Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 8

Edited By: Michael S. Marks, Mark C. P. Marsh, Trina A. Schroer, Tom H. Stevens

Online ISSN: 1600-0854

Virtual Issue Virology

VirologyVirtual Issue Virology

The cell biology of virus replication has become a main stream topic of virus research and Traffic has become a premier journal for the publication of papers reporting new discoveries this field. The most recent Traffic papers on the entry and assembly of animal viruses and the intracellular trafficking of viral components will now be collected together as Virus Traffic.

Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection in Humans
Jacky Flipse, Jan Wilschut, Jolanda M. Smit
Traffic, Early View, Abstract
Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne viral infection in humans with ∼50 million cases annually worldwide. In recent decades, a steady increase in the number of severe dengue cases has been seen. Severe dengue disease is most often observed in individuals that have pre-existing immunity against heterotypic dengue subtypes and in infants with low levels of maternal dengue antibodies. The generally accepted hypothesis explaining the immunopathogenesis of severe dengue is called antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue infection...

Investigation of HIV-1 Assembly and Release Using Modern Fluorescence Imaging Techniques
Jakub Chojnacki, Barbara Müller
Traffic, Early View, Abstract
The replication of HIV-1, like that of all viruses, is intimately connected with cellular structures and pathways. For many years, bulk biochemical and cell biological methods were the main approaches employed to investigate interactions between HIV-1 and its host cell. However, during the past decade advancements in fluorescence imaging technologies opened new possibilities for the direct visualization of individual steps occurring throughout the viral replication cycle...

Herpesviruses Exploit Several Host Compartments for Envelopment
Daniel Henaff, Kerstin Radtke, Roger Lippé
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 11:1443–1449,, Abstract
Enveloped viruses acquire their host-derived membrane at a variety of intracellular locations. Herpesviruses are complex entities that undergo several budding and fusion events during an infection. All members of this large family are believed to share a similar life cycle. However, they seemingly differ in terms of acquisition of their mature envelope. Herpes simplex virus is often believed to bud into an existing intracellular compartment, while the related cytomegalovirus may acquire its final envelope from a novel virus-induced assembly compartment...

Recruitment and Dynamics of Proteasome Association with rhTRIM5α Cytoplasmic Complexes During HIV-1 Infection
Cindy M. Danielson, Gianguido C. Cianci, Thomas J. Hope
Traffic, Volume. 13, Issue 9: 1206–1217, Abstract
A variety of proteins have been identified that restrict infection by different viruses. One such restriction factor is the rhesus macaque variant of TRIM5α (rhTRIM5α), which potently blocks infection by HIV-1. The block to infection mediated by rhTRIM5α occurs early after entry into the host cell, generally prior to reverse transcription. However, ...

The Ins and Outs of HIV-1 Tat
Solène Debaisieux, Fabienne Rayne, Hocine Yezid and Bruno Beaumelle
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 3: 355–363, Abstract
HIV-1 encodes for the small basic protein Tat (86–101 residues) that drastically enhances the efficiency of viral transcription. The mechanism enabling Tat nuclear import is not yet clear, but studies using reporter proteins fused to the Tat basic domain indicate that Tat could reach the nucleus by passive diffusion. Tat also uses an unusual transcellular transport pathway. The first step of this pathway involves high-affinity ...

Human Papillomavirus L2 Facilitates Viral Escape from Late Endosomes via Sorting Nexin 17
Martina Bergant Marušič, Michelle A. Ozbun, Samuel K. Campos, Michael P. Myers and Lawrence Banks
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 3: 455–467, Abstract
The human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein plays an essential role during the early stages of viral infection, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its mode of action remain obscure. Using a proteomic approach, we have identified the adaptor protein, sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) as a strong interacting partner of HPVL2. This interaction occurs through a highly conserved SNX17 consensus binding motif, which ...

ß2 Integrin Adhesion Complexes Maintain the Integrity of HIV-1 Assembly Compartments in Primary Macrophages
Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Sebastian Giese, Petra Mlcochová, Jane Turner and Mark Marsh
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 2: 273–291, Abstract
In human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly takes place primarily on complex intracellular plasma membrane domains connected to the cell surface by closely apposed membrane sheets or narrow channels. Some of the membranes associated with these compartments are decorated by thick (˜30 nm), electron-dense, cytoplasmic coats. Here we show by ...

Mechanism of Collapse of Endoplasmic Reticulum Cisternae During African Swine Fever Virus Infection
Miriam Windsor, Philippa Hawes, Paul Monaghan, Erik Snapp, María L. Salas, Javier M. Rodríguez and Thomas Wileman
Traffic, Volume 13, Issue 1: 30–42, Abstract
Infection of cells with African swine fever virus (ASFV) can lead to the formation of zipper-like stacks of structural proteins attached to collapsed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae. We show that the collapse of ER cisternae observed during ASFV infection is dependent on the viral envelope protein, J13Lp. Expression of J13Lp alone in cells is sufficient to induce collapsed ER cisternae. Collapse was...

