Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research

Cover image for Vol. 20 Issue 2

Edited By: Anne Marie Kuijpers-Jagtman

Impact Factor: 1.64

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 31/91 (Dentistry Oral Surgery & Medicine)

Online ISSN: 1601-6343

Author Guidelines

Content of Author Guidelines: 1. General, 2. Ethical Guidelines, 3. Manuscript Submission Procedure, 4. Manuscript Types Accepted, 5. Cover Letter, 6. Manuscript Format and Structure, 7. After Acceptance.

Relevant Documents: Colour Work Agreement

Useful Websites: Submission Site, Articles published in Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, Author Services, Wiley Blackwell Publishing’s Ethical Guidelines, Guidelines for Figures


Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research is published to serve its readers as an international forum for the presentation and critical discussion of issues pertinent to the advancement of the specialty of orthodontics and the evidence-based knowledge of craniofacial growth and development. This forum is based on scientifically supported information, but also includes minority and conflicting opinions.

The objective of Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research is to facilitate effective communication between the research community and practicing clinicians. Original Papers of high scientific quality that report the findings of clinical trials, clinical epidemiology, and novel therapeutic or diagnostic approaches are appropriate submissions. Similarly, we welcome papers in genetics, developmental biology, syndromology, surgery, speech and hearing, and other biomedical disciplines related to clinical orthodontics and normal and abnormal craniofacial growth and development. In addition to original and basic research, the journal publishes Short Communications, Reviews, Letters, and Meeting Reports.

Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research is published quarterly. The review of submitted papers will be coordinated by the editor and members of the editorial board. It is policy to review manuscripts within 4 to 6 weeks of receipt and to publish within 3 to 6 months of acceptance.

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research. Authors are encouraged to visit Wiley Blackwell Author Services for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.

1.1 Authorship
Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors and that all authors agree to the submission of the manuscript to the Journal.

1.2 Permissions
If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.

1.3 Copyright Assignment
Authors submitting a paper do so on the understanding that the work and its essential substance have not been published before and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. The submission of the manuscript by the authors means that the authors automatically agree to assign exclusive copyright to Wiley Blackwell if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication. The work shall not be published elsewhere in any language without the written consent of the publisher. The articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers translation rights and the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute all of the articles printed in the journal. No material published in the journal may be stored on microfilm or videocassettes or in electronic database and the like or reproduced photographically without the prior written permission of the publisher.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and Wiley Open Access.

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please click here.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

1.5 Early View
Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research is covered by Wiley Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.


Submission is considered on the conditions that papers are previously unpublished, and are not offered simultaneously elsewhere; that authors have read and approved the content, and all authors have also declared all competing interests; and that the work complies with the Ethical Policies of the Journal and has been conducted under internationally accepted ethical standards after relevant ethical review.

Before preparing your manuscript for submission please consult the Equator Network (=Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) website, where you can find the reporting guidelines for all main study types including: randomized trials (CONSORT), systematic reviews (PRISMA), observational studies (STROBE), animal studies (ARRIVE), and others. The journal expects authors to comply with these standards and follow these guidelines.



Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission site Manuscript Central. Complete instructions for submitting a paper are available online and below. Further assistance can be obtained from the editorial office at OCRedoffice@wiley.com.

3.1 Getting Started
Launch your web browser (supported browsers include Internet Explorer 5.5 or higher, Firefox 1.0.4 or higher or Safari 1.2.4) and go to the journal's Manuscript Central Site.
* Log-in or, if you are a new user, click on “register here”.
* If you are registering as a new user.
- After clicking on 'register here', enter your name and e-mail information and click 'Next'. Your e-mail information is very important.
- Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click 'Next.'
- Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your area(s) of expertise under keywords. Click 'Finish'.
* If you are a registered user, but have forgotten your log in details, enter your e-mail adddress under “Password help”. The system will send you an automatic user ID and a new temporary password.
* Log-in and select 'Author Center”.

