Applied Vegetation Science
© International Association for Vegetation Science
Chief Editors: Milan Chytrý, with Alessandro Chiarucci, Valerio Pillar, Meelis Pärtel (Chair)
Impact Factor: 2.263
ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 8/62 (Forestry); 58/197 (Plant Sciences); 61/136 (Ecology)
Online ISSN: 1654-109X
Associated Title(s): Journal of Vegetation Science
Applied Vegetation Science focuses on community-level topics relevant to human interaction with vegetation, including global change, nature conservation, nature management, restoration of plant communities and of natural habitats, and the planning of semi-natural and urban landscapes. Vegetation survey, modelling and remote-sensing applications are welcome. Papers on vegetation science which do not fit to this scope (do not have an applied aspect and are not vegetation survey) should be directed to our associate journal, the Journal of Vegetation Science. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291654-1103 Both journals publish papers on the ecology of a single species only if it plays a key role in structuring plant communities.
To be acceptable, a paper must be of interest to an international readership, even if its immediate scope is local. A paper can be interesting by doing one or more of several things:
• Developing new concepts in understanding vegetation
• Testing concepts applicable to all plant communities
• Adding a particularly well-executed empirical example that is part of a growing literature on a general conceptual issue
• Representing a particularly interesting combination of models, observational data and experiments
• Demonstrating a new and generally useful method
• Presenting a particularly exemplary or thorough analysis, even if the concepts and methods are not novel, and even if it be regional in scope, so long as it:
- represents the state of the art (methods and statistics) and
- presents a critical and definitive test for an interesting hypothesis
• Demonstrating how vital vegetation science is to social questions of the day (e.g., species invasions, climatic change, ecosystem management or nutrient deposition)
• Describing the vegetation of an area, whether large or small, when that description will be of interest to readers worldwide because that habitat/vegetation will be of such interest, or when it attains the exemplary qualities described above.
The questions in the paper can be addressed by many means, including description, experiments, simulations, meta-analysis, inference, extrapolation, etc. There is no limit to the nature of the approach, as long as the work is sound. As a rule of thumb, the journal would accept a paper if at least 66% of vegetation scientists would regard it as having some interest, or at least 10% would regard it as being very interesting.
All submitted manuscripts must comply with our publishing ethics as detailed here.
Types of paperssubmissions
This category includes vegetation survey, experiment, simulation, theory, description of a new method, or any combination of those. The typical length of ordinary papers is about 8–10 printed pages (ca 6000 words). There is no minimum or maximum length of ordinary papers, but the length should be proportional to their content. Shorter papers may be published sooner.
Reviews of a topic that produce new ideas/ conclusions (and are not merely summaries of the literature) can be published as Syntheses.
Forum papers are essays with original ideas / speculation / well-sustained arguments, with no new data. They usually contribute to free debate of current and often controversial ideas in vegetation science. There may be criticism of papers published in Applied Vegetation Science, or (if interesting to our readers) of papers published elsewhere. An Abstract is required, but otherwise the sectional format is flexible. The length of the Forum papers is normally 0.5–4 printed pages (ca 2500 words). Forum papers, especially short ones, have high priority in publication.
This includes items that are not scientific papers, e.g. news items, the existence of databases and technical information. Reports are typically two pages; additional material should be put in electronic appendices. A report can describe a new or much expanded computer program if this is of interest to vegetation scientists. We can also accept paid advertisements for commercial computer programs. We also carry reviews of computer programs, and authors of new programs are very welcome to submit them for review to the Software Review Editor. [Papers that, whilst mentioning a particular program, are basically descriptions of a new method, can be submitted as research papers.]
Guidelines for vegetation classification papers
In the section Vegetation Survey, Applied Vegetation Science publishes, inter alia, papers on vegetation classification of plant communities based on species composition. For inclusion, such papers should be of general interest to the journal’s international readership. They should:
• contain a synthetic, comparative treatment of the selected vegetation type over a large area, based on a large comprehensive data set (international studies are particularly welcome), or
• describe vegetation which is unique for biogeographical reasons, or has a particularly interesting ecology, and has been hardly ever described before, or
• apply a new method of data analysis, or evaluate the performance of such a method, or compare different methods or approaches, or
• describe new applications of vegetation classification, e. g., for conservation management and other applied approaches.
Vegetation classification studies should clearly delimit the target vegetation type, describe the methods of data sampling, or data selection from databases, and formally describe each step of the classification process, in order to make the process of sampling (or data compilation) and classification repeatable by other researchers. If classification is based on expert judgement, unequivocal a posteriori criteria for assignment of vegetation samples to community types must be given.
