser, Brigitte Batailler, Martine Peypelut, Christel Poujol, Yannick Bellec, Valérie Wattelet-Boyer, Lilly Maneta-Peyret, Jean-Denis Faure, Patrick Moreau
Traffic, Early View, Abstract
Lipids have an established role as structural components of membranes or as signalling molecules, but their role as molecular actors in protein secretion is less clear. The complex sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is enriched in the plasma membrane and lipid microdomains of plant cells, but compared to animal and yeast cells, little is known about the role of GlcCer in plant ...

Subcellular Distribution of Tail-Anchored Proteins in Arabidopsis
Verena Kriechbaumer, Rowena Shaw, Joy Mukherjee, Caroline G. Bowsher, Anne-Marie Harrison, Ben M. Abell
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 12: 1753 - 1764, Abstract
Tail-anchored (TA) proteins function in key cellular processes in eukaryotic cells, such as vesicle trafficking, protein translocation and regulation of transcription. They anchor to internal cell membranes by a C-terminal transmembrane domain, which also serves as a targeting sequence. Targeting occurs post-translationally, via pathways that are specific to the precursor, which makes TA proteins a model system for investigating post-translational protein targeting ...

Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Interactions between Golgi Tethering Factors and Small GTPases in Plants
Anne Osterrieder, Claudine M. Carvalho, Maita Latijnhouwers, Jorunn Nergaard Johansen, Christopher Stubbs, Stanley Botchway, Chris Hawes
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 8: 1034 - 1046, Abstract
Peripheral tethering factors bind to small GTPases in order to obtain their correct location within the Golgi apparatus. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) we visualized interactions between Arabidopsis homologues of tethering factors and small GTPases at the Golgi stacks in planta. Co-expression of the coiled-coil proteins ...

Requirements for ER-Arrest and Sequential Exit to the Golgi of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoproteins
Daniela Ribeiro, Rob Goldbach, Richard Kormelink
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 6: 664 - 672, Abstract
The envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc are major determinants in the assembly of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) particles at the Golgi complex. In this article, the ER-arrest of singly expressed Gc and the transport of both glycoproteins to the Golgi upon co-expression have been analyzed. While preliminary results suggest that the arrest of Gc at the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) did not appear ...

Long-Distance Movement of Aspergillus nidulans Early Endosomes on Microtubule Tracks
Juan F. Abenza, Areti Pantazopoulou, José M. Rodríguez, Antonio Galindo, Miguel A. Peñalva
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 1: 57 - 75, Abstract
In fungal hyphal cells, intracellular membrane trafficking is constrained by the relatively long intracellular distances and the mode of growth, exclusively by apical extension. Endocytosis plays a key role in hyphal tip growth, which involves the coupling of secretory membrane delivery to the apical region with subapical compensatory endocytosis. However, the identity ...

Transport of TMV Movement Protein Particles Associated with the Targeting of RNA to Plasmodesmata
Adrian Sambade, Katrin Brandner, Christina Hofmann, Mark Seemanpillai, Jerome Mutterer, Manfred Heinlein
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 12: 2073 - 2088, Abstract
The cell-to-cell movement of Tobacco mosaic virus through plasmodesmata (PD) requires virus-encoded movement protein (MP). The MP targets PD through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/actin network, whereas the intercellular movement of the viral RNA genome has been correlated with the association of the MP with mobile, microtubule-proximal particles in cells at the leading front ...

Arginine/Lysine Residues in the Cytoplasmic Tail Promote ER Export of Plant Glycosylation Enzymes
Jennifer Schoberer, Ulrike Vavra, Johannes Stadlmann, Chris Hawes, Lukas Mach, Herta Steinkellner, Richard Strasser
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 1: 101 - 115, Abstract
Plant N-glycan processing enzymes are arranged along the early secretory pathway, forming an assembly line to facilitate the step-by-step modification of oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Thus, these enzymes provide excellent tools to study signals and mechanisms, promoting their localization and retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus. Herein, we focused ...