3.2 Submitting Your Manuscript
After you have logged into your “Author Center”, you may submit a manuscript by clicking the submission link under “Author Resources”.
* Enter data and answer questions as appropriate. You may copy and paste directly from your manuscript and you may upload your pre-prepared covering letter.
* Click the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.
* You are required to upload your files.
- Click on the 'Browse' button and locate the file on your computer.
- Select the designation of each file in the drop down next to the Browse button.
- When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the 'Upload Files' button.
* Review your submission (in HTML and PDF format) before completing your submission by sending it to the Journal. Click the 'Submit' button when you are finished reviewing.
* The title page, the structured abstract and the main manuscript are uploaded as three separate files. The manuscript should start with a page containing only the title. All other information should be on the title page that is uploaded as a separate file.

3.3 Manuscript Files Accepted
Manuscripts should be uploaded as Word (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf) files (not write-protected) plus separate figure files. GIF, JPEG, PICT or Bitmap files are acceptable for submission, but only high-resolution TIF or EPS files are suitable for printing. The files will be automatically converted to HTML and PDF on upload and will be used for the review process. The text file must contain the entire manuscript including title page, structured abstract, text, references, tables, and figure legends, but no embedded figures. In the text, please reference figures as for instance “Figure 1”, “Figure 2” etc to match the tag name you choose for individual figure files uploaded. Manuscripts should be formatted as described in the Author Guidelines below.

3.4 Blinded Review
All manuscripts submitted Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research will be reviewed by two experts in the field. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research uses single blinded review. The names of the reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper.

3.5 Suspension of Submission Mid-way in the Submission Process
You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the 'Submit' button and save it to submit later. The manuscript can then be located under 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' and you can click on 'Continue Submission' to continue your submission when you choose to.

3.6 E-mail Confirmation of Submission
After submission you will receive an e-mail to confirm receipt of your manuscript. If you do not receive the confirmation e-mail after 24 hours, please check your e-mail address carefully in the system. If the e-mail address is correct please contact your IT department. The error may be caused by some sort of spam filtering on your e-mail server. Also, the e-mails should be received if the IT department adds our e-mail server (uranus.scholarone.com) to their whitelist.

3.7 Manuscript Status
You can access ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) any time to check your 'Author Centre' for the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

3.8 Submission of Revised Manuscripts
To upload a revised manuscript, locate your manuscript under 'Manuscripts with Decisions' and click on 'Submit a Revision'.  Please remember to delete any old files uploaded when you upload your revised manuscript.


Original Research Articles: of high scientific quality that report the findings of clinical trials, clinical epidemiology, and novel therapeutic or diagnostic approaches are appropriate submissions. Similarly, we welcome papers in genetics, developmental biology, syndromology, surgery, speech and hearing, and other biomedical disciplines related to clinical orthodontics and normal and abnormal craniofacial growth and development. Only manuscripts reporting the results of original clinical or clinically relevant investigations are suitable for publication.

Short Communications: should not exceed 2000 words, including the references. Priority will be given to communications relating to primary research data. This section permits time-sensitive material to be published within 6 months of submission.

Reviews: systematic reviews and meta-analyses are preferred above narrative reviews.

Letters to the Editor: are encouraged to stimulate scientific discussions on recently published papers. The Editor will refer them to the authors. The readers' comments and authors' replies may subsequently be published together.

Meeting Reports: Proceedings of significant meetings may also be published at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.

Case Reports are no longer accepted.


It must be stated in the cover letter, that the manuscript has not been published, simultaneously submitted, or already accepted for publication elsewhere, and that all authors have read and approved the manuscript. State any conflict of interest related to individual authors’ commitments and any project support.

Make a full statement about all submissions and previous reports that could be regarded as redundant or as duplicate publication of the same or similar work, and alert the editor if the manuscript includes subjects about which the authors have published a previous report or have submitted a related report to another journal. Refer to and reference any such report in the new paper. Upload copies of such material as supplementary files.

Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from everyone acknowledged by name in Acknowledgment section, because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions. Therefore, state explicitly that acknowledged persons have seen the text and given their permission to be named.

5.1 Conflict of Interest and Source Funding

Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research requires that all authors (both the corresponding author and co-authors) disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. If authors are unsure whether a past or present affiliation or relationship should be disclosed in the manuscript, please contact the editorial office at OCRedoffice@wiley.com. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

The above policies are in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org/). It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to have all authors of a manuscript fill out a conflict of interest disclosure form, and to upload all forms together with the manuscript on submission. The disclosure statement should be included under Acknowledgements. Please find the form below:

Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form


6.1 Format
Authors are advised to consult a recent issue of the Journal to become familiar with its style and format.
Please adhere to the following general guidelines and advices when preparing the manuscript:  

  1. Font Times New Roman 12; if you use a non-English word processor, program it for English. Be especially careful to use full stop as decimal point, not comma.

  2. Use double spacing throughout the text; left and right margins of at least 3 cm.

  3. Begin each of the following sections on a separate sheet: Title Page; Abstract and Keywords; body of the text starting with Introduction up to and including Acknowledgements; References; Figure Legends; and Tables (each on a separate sheet).

  4. Number the pages consecutively beginning with the title page. Do not number

  5. The beginning of paragraphs should be properly marked with an indent.

  6. Enter only one space after the full stop at the end of a sentence.

  7. Be consistent: use the same form of units, etc., and key these elements in exactly the same way throughout the manuscript. Put a space between the digits and the unit, e.g. 5.2 mm.

  8. The manuscript (Title Page, Abstract Page, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References, and Figure Legends) should not exceed 3200 words. There should be a maximum of 3 tables, 3 figures and 35 references.

  9. All identifying information (e.g. names and institutes) should be removed from the manuscript text prior to submission. However, the Title Page should include author and correspondence details (see below).

Language: The language of publication is English. Both British and American spelling conventions are acceptable, but usage should be consistent. It is preferred that manuscript is professionally edited. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found here. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication

Abbreviations, Symbols and Nomenclature: Only standardized terms which have been generally accepted should be used. Units, Symbols and Abbreviations. 5th ed. London: The Royal Society of Medicine; 1994, will be the reference source for these. Unfamiliar abbreviations must be defined when first used. 'The two-digit system' should be used for tooth identification (see Federation Dentaire Internationale (1971) Int Dent J 1971; 21:104-6).

Scientific Names: All Latin or foreign words must be italicized throughout the text.

6.2 Structure
All manuscripts submitted to Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research should include: Title Page, Abstract Page, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References, Figure Legends, Tables, arranged in that order. This division is also appropriate for short communications. For review papers and qualitative studies, other headings may be used as appropriate. Figures should not be included in the text file and should be uploaded as separate files.

Title Page has to contain the following information, arranged in this order:

* Full title of the manuscript (in bold). Include all information in the title necessary to make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific. Do not capitalize the title: only the first word has a capital.
* Initials and last name of each author (in italics), each author on a new line. Do not include academic degrees.
* The departments and institutions to which the work should be attributed, including the city and country, for each author. Using numbering in superscript, to key each author to the relevant institution.
* Type ‘Correspondence to:’ (in bold) and give first and last name, and current Department, Institution, address, and e-mail address of the author to whom correspondence and proofs are to be sent. Observe that these data will be published with the paper.
* Indicate the number of words for the abstract and for the full manuscript.

: The abstract should not exceed 250 words and be structured as the below example (See: Br J Orthod 1996; 203-9):

Objectives - To test the hypothesis that mechanical forces combined with laser treatment induce elevated expression of genes associated with the inflammatory process.
Setting and Sample Population - The Department of Orthodontics at Temple University. Thirty-six consecutively started patients requiring extractions of both maxillary first premolars.
Material & Methods - A randomized controlled trial design employed the 'split mouth' technique. Retraction springs were attached to canines, and on one side of the arch the canine tooth periodontal tissues received topical application of low-frequency laser beam. Linear movement of canine teeth projected on midsagittal plane was measured and Northern blot analyses of gene expression in the gingival crevicular fluid were performed.
Results - At the end of the 28-day study teeth receiving combined mechanical force and laser treatment moved 32% faster. None of the laser-treated teeth were slower than the mechanical force alone
Conclusion - Application of a low frequency laser beam to orthodontically moving teeth appears to be a clinically effective adjunct to enhance tooth movement rate.
Keywords: maximum of 5 key words. Give not more than five keywords in alphabetical order after the abstract, and, wherever possible, use terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Medline. Abstract and keywords should be included in the main document file.

Introduction: Should contain the hypothesis, the rationale of the study. References should only develop the argument. This section is not an exhaustive literature review. Aim and/or working hypothesis, if applicable, must be clearly stated in the last paragraph of the section.

Material and Methods: Should contain sufficient pertinent detail to allow duplication of the study. Use appropriate subheadings for the different sections to obtain clarity. References should be provided wherever possible. Legends to the figures may also contain summary information of methods. Statistical methods employed should be identified in this section.

When submitting review manuscripts, particularly Systematic Reviews, include a section describing the methods used in locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. Summarize these methods in the abstract.

(i)Ethics: When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution's or a national research council's guide for, or any national law on, the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

(ii) Clinical Trials: Clinical trials should be reported using the CONSORT guidelines available at www.consort-statement.org. A CONSORT checklist should also be included in the submission material. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research encourages authors submitting manuscripts reporting from a clinical trial to register the trials in any of the following free, public clinical trials registries: www.clinicaltrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org/clinicaltrials/, http://isrctn.org/. The clinical trial registration number and name of the trial register will then be published with the paper.

Results: Should be presented clearly in logical sequence. For clarity, subheadings may be used. The Results section is not the place for interpretation of the data. Graphs or representative illustrations should be included in this section. Do not repeat in the text, data easily found in the tables or illustrations (double documentation is not acceptable). The author(s) should indicate where to place the illustrations in the text.

Discussion: Do not repeat what has already been reported in the results section, or in the introduction!  Results should be interpreted and discussed here in view of the previously published studies. This section is the only proper section for subjective comments.

Conclusions: The last paragraph should be dedicated to the conclusions of the study. There ought to be a correspondence between the aims and hypotheses in the end of the introduction and conclusions. Conclusions in the abstract should be comparable.

Acknowledgments: Under acknowledgments please specify contributors to the article other than the authors accredited. Please also include specifications of the source of funding for the study and any potential conflict of interests if appropriate. Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from everyone acknowledged by name (see section on Cover Letter above).

6.3 References
All references should be numbered consecutively in order of appearance and should be as complete as possible. In text citations should cite references in consecutive order using Arabic superscript numerals. Sample references follow:

Journal article:

1. King VM, Armstrong DM, Apps R, Trott JR. Numerical aspects of pontine, lateral reticular, and inferior olivary projections to two paravermal cortical zones of the cat cerebellum. J Comp Neurol 1998;390:537-551.


2. Voet D, Voet JG. Biochemistry. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1990. 1223 p.

Please note that journal title abbreviations should conform to the practices of Chemical Abstracts.

For more information about AMA reference style - AMA Manual of Style

6.4 Tables, Figures and Figure Legends

Tables: Should be typed on separate sheets from the text and numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals. Titles must be self-explanatory. Data may be presented either in a table form or as a graph, but not both.

Figures: The main purpose of the illustrations is to clarify the results. Micrographs should be designed to reproduce without reduction. Individual photographs should be unmounted. If grouped, however, they may be lightly mounted. Line drawings should be professionally prepared. Locations of illustrations should be identified in the manuscript. An abbreviated description of methods that generated the data is an appropriate inclusion in the legend. Further information can be obtained at Wiley Blackwell's guidelines for instructions: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp

Colour Charges: It is the policy of Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley Blackwell requires you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement Form before your paper can be published. Any article received by Wiley Blackwell with colour artwork will not be published until the form has been returned.

Please return the original signed form by post to Customer Services (OPI) at the address below:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

6.5 Supporting Information

Supporting Information can be a useful way for an author to include important but ancillary information with the online version of an article. Examples of Supporting Information include additional tables, data sets, figures, movie files, audio clips, 3D structures, and other related nonessential multimedia files. Supporting Information should be cited within the article text, and a descriptive legend should be included. It is published as supplied by the author, and a proof is not made available prior to publication; for these reasons, authors should provide any Supporting Information in the desired final format.

For further information on recommended file types and requirements for submission, please visit Author Services.


7.1 Offprints
Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via author services only. Please therefore sign up for author services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: http://offprint.cosprinters.com/blackwell