Cover image for Vol. 33 Issue 3

Edited By: Michael MacEntee

Impact Factor: 1.396

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 36/49 (Geriatrics & Gerontology); 43/89 (Dentistry Oral Surgery & Medicine)

Online ISSN: 1741-2358

Author Guidelines

Please carefully check these Author Guidelines before submitting your manuscript

Content of Author Guidelines: 1. General, 2. Ethical Guidelines, 3. Manuscript Submission Procedure, 4. Manuscript Format and Structure, 5. After Acceptance

Useful Websites
: Articles published in Gerodontology, Author Services, Wiley-Blackwell’s Ethical Guidelines, Guidelines for Figures


The ultimate aim of the subject area of gerodontology is to improve the quality of life and oral health of older people. Gerodontology fills the particular place of serving this subject area. The boundaries of most conventional dental specialities must be repeatedly crossed to provide optimal dental care for older people. Furthermore, management of other health problems impacts on their dental care and clinicians need knowledge in these numerous overlapping areas. Bringing together these diverse topics within one journal serves clinicians who have not time to scan many journals and it serves authors whose papers would therefore fail to access their target readership. The juxtaposition of papers from different specialities but sharing this patient-centred interest provides a synergy that serves progress in the subject of gerodontology.

Please read the instructions below carefully for details on the submission of manuscripts, the journal's requirements and standards as well as information concerning the procedure after a manuscript has been accepted for publication in Gerodontology. Authors are encouraged to visit for further information on the preparation and submission of articles and figures.


Gerodontology adheres strictly to international standards on the ethical conduct for research involving human organs and tissues, ( Authors of papers involving research (including case reports) on human or animal participants must state in the Methods section of the paper that the protocol of the study has been approved by the ethical review board of the university or other institution at which the study was conducted (please see for more details).

Clinical Trials should be reported using the CONSORT guidelines available at A CONSORT checklist and flowchart should also be included in the submission material. Clinical trials can be registered in any free, public clinical trials registry such as or A list of further registries is available at All manuscripts reporting results from a clinical trial must indicate that the trial was fully registered at a readily accessible website. The clinical trial registration number and name of the trial register will be published with the paper.

Animal Studies: When experimental animals are used, the methods section must clearly indicate that adequate measures were taken to minimize pain or discomfort. Experiments should be carried out in accordance with the Guidelines laid down by the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the USA in respect of the care and use of animals for experimental procedures or with the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) and in accordance with local laws and regulations.

A submitted paper is considered also on condition that it has not been published elsewhere or is offered simultaneously elsewhere. All of the authors must confirm that they have read and approved the content of the paper, and they must declare all competing interests.

Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the online submission site The use of an online submission and peer review site enables immediate distribution of manuscripts and consequentially speeds up the review process. It also allows authors to track the status of their own manuscripts. Complete instructions for submitting a paper is available online and below. Further assistance can be obtained from the Editorial Office at

3.1. Getting Started
Launch your web browser (supported browsers include Internet Explorer 5.5. or higher, Safari 1.2.4, or Firefox 1.0.4 or higher) and go to the journal's online Submission Site:
• Log-in or, if you are a new user, click on 'register here'.
• If you are registering as a new user.
- After clicking on 'register here', enter your name and e-mail information and click 'Next'. Your e-mail information is very important.
- Enter your institution and address information as appropriate, and then click 'Next.'
- Enter a user ID and password of your choice (we recommend using your e-mail address as your user ID), and then select your areas of expertise. Click 'Finish'.
• If you are registered, but have forgotten your log in details, enter your e-mail address under 'Password Help'. The system will send you an automatic user ID and a new temporary password.
•  Log-in and select 'Author Center'

3.2. Submitting Your Manuscript
• After you have logged into your 'Author Center', submit your manuscript by clicking the submission link under 'Author Resources'.
• Enter data and answer questions as appropriate.
• Here you also have the option to upload a covering letter if you have any additional information you would like to tell the Editors.
• Click the 'Next' button on each screen to save your work and advance to the next screen.
• You are required to upload your files.
- Click on the 'Browse' button and locate the file on your computer.
- Select the designation of each file in the drop down next to the Browse button.
- When you have selected all files you wish to upload, click the 'Upload Files' button.
• Review your submission (in HTML and PDF format) before completing your submission by sending it to the Journal. Click the 'Submit' button when you are finished reviewing.