Plant community types described in the vegetation classification papers should be documented by comparative tables with species abundance or frequency data and relevant environmental variables, provided in electronic appendices. The printed version of the papers should only contain summarised versions of them, e.g. graphs or shortened versions of the most important tables of species composition. Printed tables should normally occupy up to one printed page, possibly two pages if there are many vegetation types or very species-rich vegetation types. Tables with species constancy (frequency) should contain percentages (not classes). Species in these tables should be sorted to indicate the floristic differentiation of community types. Differentiation criteria and thresholds used for structuring the tables and defining diagnostic/character/differential/indicator species should be formally described and strictly followed:
Textual description of community types should be as concise as possible and should not repeat information contained in the tables.
The authors are encouraged to publish primary data related to the paper (e.g. vegetation plot or relevé data) in electronic appendices, and to store them in a major national or regional vegetation database, if there is one for the studied region.
Vegetation classification papers may also contain photographs of representative stands for particular community types dealt with, arranged as plates with multiple panels, typically one panel for each community type. One journal page with photographs of vegetation types can be included in the printed version (colour print is paid by the authors); more photographs can be included free of charge in electronic appendices.
Nomenclature of community types
Nomenclature of community types should be internally consistent, typically following regional tradition. If the formal nomenclature of the Braun-Blanquet approach is used, the rules of the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature should be adhered to. If new syntaxa are published according to the Code, nomenclature types should be included in a printed appendix. (Purely nomenclatural papers do not fall in the scope of the journal.)
Journal’s policy on criticism and errata
For details of the policy on papers that have a major element criticising a particular paper or body of work, and on responses, also for the policy on errata, click here.
Manuscripts must be written in English (either British or American throughout). They should be concise, because concise papers often make more impact on the reader.
Title: This should be strongly directed towards attracting the interest of potential readers.
Author names and addresses: Follow exactly the format in the most recent issue of the journal. Give e-mail addresses for all authors.
Abstract: Up to 350 words for Research and Synthesis papers (up to 200 for a Forum or Report paper). Include no references. The abstract for Research papers should have named sections, normally: Question(s), Location, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. This structure can be varied when necessary, e.g. for Synthesis use whatever structure is appropriate; for theoretical papers Location is not needed; use Aim(s) instead of Question(s) for papers introducing a new method and vegetation survey papers; for Forum and Report papers an unstructured abstract will be appropriate; if such papers are very short (one printed page or less), they do not need to have an abstract.
Keywords: There should be 8–12 keywords, separated by semicolons. Most online paper accesses come via searches with Google, Web of Science, etc., rather than by browsing the journal. Paper's hit rate may increase if title/abstract/keywords are properly prepared. For more information, see Wiley Author Services.
Nomenclature: Refer to a source for unified nomenclature of plant species or vegetation units, unless there be few names and their authors are given in the text.
Abbreviations: List any that are frequently used in the text.
Running head: Shortened title.
Main text: Indicate new paragraphs by indentation. Avoid footnotes. Variation from the usual Introduction - Methods - Results - Discussion structure is acceptable when appropriate.
Acknowledgements: Keep them brief. References to research projects/funds and institutional publication numbers can go here.
Citations in the text: Use forms such as: Smith & Jones (2005) or (Smith & Jones 2005); for more than two authors: White et al. (2005); for combinations: (Smith et al. 2005 a, b; Jones 2006, 2010). Citations should be chronological by year, except where there is a list of years for the same author(s), e.g. (Zebedee 1950, 1970; Abraham 1960; Smith et al. 1965, 1974; Zebedee et al. 1969)
References section: Use the formats below. Always name all the authors for each publication and give the full name of the journals. For accepted papers copy editors may reformat references with very many authors.
Lane, D.R., Coffin, D.P. & Lauenroth, W.K. 2000. Changes in grassland canopy structure across a precipitation gradient. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 359–368.
EndNote Reference Style File is available in our Author Services.
References to computer programs: Computer programs used should be mentioned in the Methods section, e.g. "performed by DoStats (version 6.2, StatProgs Inc., Springfield, NY, US)" or “performed by Partition (version 3.0, www.users.muohio.edu/cristto/partition.htm)”. Only descriptions of computer programs in refereed journals or in books with an ISBN can be cited in the References section. References to computer programs should never substitute references to proper description of methods performed using these programs. The methods used should be fully described in the text, in an appendix and/or by readily-available references. A reference to a computer program and to “program defaults” is not a substitute.
Unpublished material: The References section can contain only material that is published (including early online publications with a DOI) or is a thesis. Indicate all other material as "unpubl." or "pers. comm." (the latter with date and description of the type of knowledge, e.g. "local farmer"); "submitted" may be used only if the cited item is in some journal's editorial process, and the reference will have to be removed if the item has not been published (at least in early online view) by that journal by the time proofs are corrected for citing paper.
References in other languages than English
1. References in the languages that use the Latin alphabet are cited in the original language. Optionally, titles of papers, book chapters of books can be followed by an English translation in square brackets. Titles of the journals or books in the citations of book chapters are not translated. The use of translations should be consistent within each paper (e.g. for all citations in the paper, or all citations in less known languages translated and all citations in widespread languages not translated). Examples:
Mucina, L. 1985. Používať či nepoužívať Ellenbergove indikačné hodnoty? Biológia 40: 511–516.
Mucina, L. 1985. Používať či nepoužívať Ellenbergove indikačné hodnoty? [To use or not to use Ellenberg's indicator values?]. Biológia 40: 511–516.
2. References in the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets are cited in the original language but transliterated to Latin alphabet. Optionally, titles of papers, book chapters of books can be followed by an English translation in square brackets. Titles of the journals or books in the citations of book chapters are not translated. At the end of the citation, the original language is indicated in square brackets. Example:
Kholod, S.S. 2007. Klassifikatsiya rastitel´nosti ostrova Vrangelya. Rastitel'nost' Rossii 11: 3–15. [In Russian.]
Kholod, S.S. 2007. Klassifikatsiya rastitel´nosti ostrova Vrangelya [Classification of Wrangel Island vegetation]. Rastitel'nost' Rossii 11: 3–15. [In Russian.]
3. References in the languages that use other alphabets than Latin, Cyrillic and Greek: Titles of papers/chapters/books including book titles in the citations of chapters and also the titles of the journals are translated to English. At the end of the citation, the original language is indicated in square brackets. Example:
Chiu, C.-A., Lin, H.-C., Liao, M.-C., Tseng, Y.-H., Ou, C.-H., Lu, K.-C. & Tzeng, H.-Y. 2008. A physiognomic classification scheme of potential vegetation of Taiwan. Quarterly Journal of Forest Research 30: 89–112. [In Chinese.]
Number all pages and all the lines. Use a single-column format. Use scientific names of taxa, and avoid vernacular names. Units of measurement must follow the International System of Units, e.g. mg.m-2.yr-1. The time unit for contemporary phenomena can be 's', 'min', 'hr', 'week', 'mo' or 'yr'. For palaeo-time use 'ka' or 'Ma'; make always clear whether 14C years or calendar years BP (before present) are used. Dates should be in the format: 2 Sep 2010, i.e. with the month as three letters. Months on their own should be in full: September. Country abbreviations are by 2-letter code (but note UK, not GB). Use words rather than symbols where possible, especially in the Title, Abstract and Keywords, e.g. 'beta' rather than 'β'.
Numbers with units of measurement must be in digits, e.g. 3.5 g. Numbers in the text of up to ten items (i.e. integers) should be in words, e.g. "ten quadrats", "five sampling times"; above ten in digits, e.g. "11 sampling times". Use '.' for a decimal point. Thousands in large numbers (ten thousand and higher) should be indicated by a space, e.g. 10 000, but 2000. Symbols for variables and parameters should be in italics (e.g. P).
Numerical results should be presented as either tables or figures, but not both. Tables should be included in the manuscript text file, either embedded in the text or at the end. Table legends should be on the same page as the table to which they refer. The legend should contain sufficient information for the table to be understood without reference to the text of the paper. The first sentence of the legend should comprise a short title for the table. Units should appear in parentheses in the column headings, not in the body of the table. If some part of the table needs to be highlighted (e.g. groups of important species), use background shading (not framing or boldface). For large tables with many empty cells, fill the empty cells with dots to facilitate reading.
Figures in the submitted manuscript should be supplied at the size at which they are intended to be printed: either one-column or full-page width. They may optionally be embedded in the text. Figure legends should be included within the manuscript text file on the same page as the figure to which they refer. The legend should contain sufficient information for the figure to be understood without reference to the text of the paper. The first sentence of the legend should comprise a short title for the figure.
The definitions of symbols and lines should be given as a visual key on the figure itself, not as a word key (e.g. 'solid bars', 'open circle', 'dashed line') in the legend. Sub-graphs within one figure should be headed with a lowercase letter and a brief heading. Wherever space allows, full labels instead of abbreviations should be used in the figures. Scale bars should be given on microphotographs and maps.
Artwork guidelines are available at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp. The journal welcomes colour figures and plates when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Please note there is a charge for colour in print.
When a paper is finally accepted, electronic artwork is required. See 'Accepted Papers' below.
Large figures and tables, raw data, calculation examples, computer program source, extra photographs and similar materials can be published as electronic appendices in online 'Supporting Information‘. This material will not appear in the printed paper, but will be freely available in the Wiley Online Library.
All PDF files in electronic appendices should, so far as is practicable, be prepared in a similar style to the printed/PDF issues of the journal, using similar font types and sizes. A Microsoft Word template file can be found here.
Each electronic appendix in PDF format should start with a reference to the original paper, followed by the appendix caption, for example:Supporting Information to the paper Smith, W.R. Assembly rules in a tropical rain forest of central Amazonia. Journal of Vegetation Science.
Appendix S1. A list of palm species recorded in the study area.
Written text should be in PDF, and where the reader might wish to extract text (e.g. computer program codes) also in plain text (TXT). Tables/data should be in both PDF and plain text (TXT or CSV) format. Authors are strongly encouraged (but not required) to make their primary data available in appendix tables. Figures and photographs should be in PDF format, including captions. Groups of related items (e.g. a set of figures, or of photographs) can be included in a single appendix. Detailed captions should appear in each appendix.
A list of all appendices with shortened captions should be provided at the end of the paper (after the References section), e.g. "Appendix 2. Photographs of the main types of deciduous forest in the study area".
So long as text, tables, data, figures and photographs are given in the above formats, other files in any format may be given, e.g. videos, executable programs, functional spreadsheets. Each such file should have a corresponding PDF Appendix describing the file, its format and contents. e.g.:
Appendix S3. Description of the video in Appendix S4, pollination.
Appendix S4. Video of bee Apis mellifera pollinating Bellis perennis (WMV format described in Appendix S3.
There should be a link to the electronic appendices in the main text of the paper, e.g.: (Appendix S4, described in Appendix S3).
Electronic appendices should be submitted for review with the first version of the manuscript, but uploaded as a separate file and designated as 'Appendix for Online Publication Only'. They should not be included as additional pages within the main document.
Technical checklist before manuscript submission
Before submitting your paper, please, check whether your manuscript meets the following requirements:
Topic: Is suitable for Applied Vegetation Science. Deals with plant communities or multispecies plant assemblages (not with single species); is of interest to international community of vegetation scientists.
Title: Is concise and attractive, catches the reader's attention with topical issues or an interesting hypothesis.
Abstract: Does not exceed to 350 words (fewer for a Forum or Report paper); does not contain references; is divided into named sections (except for a Forum or Report).
Author list: Follows the current format of the journal, e.g.:
John B. Bush, George Smith & E. Fred Coxon
Bush, J. B. (Corresponding author, email@example.com) & Coxon, E. F. (firstname.lastname@example.org; www.herbicide.co.uk/efcoxon): Ecology Department, Little Marsh University, 11 Main St., Little Marsh, Berkshire, UK.
Keywords: Follow the journal format, e.g. Abies forest; Balkans; Community structure; Deer; Invasive species; Neutral model; Species richness; Zonation.
Nomenclature source and Abbreviations: Are given if relevant.
Logical structure: The Introduction states what topics will be addressed, and those topics are addressed by the Methods, Results and Discussion.
Introduction: Explains why the topic is important or interesting; briefly provides the broader context of the current study; ends with questions, hypotheses or a clear statement of the paper’s aims.
Results: The claims in the Results section text match what is in the figures and tables.
Table and Figure captions: Understandable without reading the text. On the same page as the table or figure.
Tables: Concise, with row and column labels as self-explanatory as possible; contain no vertical lines.
Figures: Not too many of them, and compact; supplied in the size they will be printed, with all details readable at this size; contain no unnecessary lines (e.g. across a graph, or frames around the graph; to the top and right of a graph); lines and symbols explained in direct language, e.g. * = Litter removed (not: * = LRT or * = Treatment LR or * = Treatment 3); symbol key in the figure itself, not a word key ('dashed line', 'open circles') in the caption.
Electronic appendices: All appendices (except mathematical ones), large figures & tables, extra photographs and raw data, go here. Format of PDF files prepared in a similar style to the printed/PDF issues of the journal using the journal’s appendix template.
Manuscripts should be submitted at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/avsci, as Word document (.doc or .docx) or RTF (.rtf), preferably with all tables and figures embedded in a single file. On submission, your paper will be considered by a Chief Editor who will make an initial decision whether to progress your paper. If so, one of the Chief Editors or Associate Editors will be selected as Co-ordinating Editor to consider the submitted manuscript further, invite referees if appropriate, and make a final decision on acceptance. If your paper is not assigned to a Co-ordinating Editor, you will be advised by email, usually within five days of submission.
In the cover letter please explain briefly why your paper is especially suitable for the Applied Vegetation Science, e.g. whether it relates to the topics regularly published by the journal.
Conflict of Interest
All authors are required to disclose potential sources of conflict of interest upon submission. Click here for further information.
If a paper is eventually accepted, there are several technical issues and presentation that will need to be checked. Authors can check these when they receive the Co-ordinating Editor's response and make necessary modifications (the Co-ordinating Editor and Chief Editors may give directions on such issues. After the paper is accepted, it will be passed via the Editorial Office to the Production Editors. If only minor technical issues remain, the Production Editors may make the changes themselves, perhaps checking with the author first, or asking by a note on the proofs to check the changes. For major changes (e.g. if there are many language problems), the Production Editors will be unable to correct papers for authors, and authors will be given the choice of doing this work themselves, even at this late stage, or having it done at cost. Exceptions to these charges can be made only for ecologists from the developing world. It is quite possible that none of this will apply to a particular paper, but we warn all authors at the submission stage just in case it turns out that it does. Once a paper has been accepted, it will be forwarded to the publisher for production to commence.
On acceptance, authors will be required to upload manuscripts as one text file and additional high resolution graphics files. The preferred formats are .EPS for vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) and .TIFF for half-tone figures. TIFF files should be supplied at a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (dots per inch) at the final size at which they are to appear in the journal. For further information click here.
Authors having colour figures have to fill in the form available here and post a hard copy to: Customer Services (OPI), John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre, New Era Estate, Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, PO22 9NQ. If authors cannot cover the printing costs of colour figures, we can, without charge, reproduce them in colour in the online version of the paper but in black-and-white in the printed version. Financial support may be available to authors from developing countries who have figures for which colour is essential. For possible financial support contact the Editorial Office.
Graphical abstracts on tables of contents
The journal’s online table of contents includes a summary of what is exciting about the paper in not more than 60 words. It is accompanied by a small, approximately square, image (a photograph, a graph or part of a graph) relevant to the paper. It can be from the paper itself, or related to it. Please ensure that the figure will make sense thumbnail-size, i.e. either with an interesting overall pattern or else a simple graph with large axis lettering. Graphical abstracts will be requested by the Editorial Office if your paper is accepted for publication.
Electronic artwork/original photographs of high quality suitable for the cover are welcome. Potential cover images should be submitted to the Editorial Office. Images should be accompanied by a caption and include the name of the photographer or artist. Images should be related to accepted papers. Photographs submitted as cover images can be identical with those submitted for online Supporting Information. For each photograph, the author should make clear whether it is submitted for online Supporting Information, journal cover, or both. Contributors are required to assign copyright of photographs to the International Association for Vegetation Science by UK law.
Full upload instructions and support are available online from the submission site via the 'Get Help Now' button. Please submit covering letters or comments to the editor when prompted online. In case of any problems with submission please send queries to email@example.com.
Page charges and subscriptions
There are no page charges except for colour figures. However, please consider taking a subscription to Journal of Vegetation Science and/or Applied Vegetation Science: they carry important papers in your field. Subscriptions help us to avoid charges. The personal subscription rates are very reasonable and include membership of International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS). For those in the developing world, assistance may be available through the IAVS: contact the Secretary (Secretary@iavs.org).
If a paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an e-mail prompting her/him to login into Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) she/he will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all co-authors.
For authors signing the copyright transfer agreementcopyright transfer agreementpyright transfer agreementIf the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp OnlineOpen ServiceOnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research papers who wish to make their paper available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their paper. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency or institution pays a fee to ensure that the paper is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms.Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen_order.asp If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA): Creative Commons Attribution License OAA Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit here. If an author select the OnlineOpen option and the research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK), authors will be given the opportunity to publish the article under a CC-BY license supporting authors in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit here. pyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp
OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research papers who wish to make their paper available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their paper. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency or institution pays a fee to ensure that the paper is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms.
Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen_order.asp
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit here.
If an author select the OnlineOpen option and the research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK), authors will be given the opportunity to publish the article under a CC-BY license supporting authors in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit here.