Dynamic Imaging of Cell-Free and Cell-Associated Viral Capture in Mature Dendritic Cells
Nuria Izquierdo-Useros, Olga Esteban, Maria T. Rodriguez-Plata, Itziar Erkizia, Julia G. Prado, Julià Blanco, Maria F. García-Parajo and Javier Martinez-Picado
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 12: 1702–1713, Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through a non-fusogenic mechanism that enables viral transmission to CD4+ T cells, contributing to in vivo viral dissemination. Although previous studies have provided important clues to cell-free viral capture by mature DCs (mDCs), dynamic and kinetic insight on this process is still missing. Here, we used three-dimensional video microscopy and ...

HIV-1 Vpu Antagonizes BST-2 by Interfering Mainly with the Trafficking of Newly Synthesized BST-2 to the Cell Surface
Mathieu Dubé, Catherine Paquay, Bibhuti Bhusan Roy, Mariana G. Bego, Johanne Mercier and Éric A. Cohen
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 12: 1714–1729, Abstract
Bone marrow stromal cell antigen-2 (BST-2) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) release by cross-linking nascent virions on infected cell surface. HIV-1 Vpu is thought to antagonize BST-2 by downregulating its surface levels via a mechanism that involves intracellular sequestration and lysosomal degradation. Here, we investigated the functional importance of cell-surface BST-2 ...

The Polymorphic HCMV Glycoprotein UL20 Is Targeted for Lysosomal Degradation by Multiple Cytoplasmic Dileucine Motifs
Ivan Jelcic, Johanna Reichel, Christoph Schlude, Eva Treutler, Christian Sinzger and Alexander Steinle
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 10: 1444–1456, Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread and persistent beta-herpesvirus. The large DNA genome of HCMV encodes many proteins that are non-essential for viral replication including numerous proteins subverting host immunosurveillance. One of them is the barely characterized UL20, which is encoded adjacent to the well-defined immunoevasins UL16 and UL18. UL20 is a type I ...

Phosphoinositides Direct Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Gag Trafficking and Release
Fiona Fernandes, Kang Chen, Lorna S. Ehrlich, Jing Jin, Min H. Chen, Gisselle N. Medina, Marc Symons, Ronald Montelaro, Julie Donaldson, Nico Tjandra and Carol A. Carter
Traffic, Volume 12, Issue 4: 438-451, Abstract
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], the predominant phosphoinositide (PI) on the plasma membrane, binds the matrix (MA) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) with similar affinities in vitro. Interaction with PI(4,5)P2 is critical for HIV-1 assembly on the plasma membrane. EIAV has been shown to localize in internal compartments; hence, ...

HIV-1 Assembly Differentially Alters Dynamics and Partitioning of Tetraspanins and Raft Components
Dimitry N. Krementsov, Patrice Rassam, Emmanuel Margeat, Nathan H. Roy, Jürgen Schneider-Schaulies, Pierre-Emmanuel Milhiet and Markus Thali
Traffic, Volume 11, Issue 11, p. 1401–1414, Abstract
Partitioning of membrane proteins into various types of microdomains is crucial for many cellular functions. Tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs) are a unique type of protein-based microdomain, clearly distinct from membrane rafts, and important for several cellular processes such as fusion, migration and signaling. Paradoxically, HIV-1 assembly/egress occurs at TEMs, yet the ...

Traffic of a Viral Movement Protein Complex to the Highly Curved Tubules of the Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum
Shu-Chuan Lee, Chih-Hang Wu, Chao-Wen Wang
Traffic, Volume 11 Issue 7: 912 - 930, Abstract
Intracellular trafficking of the nonstructural movement proteins of plant viruses plays a crucial role in sequestering and targeting viral macromolecules in and between cells. Many of the movement proteins traffic in unconventional, yet mechanistically unknown, pathways to localize to the cell periphery. Here we study trafficking strategies associated with two integral membrane ...

TIP47 is required for the production of infectious HIV-1 particles from primary macrophages
Hélène Bauby, Sandra Lopez-Vergés, Guillaume Hoeffel, Delphine Delcroix-Genete, Katy Janvier, Fabrizio Mammano, Anne Hosmalin, Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent
Traffic, Accepted Article, Abstract
Macrophages are among the major targets of HIV-1 infection and play a key role in viral pathogenesis. Identification of the cellular cofactors involved in the production of infectious HIV-1 from macrophages is thus crucial. Here, we investigated the role of the cellular cofactor TIP47 in HIV-1 morphogenesis in primary macrophages. Using siRNA approach, we show that TIP47 is essential for ...