3.3. Blinded Review
All manuscripts accepted for publication in Gerodontology will be reviewed by at least two experts in the field. Gerodontology uses single-blinded review. The names of the reviewers will thus not be disclosed to the author submitting a paper, whereas the name(s) of the author(s) can be seen by the reviewers.

3.4. Suggest a Reviewer
attempts to keep the review process as short as possible to enable rapid publication of new scientific data. In order to facilitate this process, please suggest the names and current email addresses of at least one potential international reviewer whom you consider capable of reviewing your manuscript. In addition to your choice, the journal editor will select additional reviewers.

3.5. Suspension of Submission Mid-way in the Submission Process
You may suspend a submission at any phase before clicking the 'Submit' button and save it to submit later. The manuscript can then be located under 'Unsubmitted Manuscripts' and you can click on 'Continue Submission' to continue your submission when you choose to.

3.6. E-mail Confirmation of Submission
After submission you will receive an e-mail to confirm receipt of your manuscript. If you do not receive the confirmation e-mail after 24 hours, please check your e-mail address carefully in the system. If the e-mail address is correct please contact your IT department. The error may be caused by some sort of spam filtering on your e-mail server. Also, the e-mails should be received if the IT department adds our e-mail server ( to their whitelist.

3.7. Manuscript Status
You can access ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) any time to check your 'Author Centre' for the status of your manuscript. The Journal will inform you by e-mail once a decision has been made.

3.8. Submission of Revised Manuscripts
To upload a revised manuscript, please locate your original manuscript under 'Manuscripts with Decisions' and click on 'Submit a Revision' to submit your revised manuscript. Please remember to delete any old files uploaded when you upload your revised manuscript. Please also remember to upload your manuscript document separate from your title page to allow blinded review.

You may suspend submission of a revision at any phase before clicking the 'Submit' button and save it to submit later. The manuscript can then be located under ‘Revised Manuscripts in Draft’ and you can click on 'Continue Submission' to continue your submission when you choose to.

3.9. OnlineOpen
OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive.
For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.


4.1. Format

Authorship and Acknowledgements: Gerodontology adheres to the definition of authorship set up by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). According to the ICMJE criteria, authorship should be based on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design of, or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2 and 3. Contributors who have made substantive contributions but who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under Acknowledgements. The letter of submission to the editor must identify the contributions made by each author to the three conditions, and state that each author approves of the submission.

Language: The language of publication is English. Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited by an English speaking person before submission to make sure the English is of high quality. Please refer to English Language Editing Services offered by Wiley at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication

: Manuscripts must be typed double-spaced.

Abbreviations, Symbols and Nomenclature
: The symbol % is to be used for percent, h for hour, min for minute, and s for second. In vitro and in vivo are to be italicized. Use only standard abbreviations. Units used must conform to the Système International d'Unités (SI). All units will be metric. Use no roman numerals in the text. In decimals, a decimal point and not a comma will be used. For tooth notation the two digit system of FDI must be used (see Int. Dent. J. 21, 104). Avoid abbreviations in the title. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. In cases of doubt, the spelling orthodoxy of Webster's Third New International Dictionary will be adhered to.
Scientific Names: Proper names of bacteria should be binomial and should be singly underlined in the typescript. The full proper name (e. g. Streptococcus sanguis) must be given upon first mention. The generic name may be abbreviated thereafter with the first letter of the genus (e. g. S. sanguis). If abbreviation of the generic name could cause confusion, the full name should be used. If the vernacular form of a genus name (e. g. streptococci) is used, the first letter of the vernacular name is not capitalized and the name is not underlined. Use of two letters of the genus (e. g. Ps .for Peptostreptococcus) is incorrect, even though it might avoid ambiguity. With regard to drugs, generic names should be used instead of proprietary names. If a proprietary name is used, ® must be attached when the term is first used.

The term "elders" or “older people” should be used rather than "elderly' when using the word as a noun. The word "elderly" is an adjective used correctly as "elderly group,” whereas "elders" is a noun used correctly as in a "group of elders.” Refer to the "patients" or "subjects" who participated in the study - or who consented to the use of their health records in your research - as "participants." This more appropriately acknowledges the role they had in your research.

4.2. Structure

Original Articles
submitted to Gerodontology should include: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, References, and Acknowledgements, Tables, Figures and Figure Legends were appropriate.