The Endomembrane System: A Green Perspective
Lorenzo Frigerio, Chris Hawes
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1563 - 1563, Abstract
No abstract

Multiple Vacuoles in Plant Cells: Rule or Exception?
Lorenzo Frigerio, Giselbert Hinz, David G. Robinson
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1564 - 1570, Abstract
It is generally accepted that plant cells can contain multiple vacuoles with different functions, for example lytic vacuoles with lysosome-like properties and protein storage vacuoles for reserve accumulation. Recent data call into question the generality of this theory. In this study, we review the published evidence for ...

The Plant ER–Golgi Interface
Chris Hawes, Anne Osterrieder, Eric Hummel, Imogen Sparkes
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1571 - 1580, Abstract
The interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus is a critical junction in the secretory pathway mediating the transport of both soluble and membrane cargo between the two organelles. Such transport can be bidirectional and is mediated by coated membranes. In this review, we consider the organization ...

Endoplasmic Reticulum Quality Control and the Unfolded Protein Response: Insights from Plants
Alessandro Vitale, Rebecca S. Boston
Volume 9 Issue 10: 1581 - 1588, Abstract
Protein quality control (QC) within the endoplasmic reticulum and the related unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway of signal transduction are major regulators of the secretory pathway, which is involved in virtually any aspect of development and reproduction. The study of plant-specific processes ...

Endosomal Functions in Plants
Marisa S. Otegui, Christoph Spitzer
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1589 - 1598, Abstract
Plant endosomes are highly dynamic organelles that are involved in the constitutive recycling of plasma membrane cargo and the trafficking of polarized plasma membrane proteins such as auxin carriers. In addition, recent studies have shown that surface receptors such as the plant defense-related FLS2 receptor and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 appear to signal from endosomes ...

Intermediate Organelles of the Plant Secretory Pathway: Identity and Function
Ombretta Foresti, Jürgen Denecke
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1599 - 1612, Abstract
The secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells comprises a network of organelles that connects three large membranes, the plasma membrane, the vacuole and the endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus and the various post-Golgi organelles that control vacuolar sorting, secretion and endocytosis can be regarded as intermediate organelles of the endocytic and biosynthetic routes. Many ...

Deciphering the Golgi Apparatus: From Imaging to Genes
Aurelia Boulaflous, Carmen Faso, Federica Brandizzi
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1613 - 1617, Abstract
The Golgi apparatus is a vital organelle in eukaryotic cells. It grabs and processes secretory materials synthesized by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before sorting them to their destination. The Golgi also receives materials from vacuoles/lysosomes and the plasma membrane for further recycling to other compartments within the cell (1) (Figure 1). Given the vital role of the Golgi in a cell, it ...

Arabidopsis has Two Functional Orthologs of the Yeast V-ATPase Assembly Factor Vma21p
Christoph Neubert, Laurie A. Graham, Eric W. Black-Maier, Emily M. Coonrod, Tzu-Yin Liu, York-Dieter Stierhof, Thorsten Seidel, Tom H. Stevens, Karin Schumacher
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1618 - 1628, Abstract
How individual protein subunits assemble into the higher order structure of a protein complex is not well understood. Four proteins dedicated to the assembly of the V0 subcomplex of the V-adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) have been identified in yeast, but their precise mode of molecular action remains to be identified. In contrast to the ...

The Syntaxins SYP31 and SYP81 Control ER–Golgi Trafficking in the Plant Secretory Pathway
Julia Bubeck, David Scheuring, Eric Hummel, Markus Langhans, Corrado Viotti, Ombretta Foresti, Jürgen Denecke, David K. Banfield, David G. Robinson
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1629 - 1652, Abstract
Overexpression of the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) syntaxins SYP31 and SYP81 strongly inhibits constitutive secretion. By comparing the secreted reporter a-amylase with the ER-retained reporter a-amylase-HDEL, it was concluded that SYP81 overexpression inhibits both retrograde and anterograde transport, while SYP31 overexpression mainly affected anterograde transporT ...

In vivo Trafficking and Localization of p24 Proteins in Plant Cells
Markus Langhans, María Jesús Marcote, Peter Pimpl, Goretti Virgili-López, David G Robinson, Fernando Aniento
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 5: 770 - 785, Abstract
p24 proteins constitute a family of putative cargo receptors that traffic in the early secretory pathway. p24 proteins can be divided into four subfamilies (p23, p24, p25 and p26) by sequence homology. In contrast to mammals and yeast, most plant p24 proteins contain in their cytosolic C-terminus both a dilysine motif in the -3, -4 position and a diaromatic ...

Lack of a Vacuolar Sorting Receptor Leads to Non-Specific Missorting of Soluble Vacuolar Proteins in Arabidopsis Seeds
Christian P. Craddock, Paul R. Hunter, Erika Szakacs, Giselbert Hinz, David G. Robinson, Lorenzo Frigerio
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 3: 408 - 416, Abstract
The plant vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) binds proteins carrying vacuolar sorting signals (VSS) of the 'sequence-specific' type (ssVSS) but not the C-terminal, hydrophobic sorting signals (ctVSS). Seeds of Arabidopsis mutants lacking the major VSR isoform, AtVSR1, secrete a proportion of the proteins destined to storage vacuoles. The sorting signals ...

Overexpression of a Plant Reticulon Remodels the Lumen of the Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum but Does not Perturb Protein Transport
Nicholas Tolley, Imogen A. Sparkes, Paul R. Hunter, Christian P. Craddock, James Nuttall, Lynne M. Roberts, Chris Hawes, Emanuela Pedrazzini, Lorenzo Frigerio
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 1: 94 - 102, Abstract
We have cloned a member of the reticulon (RTN) family of Arabidopsis thaliana (RTNLB13). When fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and expressed in tobacco leaf epidermal cells, RTNLB13 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coexpression of a soluble ER luminal marker reveals that YFP-tagged, myc-tagged or untagged RTNLB13 induces ...

Dyneins Across Eukaryotes: A Comparative Genomic Analysis
Bill Wickstead, Keith Gull
Traffic, Volume 8 Issue 12: 1708 - 1721, Abstract
Dyneins are large minus-end-directed microtubule motors. Each dynein contains at least one dynein heavy chain (DHC) and a variable number of intermediate chains (IC), light intermediate chains (LIC) and light chains (LC). Here, we used genome sequence data from 24 diverse eukaryotes to assess the distribution of DHCs, ICs, LICs and LCs across Eukaryota. Phylogenetic inference identified ...

Localization of Vacuolar Transport Receptors and Cargo Proteins in the Golgi Apparatus of Developing Arabidopsis Embryos
Giselbert Hinz, Sarah Colanesi, Stefan Hillmer, John C. Rogers, David G. Robinson
Traffic, Volume 8 Issue 10: 1452 - 1464, Abstract
Using immunogold electron microscopy, we have investigated the relative distribution of two types of vacuolar sorting receptors (VSR) and two different types of lumenal cargo proteins, which are potential ligands for these receptors in the secretory pathway of developing Arabidopsis embryos. Interestingly, both cargo proteins are deposited in the protein storage vacuole, which is the only ...

Intracellular Trafficking of Potato Leafroll Virus Movement Protein in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Florian Vogel, Daniel Hofius, Uwe Sonnewald
Traffic, Volume 8 Issue 9: 1205 - 1214, Abstract
Intracellular trafficking of viral movement proteins (MPs) in plants has mainly been studied using Tobacco mosaic virus MP30 (TMV MP30) as a model system. Because of the limitations of TMV MP30 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, these studies have mostly been restricted to tobacco plants. Here we present data on the analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing Potato leafroll ...

Chloroplast Division
Jonathan M. Glynn, Shin-ya Miyagishima, David W. Yoder, Katherine W. Osteryoung, Stanislav Vitha
Traffic, Volume 8 Issue 5: 451 - 461, Abstract
Chloroplasts are descendants of cyanobacteria and divide by binary fission. Several components of the division apparatus have been identified in the past several years and we are beginning to ...

Ratiometric Fluorescence-Imaging Assays of Plant Membrane Traffic Using Polyproteins
Marketa Samalova, Mark Fricker, Ian Moore
Traffic, Volume 7 Issue 12: 1701 - 1723, Abstract
Fluorescent protein markers are widely used to report plant membrane traffic; however, effective protocols to quantify fluorescence or marker expression are lacking. Here the 20 residue self-cleaving 2A peptide from Foot and Mouth Disease Virus was used to construct polyproteins that expressed a trafficked marker in fixed stoichiometry with a reference protein in a different cellular ...

Targeting of TMV Movement Protein to Plasmodesmata Requires the Actin/ER Network; Evidence From FRAP
Kathryn M. Wright, Nicola T. Wood, Alison G. Roberts, Sean Chapman, Petra Boevink, Katrin M. MacKenzie, Karl J. Oparka
Traffic, Volume 8 Issue 1: 21 - 31, Abstract
Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) was used to study the mechanism by which fluorescent-protein-tagged movement protein (MP) of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is targeted to plasmodesmata (PD). The data show that fluorescence recovery in PD at the leading edge of an infection requires elements of the cortical actin/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network and can occur in ...

Extracting Sequence Motifs and the Phylogenetic Features of SNARE-Dependent Membrane Traffic
Akiyasu C. Yoshizawa, Shuichi Kawashima, Shujiro Okuda, Masashi Fujita, Masumi Itoh, Yuki Moriya, Masahiro Hattori, Minoru Kanehisa
Traffic, Volume 7 Issue 8: 1104 - 1118, Abstract
The SNARE proteins are required for membrane fusion during intracellular vesicular transport and for its specificity. Only the unique combination of SNARE proteins (cognates) can be bound and can lead to membrane fusion, although the characteristics of the possible specificity of the binding combinations encoded in the SNARE sequences have not yet been determined. We discovered by ...

Setting SNAREs in a Different Wood
Jens-Uwe Sutter, Prisca Campanoni, Michael R. Blatt, Manuel Paneque
Traffic, Volume 7 Issue 6: 627 - 638, Abstract
Vesicle traffic is essential for cell homeostasis, growth and development in plants, as it is in other eukaryotes, and is facilitated by a superfamily of proteins known as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). Although SNAREs are well-conserved across phylla, genomic analysis for two model angiosperm species available to date, rice and ...

Dynamin and Cytokinesis
Catherine A. Konopka, Justin B. Schleede, Ahna R. Skop, Sebastian Y. Bednarek
Traffic, Volume 7 Issue 3: 239 - 247, Abstract
Animal and plant cytokineses appear morphologically distinct. Recent studies, however, have revealed that these cellular processes have many things in common, including the requirement of co-ordinated membrane ...

The Function and Diversity of Plastid Protein Import Pathways: A Multilane GTPase Highway into Plastids
Felix Kessler, Danny J. Schnell
Traffic, Volume 7 Issue 3: 248 - 257, Abstract
The photosynthetic chloroplast is the hallmark organelle of green plants. During the endosymbiotic evolution of chloroplasts, the vast majority of genes from the original cyanobacterial endosymbiont were transferred to the host cell nucleus. Chloroplast biogenesis therefore requires the import of nucleus-encoded proteins from their site of synthesis in the cytosol. The majority of proteins are ...

Crossing the Divide – Transport Between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Apparatus in Plants
Sally L. Hanton, Lauren E. Bortolotti, Luciana Renna, Giovanni Stefano, Federica Brandizzi
Traffic, Volume 6 Issue 4: 267 - 277, Abstract
The transport of proteins between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus in plants is an exciting and constantly expanding topic, which has attracted much attention in recent years. The study of protein transport within the secretory pathway is a relatively new field, dating back to the 1970s for mammalian cells and considerably later for plants. This may explain why COPI- and ...

Protein Secretion in Plants: from the trans-Golgi Network to the Outer Space
Gerd Jürgens, Niko Geldner
Traffic, Volume 3 Issue 9: 605 - 613, Abstract
Functional analysis of exocytosis in yeast and animal cells has led to the identification of conserved elements and mechanisms of the trafficking machinery over the last decade. Although functional studies of protein secretion in plants are still fairly limited, the Arabidopsis genome sequence provides an opportunity to identify key players of vesicle trafficking that are conserved across ...

Plants: Cellular Systems Rooted in Place
Natasha Raikhel
Traffic, Volume 3 Issue 9: 603 - 604, Abstract
No abstract

Dyneins Motor on in Plants
Stephen M. King
Traffic, Volume 3 Issue 12: 930 - 931, Abstract
A recent report based on analysis of the Arabidopsis genome suggested that angiosperms do not contain the dynein microtubule motor. However, examination of the whole genome shotgun sequence for rice (Oryza sativa) has revealed that four dynein heavy chains are present in this monocot, indicating that the apparent lack of these sequences in Arabidopsis ...

Protein Sorting to the Storage Vacuoles of Plants: A Critical Appraisal
David G. Robinson, Peter Oliviusson, Giselbert Hinz
Traffic, Volume 6 Issue 8: 615 - 625, Abstract
The vacuole of plant cells is no longer considered to be a single compartment with multifunctional properties. A lot of evidence now points to the presence of multiple functionally distinct vacuolar compartments, some existing side by side in the same cell. As a consequence, the plant Golgi apparatus is
faced with the problem of recognizing proteins destined for lytic and ...

Membrane Trafficking During Plant Cytokinesis
Sebastian Y. Bednarek, Tanya G. Falbel
Traffic, Volume 3 Issue 9: 621 - 629, Abstract
Plant morphogenesis is regulated by cell division and expansion. Cytokinesis, the final stage of cell division, culminates in the construction of the cell plate, a unique cytokinetic membranous organelle that is assembled across the inside of the dividing cell. Both during cell-plate formation and cell expansion, the secretory pathway is highly active and is polarized toward the plane of division or toward ...

Clathrin and Plant Endocytosis
Susanne E. H. Holstein
Traffic, Volume 3 Issue 9: 614 - 620, Abstract
Endocytosis requires the coordinated interaction of a plethora of cytosolic and membrane proteins. In mammalian cells, clathrin plays a crucial role in this process as a scaffolding protein underlying the invaginating plasma membrane and surrounding the primary endocytic vesicle. Despite great similarities at the morphological level, the cargo of endocytic clathrin-coated vesicles in plant cells ...

Vacuolar Sorting Determinants Within a Plant Storage Protein Trimer Act Cumulatively
Heidi Holkeri, Alessandro Vitale
Traffic, Volume 2 Issue 10: 737 - 741, Abstract
The mechanism for vacuolar sorting of seed storage proteins is as yet poorly understood and no receptor has been identified to date. The homotrimeric glycoprotein phaseolin, which is the major storage protein of the common bean, requires a transient tetrapeptide at the C-terminus for its vacuolar sorting. A mutated construct without the tetrapeptide is secreted. We show ...

Dyneins Have Run Their Course in Plant Lineage
Carolyn J. Lawrence, N. Ronald Morris, Richard B. Meagher, R. Kelly Dawe
Traffic, Volume 2 Issue 5: 362 - 363, Abstract
Flowering plant genomes lack flagellar and cytoplasmic dyneins as well as the proteins that make up the dynactin complex. The mechanisms for organizing the Golgi apparatus, establishing ...

Role of P30 in Replication and Spread of TMV
Roger N. Beachy, Manfred Heinlein
Traffic, Volume 1 Issue 7: 540 - 544, Abstract
The P30 movement protein (MP) of tobacco mosaic virus is essential for distribution of sites of replication within infected cells and for cell–cell spread of infection. MP is an integral membrane protein and in early and mid-stages of infection causes severe disruption of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER). MP also associates with microtubules, and in late stages is targeted for degradation by the 26S ...