HCMV-Encoded Glycoprotein M (UL100) Interacts with Rab11 Effector Protein FIP4
Magdalena A. Krzyzaniak, Michael Mach, William J. Britt
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 10: 1439 - 1457, Abstract
The envelope of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) consists of a large number of glycoproteins. The most abundant glycoprotein in the HCMV envelope is the glycoprotein M (UL100), which together with glycoprotein N (UL73) form the gM/gN protein complex. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that the gM carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail (gM-CT) interacts with FIP4, a Rab11-GTPase effector protein. Depletion of FIP4 expression in HCMV-infected cells resulted in a decrease in infectious virus ...

Role of the RING-CH Domain of Viral Ligase mK3 in Ubiquitination of Non-Lysine and Lysine MHC I Residues
Roger A. Herr, Jennifer Harris, Shengyun Fang, Xiaoli Wang, Ted H. Hansen
Traffic, Early View
Published Online: 27 May 2009
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2009.00946.x, Abstract
A plethora of ubiquitin ligases determine the intracellular location and fate of numerous proteins in a substrate-specific manner. However, the mechanisms for these functions are incompletely understood. Most ligases have structurally related RING domains that are critical for ligase activity including the recruitment of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes. Here we probe the function of the RING- ...

Protein Kinase D-Dependent Trafficking of the Large Herpes simplex Virus Type 1 Capsids from the TGN to Plasma Membrane
Gaudeline Rémillard-Labrosse, Constantina Mihai, Johanne Duron, Ginette Guay, Roger Lippé
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 8: 1074 - 1083, Abstract
The biosynthetic pathway carries cargos from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the trans Golgi network (TGN) via a typical passage through the Golgi. Interestingly, large particles such as procollagen, chylomicrons and some viruses all reach the TGN by atypical routes. Given this dichotomy, we anticipated that such cargos might rely on non-classical machineries downstream of the ...

Requirements for ER-Arrest and Sequential Exit to the Golgi of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Glycoproteins
Daniela Ribeiro, Rob Goldbach, Richard Kormelink
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 6: 664 - 672, Abstract
The envelope glycoproteins Gn and Gc are major determinants in the assembly of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) particles at the Golgi complex. In this article, the ER-arrest of singly expressed Gc and the transport of both glycoproteins to the Golgi upon co-expression have been analyzed. While preliminary results suggest that the arrest of Gc at the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) did not appear ...

The 5' Cap of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) Is Required for Virion Attachment to the Actin/Endoplasmic Reticulum Network During Early Infection
Nynne Christensen, Jens Tilsner, Karen Bell, Philippe Hammann, Richard Parton, Christophe Lacomme, Karl Oparka
Traffic, Volume 10 Issue 5: 536 - 551, Abstract
Almost nothing is known of the earliest stages of plant virus infections. To address this, we microinjected Cy3 (UTP)-labelled tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) into living tobacco trichome cells. The Cy3-virions were infectious, and the viral genome trafficked from cell to cell. However, neither the fluorescent vRNA pool nor the co-injected green fluorescent protein (GFP) left the injected trichome, ...

Infectious Adenovirus Type 2 Transport Through Early but not Late Endosomes
Michele Gastaldelli, Nicola Imelli, Karin Boucke, Beat Amstutz, Oliver Meier, Urs F. Greber
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 12: 2265 - 2278, Abstract
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a major gate for pathogens into cells. In this study, we analyzed the trafficking of human adenovirus type 2 and 5 (Ad2/5) and the escape-defective temperature-sensitive Ad2-ts1 mutant in epithelial cancer cells. Ad2/5 and Ad2-ts1 uptake into endosomes containing transferrin, major histocompatibility antigen 1 and the Rab5 effector early endosome antigen ...

The ESCRT-I Subunit TSG101 Controls Endosome-to-Cytosol Release of Viral RNA
Pierre-Philippe Luyet, Thomas Falguières, Véronique Pons, Asit K. Pattnaik, Jean Gruenberg
Traffic Volume 9, Issue 12: 2279 - 2290, Abstract
Like other enveloped viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus infects cells through endosomes. There, the viral envelope undergoes fusion with endosomal membranes, thereby releasing the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm and allowing infection to proceed. Previously, we reported that the viral envelope fuses preferentially with the membrane of vesicles present within multivesicular ...

HIV-1 Nef Induces a Rab11-Dependent Routing of Endocytosed Immune Costimulatory Proteins CD80 and CD86 to the Golgi
Ashutosh Chaudhry, Suman Ranjan Das, Shahid Jameel, Anna George, Vineeta Bal, Satyajit Mayor, Satyajit Rath
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 11: 1925 - 1935, Abstract
The Nef protein of HIV-1 removes the immune costimulatory proteins CD80 and CD86 from the cell surface by a unique clathrin- and dynamin-independent, actin-based endocytic pathway that deploys coupled activation of c-src and Rac. In this study, we show that, similar to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI), Nef subsequently reroutes CD80 and CD86 to the Golgi region. However, not ...

Chromatin Tethering of Incoming Foamy Virus by the Structural Gag Protein
Joelle Tobaly-Tapiero, Patricia Bittoun, Jacqueline Lehmann-Che, Olivier
Delelis, Marie-Lou Giron, Hugues de Thé, Ali Saïb
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1717 - 1727, Abstract
Retroviruses hijack cellular machineries to productively infect their hosts. During the early stages of viral replication, proviral integration relies on specific interactions between components of the preintegration complex and host chromatin-bound proteins. Here, analyzing the fate of incoming primate foamy virus, we identify a short domain within the C-terminus of the structural Gag protein ...

Human Herpesvirus-6 Induces MVB Formation, and Virus Egress Occurs by an Exosomal Release Pathway
Yasuko Mori, Masato Koike, Eiko Moriishi, Akiko Kawabata, Huamin Tang, Hiroko Oyaizu, Yasuo Uchiyama, Koichi Yamanishi
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 10: 1728 - 1742, Abstract
The final envelopment of most herpesviruses occurs at Golgi or post-Golgi compartments, such as the trans Golgi network (TGN); however, the final envelopment site of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is uncertain. In this study, we found novel pathways for HHV-6 assembly and release from T cells that differed, in part, from those of alphaherpesviruses. Electron microscopy showed that late in ..

Two Viral Kinases are Required for Sustained Long Distance Axon Transport of a Neuroinvasive Herpesvirus
Kelly E. Coller, Gregory A. Smith
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1458 - 1470, Abstract
Axonal transport is essential for the successful establishment of neuroinvasive herpesvirus infections in peripheral ganglia (retrograde transport) and the subsequent spread to exposed body surfaces following reactivation from latency (anterograde transport). We examined two components of pseudorabies virus (US3 and UL13), both of which are protein kinases, as potential regulators ...

The Hepatitis C Virus Non-Structural Protein NS5A Alters the Trafficking Profile of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
Jamel Mankouri, Stephen Griffin, Mark Harris
Traffic, Volume 9 Issue 9: 1497 - 1509, Abstract 
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently establishes a persistent infection, leading to chronic liver disease. The NS5A protein has been implicated in this process as it modulates a variety of intracellular signalling pathways that control cell survival and proliferation. In particular, NS5A associates with several proteins involved in the endocytosis of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and has ...

Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Induces Lipid Droplet Redistribution in a Microtubule- and Dynein-Dependent Manner
Steeve Boulant, Mark W. Douglas, Laura Moody, Agata Budkowska, Paul Targett-Adams, John McLauchlan
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 8: 1268-1282, Abstract
Attachment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein to lipid droplets (LDs) is linked to release of infectious progeny from infected cells. Core progressively coats the entire LD surface from a unique site on the organelle, and this process coincides with LD aggregation around the nucleus. We demonstrate that LD redistribution requires only core protein and is accompanied by reduced ...

The Vaccinia Virus F11L Gene Product Facilitates Cell Detachment and Promotes Migration
Ivonne Morales, Maria Alejandra Carbajal, Stefan Bohn, Daniela Holzer, Sayuri E. M. Kato, Frederico A. B. Greco, Nissin Moussatché, Jacomine Krijnse Locker
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 8: 1283-1298, Abstract
We previously showed that infection with vaccinia virus (VV) induces cell motility, characterized by contractility and directed migration. Motility is temporally regulated because cells are motile immediately after infection, whereas late in infection motility ceases and cells resettle. Motility and its cessation are accompanied by temporal rearrangements of both the microtubule and the actin ...

CD9 Clustering and Formation of Microvilli Zippers Between Contacting Cells Regulates Virus-Induced Cell Fusion
Katrin Singethan, Nora Müller, Sabine Schubert, Doreen Lüttge, Dimitry N. Krementsov, Sandhya R. Khurana, Georg Krohne, Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies, Markus Thali Jürgen Schneider-Schaulies
Traffic, Volume 9, Issue 6: 924-935, Abstract
Members of the tetraspanin family including CD9 contribute to the structural organization and plasticity of the plasma membrane. K41, a CD9-specific monoclonal antibody, inhibits the release of HIV-1 and canine distemper virus (CDV)- but not ...

Tuning the Transport Properties of HIV-1 Tat Arginine-Rich Motif in Living Cells
Francesco Cardarelli, Michela Serresi, Ranieri Bizzarri and Fabio Beltram
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Published article online: 13-Jan-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00696.x, Abstract
A large body of work is currently devoted to the rational design of new molecular carriers for the controlled delivery of cargoes (e.g. proteins or nucleic acids) to relevant subcellular domains, particularly the nucleus. In this article, we show that ...

A CD63 mutant inhibits T-cell tropic HIV-1 entry by disrupting CXCR4 trafficking to the plasma membrane
Takeshi Yoshida, Yuji Kawano, Kei Sato, Yoshinori Ando, Jun Aoki, Yoshiharu Miura, Jun Komano, Yuetsu Tanaka, and Yoshio Koyanagi
Traffic, OnlineEarly Article
Accepted article online: 13-Feb-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2008.00700.x, Abstract
We have discovered that an N-terminal deletion mutant of a membrane protein, CD63, (CD63?N) blocks entry of CXCR4-using, T-cell tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (X4 HIV-1) by suppressing CXCR4 surface expression. This suppression was ...

Tuning the Transport Properties of HIV-1 Tat Arginine-Rich Motif in Living Cells
Francesco Cardarelli, Michela Serresi, Ranieri Bizzarri Fabio Beltram
Traffic, OnlineEarly Articles
Published article online: 13-Jan-2008
doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2007.00696.x, Abstract
A large body of work is currently devoted to the rational design of new molecular carriers for the controlled delivery of cargoes (e.g. proteins or nucleic acids) to relevant subcellular domains, particularly the nucleus. In this article, we show that  ...

HIV-1 Replication in Dendritic Cells Occurs via a Tetraspanin-containing Compartment Enriched in AP-3
Eduardo Garcia, Damjan S. Nikolic and Vincent Piguet
Traffic, OnlineAccepted Articles
Accepted article online: 22-Nov-2007, Abstract
Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial components of the early events of HIV infection. DC capture and internalize HIV at mucosal surfaces and efficiently transfer the virus to CD4 T cells in trans via infectious synapses (trans-infection pathway). ...

A Role for Transportin in the Nuclear Import of Adenovirus Core Proteins and DNA
Clemence E. Hindley, Fiona J. Lawrence David A. Matthews
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 10: 1313-1322 Abstract
Adenoviruses target their double-stranded DNA genome and its associated core proteins to the interphase nucleus; this core structure then enters through the nuclear pore complex. We have used digitonin permeabilized cell import assays to study the cellular...

The Role of Ubiquitin in Retroviral Egress
Juan Martin-Serrano
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 10: 1297-1303 Abstract
HIV and many other enveloped viruses encode a late budding domain (L-domain) that recruits the cellular machinery that mediates the separation of the nascent virion from the infected cell. The ubiquitin–proteasome system has been implicated in the L-domain...

Intracellular Trafficking of Potato Leafroll Virus Movement Protein in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Florian Vogel, Daniel Hofius Uwe Sonnewald
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 9: 1205-1214 Abstract
Intracellular trafficking of viral movement proteins (MPs) in plants has mainly been studied using Tobacco mosaic virus MP30 (TMV MP30) as a model system. Because of the limitations of TMV MP30 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana, these studies have mostly ...

Structure/Function Analysis of Four Core ESCRT-III Proteins Reveals Common Regulatory Role for Extreme C-Terminal Domain
Soomin Shim, Lisa A. Kimpler Phyllis I. Hanson
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 8: 1068-1079 Abstract
Endosomal sorting complex required for transport-III (ESCRT-III) is a large complex built from related ESCRT-III proteins involved in multivesicular body biogenesis. Little is known about the structure and function of this complex. Here, we compare four hu...

Nuclear Localization of Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 5 Through Its Importin a/ß–Recognized Nuclear Localization Sequences is Integral to Viral Infection
Melinda J. Pryor, Stephen M. Rawlinson, Rebecca E. Butcher, Chenoa L. Barton, Tracey A. Waterhouse, Subhash G. Vasudevan, Phillip G. Bardin, Peter J. Wright, David A. Jans Andrew D. Davidson
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 7: 795-807 Abstract
Dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is a large multifunctional protein with a central role in viral replication. We previously identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) within the central region of dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) NS5 (‘aNLS’...

An Acidic Cluster of the Cytoplasmic Tail of the RD114 Virus Glycoprotein Controls Assembly of Retroviral Envelopes
David Bouard, Virginie Sandrin, Bertrand Boson, Didier Nègre, Gary Thomas, Christelle Granier François-Loïc Cosset
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 7: 835-847 Abstract
Retroviral core proteins, Gag and envelope (Env) glycoproteins are expressed from distinct cellular areas and therefore need to encounter to assemble infectious particles. The intrinsic cell localisation properties of either viral component or their capaci...

Evidence for a Direct Role of the Doa4 Deubiquitinating Enzyme in Protein Sorting into the MVB Pathway
Elina Nikko Bruno André
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 5: 566-581 Abstract
Degradation of various membrane proteins in the lumen of the vacuole/lysosome requires their prior sorting into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. In this process, ubiquitin serves as a sorting signal for most cargoes. The yeast ubiquitin hydrolase Doa...

Dynamic Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with the Clathrin-Mediated Endocytic Pathway at the Plasma Membrane
Anne Burtey, Joshua Z. Rappoport, Jérôme Bouchet, Stéphane Basmaciogullari, John Guatelli, Sanford M. Simon, Serge Benichou, Alexandre Benmerah
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 1: 61-76 Abstract
The HIV-1 Nef protein perturbs the trafficking of membrane proteins such as CD4 by interacting with clathrin–adaptor complexes. We previously reported that Nef alters early/recycling endosomes, but its role at the plasma membrane is poorly documented. Here...

Host ABCE1 is at Plasma Membrane HIV Assembly Sites and Its Dissociation from Gag is Linked to Subsequent Events of Virus Production
Julia E. Dooher, Bobbie L. Schneider, Jonathan C. Reed Jaisri R. Lingappa
Traffic, Volume 8, Issue 3: 195-211 Abstract
In primate cells, assembly of a single HIV-1 capsid involves multimerization of thousands of Gag polypeptides, typically at the plasma membrane. Although studies support a model in which HIV-1 assembly proceeds through complexes containing Gag and the cell...

Measles Virus Contact with T Cells Impedes Cytoskeletal Remodeling Associated with Spreading, Polarization, and CD3 Clustering
Nora Müller, Elita Avota, Jürgen Schneider-Schaulies, Harry Harms, Georg Krohne and Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 7: 849-858 Abstract
CD3/CD28-induced activation of the PI3/Akt kinase pathway and proliferation is impaired in T cells after contact with the measles virus (MV) glycoprotein (gp) complex. We now show that this signal also impairs actin cytoskeletal remodeling in T cells, which ...

Foamy Virus Capsid Assembly Occurs at a Pericentriolar Region Through a Cytoplasmic Targeting/Retention Signal in Gag
Shuyuarn F. Yu, Scott W. Eastman and Maxine L. Linial
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 8: 966-977 Abstract
Foamy viruses (FV) are unusual retroviruses that differ in many aspects of their life cycle from the orthoretroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus. Similar to Mason–Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), FV assemble into capsids intracellularly. The capsids ...

A Phenotypic Recessive, Post-Entry Block in Rabbit Cells that Results in Aberrant Trafficking of HIV-1
Teresa Cutiño-Moguel and Ariberto Fassati
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 8 978-992 Abstract
Rabbit cells are poorly permissive to HIV-1 infection, but little is known about the nature of this block. Here, we show that the block to infection is mainly at the level of reverse transcription (RT), is independent of the cell receptor used by the virus...


Mutation in Epstein–Barr Virus LMP2A Reveals a Role for Phospholipase D in B-Cell Antigen Receptor Trafficking
Michelle D. Snyder and Susan K. Pierce
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 8: 993-1006 Abstract
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latent infection of B cells blocks the interrelated signaling and antigen-trafficking functions of the BCR through the activity of its latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). At present, the molecular mechanisms by which LMP2A exerts i...

Human Cytomegalovirus DNA Polymerase Catalytic Subunit pUL54 Possesses Independently Acting Nuclear Localization and ppUL44 Binding Motifs
Gualtiero Alvisi, Alessandro Ripalti, Apollinaire Ngankeu, Maila Giannandrea, Stefano G. Caraffi, Manisha M. Dias David A. Jans
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 10: 1322-1332 Abstract
The catalytic subunit of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase pUL54 is a 1242-amino-acid protein, whose function, stimulated by the processivity factor, phosphoprotein UL44 (ppUL44), is essential for viral replication. The C-terminal residues (amino...

Vaccinia-Virus-Induced Cellular Contractility Facilitates the Subcellular Localization of the Viral Replication Sites
Birgit Schramm, Cornelis A.M. de Haan, Joanne Young, Laura Doglio, Sibylle Schleich, Christoph Reese, Andrei V. Popov, Walter Steffen, Trina Schroer Jacomine Krijnse Locker
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 10: 1352-1367 Abstract
Poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus (VV), replicate their DNA in endoplasmic-reticulum-enclosed cytoplasmic sites. Here, we compare the dynamics of the VV replication sites with those of the attenuated strain, modified VV Ankara (MVA). By live-cell imaging,...

Retrovirus RNA Trafficking: From Chromatin to Invasive Genomes
Chad M. Swanson Michael H. Malim
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 11: 1440-1450 Abstract
Full-length retroviral RNA has three well-established functions: it constitutes the genomic RNA that is packaged into virions and is transmitted to target cells by infection, it is the messenger RNA (mRNA) template for viral Gag and Pol protein synthesis a...

Citron Kinase, a RhoA Effector, Enhances HIV-1 Virion Production by Modulating Exocytosis
Rebecca J. Loomis, Derek A. Holmes, Andrew Elms, Patricia A. Solski, Channing J. Der Lishan Su
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 12: 1643-1653 Abstract
RhoGTPases play important roles in the regulation of protein transport and membrane recycling. Little is known, however, about how RhoGTPases affect HIV-1 virion production, which is dependent on the endosomal sorting pathway. We report that ectopic expres...

Viral Strategies for Intracellular Trafficking: Motors and Microtubules
Philip L. Leopold and K. Kevin Pfister
Volume 7, Issue 5: 516-523 Abstract
To overcome barriers to diffusion, many viruses utilize the microtubule-associated molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 to drive transport towards the nucleus of a target cell. Cytoplasmic dynein 1 generates movement towards the minus end of microtubules l...

Wrapping Things up about Virus RNA Replication
Jason Mackenzie
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 11: 967-977 Abstract
All single-stranded 'positive-sense' RNA viruses that infect mammalian, insect or plant cells rearrange internal cellular membranes to provide an environment facilitating virus replication. A striking feature of these unique membrane structures is the indu...

Cytoplasmic Organization of POXvirus DNA Replication
Birgit Schramm and Jacomine Krijnse Locker
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 10: 839-846 Abstract
Poxviruses, a family of large DNA viruses, are unique among DNA viruses, because they carry out DNA replication in the cytoplasm rather than the nucleus. This process does not occur randomly, but instead, these viruses create cytoplasmic 'mini-nuclei', di...

Exosome Secretion: The Art of Reutilizing Nonrecycled Proteins?
Aude de Gassart, Charles Géminard, Dick Hoekstra and Michel Vidal
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 11: 896-903 Abstract
Multivesicular bodies contain membrane vesicles which either undergo lysosomal digestion or are released in the extracellular environment as exosomes. Evidence is accumulating that supports a physiological role for exosomes in, for example, antigen presen...

Retroviral Spread by Induction of Virological Synapses

Clare Jolly and Quentin J. Sattentau
Volume 5, Issue 9: 643-650  Abstract
Cells of the immune system communicate via the formation of receptor-containing adhesive junctions termed immunological synapses. Recently, retroviruses have been shown to subvert this process in order to pass directly from infected to uninfected immune ce...

Nuclear Import of Viral DNA Genomes
Urs F. Greber and Ariberto Fassati
Volume 4, Issue 3: 136-143  Abstract
The genomes of many viruses traffic into the nucleus, where they are either integrated into host chromosomes or maintained as episomal DNA and then transcriptionally activated or silenced. Here, we discuss the existing evidence on how the lentiviruses, ade...

Identification of an Intracellular Trafficking and Assembly Pathway for HIV-1 Gag
Mira Perlman and Marilyn D. Resh
Volume 7, Issue 6: 731-745 Abstract
Retroviral Gag proteins are membrane-bound polyproteins that are necessary and sufficient for virus-like particle (VLP) formation. It is not known how Gag traffics through the cell or how the site of particle production is determined. Here we use two techn...

The Pericentriolar Recycling Endosome Plays a Key Role in Vpu-mediated Enhancement of HIV-1 Particle Release
Vasundhara Varthakavi, Rita M. Smith, Kenneth L. Martin,  Aaron Derdowski, Lynne A. Lapierre, James R. Goldenring and Paul Spearman
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 3: 298-307 Abstract
The HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpu is required for efficient viral particle release from infected human cells. The mechanism by which Vpu enhances particle assembly or release is not yet defined. Here, we identify an intracellular site that is critical f...

Vaccinia Virus-Induced Microtubule-Dependent Cellular Rearrangements
Antonino Schepis, Birgit Schramm,  Cornelis A. M. de Haan and Jacomine Krijnse Locker
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 3: 308-323 Abstract
Although infection with vaccinia virus (VV) is known to affect the cytoskeleton, it is not known how this affects the cellular architecture or whether the attenuated modified VV ankara (MVA) behaves similar to wild-type VV (wtVV). In the present study, we ...

The Inner Tegument Promotes Herpes Simplex Virus Capsid Motility Along Microtubules in vitro
André Wolfstein, Claus-Henning Nagel, Kerstin Radtke, Katinka Döhner, Victoria J. Allan and Beate Sodeik
Traffic, Volume 7, Issue 2: 227-237 Abstract
After viral fusion, capsids of the neurotropic herpes simplex virus are transported along microtubules (MT) to the nuclear pores for viral genome uncoating, nuclear transcription and replication. After assembly and egress from the nucleus, cytosolic capsid...

A Protein Kinase CK2 Site Flanking the Nuclear Targeting Signal Enhances Nuclear Transport of Human Cytomegalovirus ppUL44
Gualtiero Alvisi, David A. Jans, Jinjin Guo, Lorenzo A. Pinna and Alessandro Ripalti
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 11: 1002-1013 Abstract
The processivity factor of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA polymerase phosphoprotein ppUL44 plays an essential role in viral replication, showing nuclear localization in infected cells. The present study examines ppUL44's nuclear import pathway for th...

The Functionally Exchangeable L Domains in RSV and HIV-1 Gag Direct Particle Release Through Pathways Linked by Tsg101
Gisselle Medina, Yongjun Zhang, Yi Tang, Eva Gottwein, Marcy L. Vana, Fadila Bouamr, Jonathan Leis and Carol A. Carter
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 10: 880-894 Abstract
The functionally exchangeable L domains of HIV-1 and Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag bind Tsg101 and Nedd4, respectively. Tsg101 and Nedd4 function in endocytic trafficking, and studies show that expression of Tsg101 or Nedd4 fragments interfere with release ...

HIV-1 Gag–RNA Interaction Occurs at a Perinuclear/Centrosomal Site; Analysis by Confocal Microscopy and FRET
Emma Poole, Padraig Strappe, Hoi-Ping Mok, Ray Hicks and Andrew M L. Lever
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 9: 741-755 Abstract
The Gag polyprotein is the major structural protein of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) constituting the viral core. Between translation on cytoplasmic polysomes and assembly into viral particles at the plasma membrane, it specifically captures the R...

Intercellular Gamma-Herpesvirus Dissemination Involves Co-Ordinated Intracellular Membrane Protein Transport
Janet S. May, , Brigitte D. de Lima, , Susanna Colaco and and Philip G. Stevenson
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 9: 780-793 Abstract
The murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) ORF27 encodes gp48, a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein that contributes to intercellular viral spread. Gp48 is expressed on the surface of infected cells but is retained intracellularly after transfection. In this ...

HIV-1 Trafficking to the Dendritic Cell–T-Cell Infectious Synapse Uses a Pathway of Tetraspanin Sorting to the Immunological Synapse
Eduardo Garcia, Marjorie Pion, Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Lucy Collinson, , Jean-Francois Arrighi, Guillaume Blot, Florence Leuba, Jean-Michel Escola, Nicolas Demaurex, Mark Marsh and Vincent Piguet
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 6: 488-501 Abstract
Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential components of the early events of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the trafficking pathways that HIV-1 follows during its capture by DCs and its subsequent presentation to CD4 T cells via an infectious synapse. Imm...

An Unconventional NLS is Critical for the Nuclear Import of the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein and Ribonucleoprotein
Jerome F. Cros, Adolfo García-Sastre and Peter Palese
Traffic, Volume 6, Issue 3: 205-213 Abstract
Replication of the RNAs of influenza virus occurs in the nucleus of infected cells. The nucleoprotein (NP) has been shown to be important for the import of the viral RNA into the nucleus and has been proposed to contain at least three different nuclear loc...

Lipid Raft-Dependent Targeting of the Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein to the Apical Plasma Membrane
Marlene Carrasco, Maria Joao Amorim and Paul Digard
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 12: 979-992 Abstract
Influenza virus acquires a lipid raft-containing envelope by budding from the apical surface of epithelial cells. Polarised budding involves specific sorting of the viral membrane proteins, but little is known about trafficking of the internal virion compo...

Missorting of LaCrosse Virus Nucleocapsid Protein by the Interferon-Induced MxA GTPase Involves Smooth ER Membranes
Mike Reichelt, Silke Stertz, Jacomine Krijnse-Locker, Otto Haller and Georg Kochs
Traffic, Volume 5, Issue 10: 772-784 Abstract
The interferon-induced human MxA protein belongs to the class of dynamin-like, large guanosine-5'-triphosphatases that are involved in intracellular vesicle trafficking and organelle homeostasis. MxA shares many properties with the other members of this pr...

The ER-Lumenal Domain of the HHV-7 Immunoevasin U21 Directs Class I MHC Molecules to Lysosomes
Amy W. Hudson, Daniël Blom, Peter M. Howley and Hidde L. Ploegh
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 12: 824-837 Abstract
Like all members of the herpesvirus family, human herpesvirus-7 has evolved mechanisms to evade immune detection. The human herpesvirus-7 gene product U21 encodes an immunoevasin that binds to class I major histocompatibility complex molecules and diverts...

Features of Influenza HA Required for Apical Sorting Differ from Those Required for Association with DRMs or MAL
Renee D. Tall, Miguel A. Alonso and Michael G. Roth
Traffic, Volume 4, Issue 12: 838-849 Abstract
The influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is sorted to the apical membrane in polarized epithelial cells and associates with detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs). By systematic mutagenesis of the transmembrane residues, we show that hemagglutinin requires 10 ...