Title Page: should contain the title of the article, name(s) of the author(s), initials, and institutional affiliation(s), a running title not to exceed 40 letters and spaces, and the name and complete mailing and email address of the author responsible for correspondence. The author must list 4 keywords for indexing purposes.

Abstract: A separate structured abstract should not exceed 250 words. The abstract should consist of 1) the objective 2) the background data discussing the present status of the field 3) materials and methods 4) results 5) conclusion.

Introduction: Summarize the rationale and purpose of the study, giving only strictly pertinent references. Do not review existing literature extensively.

Material and Methods: Materials and methods should be presented in sufficient detail to allow confirmation of the observations. Published methods should be referenced and discussed only briefly, unless modifications have been made.

Results: Present your results in a logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all of the data in the tables and illustrations. Important observations should be emphasized.

Discussion: Summarize the findings without repeating in detail the data given in the Results section. Relate your observations to other relevant studies and point out the implications of the findings and their limitations. Cite other relevant studies.

Conclusion: Conclude the findings in brief. If authors cannot conclude with any punch line, the referee will question who would want to read the paper and why.

Acknowledgements: Acknowledge only persons who have made substantive contributions to the study. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from everyone acknowledged by name because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions. Sources of financial support may be acknowledged.

Reviews: Gerodontology welcomes review and scoping papers. Systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses should adhere to the PRISMA guidelines, and a PRISMA checklist. The Methods must include the inclusion and exclusion criteria along with the reproducible electronic search strategy and a flow chart accounting for the selection and rejection of papers.

Research in Brief and Short Case Reports: These should include the aims and objectives of the work reported, methods used, findings, and the implications for the practise, management or education of the older adult and further research. Research in brief submissions should be no more than 1000 words in length, with a clear and concise title and no more than five subheadings. These may take the format of a mini paper. A maximum of 10 references may be included but these must be clearly related to the work reported. A limited number of figures and tables can be included but they must be essential to the understanding of the research or the clinical case.

Case Reports: These should include the report with relevant background and investigations, diagnosis, treatment, procedures and results. Discussion of interesting points and relevance to the introductory references. Concluding comment about significance of the case. Case Reports should have no more than 1500 words, Abstract of 75 words or less, one table or two illustrations or diagrams, and five references.

4.3. References

References should be numbered consecutively in the text according to the Vancouver reference style, in the order in which they appear in the text, and should be kept to a minimum. Only references cited in the Text, Tables and Figures may be included. References should include the first and last page numbers. Identify references in the Text as square bracketed Arabic numerals separated by commas, e.g. [1, 5, 8], or as the first and last reference only in a continuous sequence, e.g. [1-5]. The bracketed numerals appear before a comma or full stop. References to Tables and Figure within the Text are made also with Arabic numerals, e.g. (Table 1; Fig. 1). For abbreviations of journal names, consult Manuscripts accepted but not published may be cited in the reference list by placing 'in press'' after the abbreviated title of the journal - all such references should be submitted to the Editor for approval. References must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents.

We recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

(1) Standard journal article
(List all authors up to 6; for 7 or more list the first 6 and add 'et al.'')
Dockrell H, Greenspan JS. Histochemical identification of T- cells in oral lichen planus. Oral Surg 1979; 48: 42-49.
Thomas Y, Sosman J, Irigoyen O, Friedman SM, Kung PC, Goldstein G et al. Functional analysis of human T- cell subsets defined by monoclonal antibodies. I. Collaborative T-T interactions in the immunoregulation of B-cell differentiation. J Immunol 1980; 125: 2402-2405.
(2) Corporate author
The Royal Marsden Hospital Bone- Marrow Transplantation Team. Failure of syngeneic bone- marrow graft without preconditioning in post- hepatitis marrow aplasia. Lancet 1977; 2: 628-630.
(3) No author given
Anonymous. Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [Editorial]. Br Med J 1981; 283: 628-635.
(4) Journal supplement
Mastri AR. Neuropathology of diabetic neurogenic bladder. Ann Intern Med 1980; 92 (2 pt 2): 316- 324.
Frumin AM, Nussbaum J, Esposito M. Functional asplenia: demonstration of splenic activity by bone marrow scan. Blood 1979; 54 (suppl 1): 26- 28.
(5) Journal paginated by issue
Seaman WB. The case of the pancreatic pseudocyst. Hosp Pract 1981; 16 (Sep): 24-29.
(6) Personal author(s)
Eisen HN. Immunology: an introduction to molecular and cellular principles of the immune response, 5th edn. New York: Harper Row, 1984:406-420.
(7) Editor, compiler, chairman as author
Dausset J, Colombani J, eds. Histocompatibility testing 1972. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1973: 12-18.
(8) Chapter in a book
Weinstein L, Swartz MN. Pathogenic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Sodeman WA Jr, Sodeman WA, eds. Pathologic physiology: mechanisms of disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1974: 457-480.
(9) Published proceedings paper
DePont B. Bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immunodeficiency with an unrelated MLC compatible donor. In: White HJ, Smith R, eds. Proceedings of 3rd Annual Meeting of the International Society for Experimental Hematology. Houston: International Society for Experimental Hematology, 1974: 44-50.
(10) Agency publication
Ranofsky AL. Surgical operations in short-stay hospitals: United States - 1975. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics, 1978; DHEW publication no. (PHS) 78-1785. (Vital and health statistics; series 13; no. 34.)
(11) Dissertation or thesis
Cairns RB. Infrared spectroscopic studies of solid oxygen. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1965. 156pp. Dissertation.
(12) Website
WHO Global Health Observatory Data Repository, Life expectancy data by World Bank income group, (Accessed September 9, 2015).

4.4. Tables, Figures, Figure Legends and Photographs.

: Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals. Type each table on a separate sheet, with titles making them self explanatory. Due regard should be given to the proportions of the printed page.

For instructions, see Gerodontology Guide to Tables and Figures

Figures: At the Editor's discretion clinical photographs, photomicrographs, line drawings and graphs will be published as figures. All figures should clarify the text and their number should be kept to a minimum. Details must be large enough to retain their clarity after reduction in size. Illustrations should preferably fill a single column width (54 mm) after reduction, although in some cases 113 mm (double column) and 171 mm (full page) widths will be accepted. Micrographs should be designed to be reproduced without reduction, and they should be dressed directly on the micrograph with a linear size scale, arrows, and other designators as needed. The inclusion of colour illustrations is at the discretion of the Editor. The author may pay for the cost of additional colour illustrations.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication: Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (lineart) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: lineart:  >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley-Blackwell’s guidelines for figures:

Check your electronic artwork before submitting it:

: If all or parts of previously published illustrations are used, permission must be obtained from the copyright holder concerned. It is the author's responsibility to obtain these in writing and provide copies to the Publishers.

Figure Legends
: Figure legends must be typed double-spaced on a separate page at the end of the manuscript.

Photographs of People: Gerodontology follows current HIPAA guidelines for the protection of patient/subject privacy. If an individual pictured in a digital image or photograph can be identified, his or her permission is required to publish the image. The corresponding author may submit a letter signed by the patient authorizing Gerodontology to publish the image/photo. Or, a form provided by Gerodontology (available by clicking the "Instructions and Forms" link in Manuscript Central) may be downloaded for your use. This approval must be received by the Editorial Office prior to final acceptance of the manuscript for publication. Otherwise, the image/photo must be altered such that the individual cannot be identified (black bars over eyes, etc).

4.5 Submission of a revision
When uploading a revision, please take care to respond to the concerns raised by the Reviewers. Please upload a copy of the revised document which shows easily what changes have been made to the original. This could include using red font or highlighting. However, please note that you should NOT use Track Changes. The revised manuscript should be uploaded with the file designation ‘Main Document’.
The online submission form will prompt you to respond to the Reviewers’ comments in writing. Please provide as far as possible, a clear, point by point response to the comments of each Reviewer in which you describe for each of the points raised exactly how you have dealt with them. Please complete the online submission form and upload your response as a separate manuscript file, using the designation ‘Supplementary File for Review’.


5.1 Proof Corrections
The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site.  A working email address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author.  The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site.
Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following Web site: . This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs. Proofs must be returned to the Production Editor within three days of receipt.
As changes to proofs are costly, we ask that you only correct typesetting errors. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Other than in exceptional circumstances, all illustrations are retained by the publisher. Please note that the author is responsible for all statements made in his work, including changes made by the copy editor.

5.2 Early Online Publication Prior to Print
Gerodontology is covered by Wiley-Blackwell's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

5.3 Online Production Tracking
Online production tracking is available for your article through Blackwell's Author Services. Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

5.4 Author Material Archive Policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication.

Copyright Transfer Agreement
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. A copy of the license agreement is available here.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: