FEBS Journal

Cover image for Vol. 282 Issue 23

Edited By: Seamus Martin

Impact Factor: 4.001

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 77/290 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1742-4658

Author Guidelines

·        Why Publish in the FEBS Journal?

·        Online submission

o   Initial submission

o   Submission of a revised manuscript

·        Editorial policy

o   Evaluation of manuscripts

o   Authorship

o   Ethical Standards

·        Types of paper

o   Regular papers

o   Reviews and Minireviews

·        Types of data

o   Papers with mathematical models

o   Papers with three-dimensional models of proteins

o   Structural data

o   Sequence and proteomics data

o   Transcriptomic and functional genomics data

o   Enzyme activity data

·        Preparation of the manuscript

o   Title page

o   Abstract

o   Manuscript sections

o   Acknowledgements

o  Author Contribution Statement

o   References

o   Tables

o   Schema

o   Figure legends

o   Figures

o   Colour figures

o   Reproduced figures

o   Cover illustrations

o   Preparation of electronic artwork for publication

o   Supplementary material

o   LaTeX article submission

o   LaTeX Bibliography

o   Hyperlinking to databases

o   Illustrated Abstracts

o   Nomenclature, abbreviations, units and symbols

o   English language editing before submission

·        Publication

o   Accepted Articles Published Online

o   Embargo Period

o   Copyright and OnlineOpen

o   NIH funded authors and The FEBS Journal

o   Permissions

o   Publication date

o   Online production tracking

o   Author material archive policy

o   Offprints

Online submission

Online submission of manuscripts is via http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/febsj/

Step-by-step instructions on how to submit your manuscript online are available during the submission process. It is not necessary to complete the submission process in one session: you can save a partially completed submission and return to it later. Any queries can be sent to the Editorial Office (febsj@camfebs.co.uk).

Initial submission
At initial submission, we encourage authors to submit their text, figures and tables as one PDF file for the purposes of peer review. Alternatively the following files will be converted into a single PDF:

·      The manuscript (including title page, abstract, main text, references and tables) as either a PDF, .doc or .rtf file. Tables should be included after the references.

·        Figures can be included with the main text for reviewing purposes, or provided as separate files (see Preparation of electronic artwork for publication for details of file formats). All figures must be labelled with a figure number.

·        Supplementary files, e.g. unpublished papers, should be uploaded as a Supporting Document.

NB Any unpublished papers that are cited must be uploaded for referees to access. An electronic copy of any related paper under consideration or in press elsewhere must also be submitted to facilitate evaluation by the referees. Failure to do this may delay the review process.

The following information must be provided during the submission stage:

·        Names, institutions and email addresses of all the co-authors

·        The names and email addresses of four recommended reviewers, together with their institutions. Please do not suggest anyone who you have collaborated or published with in the last 3 years, or scientists based at your own institution, as they will not be approached. Authors are encouraged to suggest a Member of the Editorial Advisory Board as a preferred reviewer, if appropriate.

·        Evidence of databank submission (see Structural data, Sequence and proteomics data, and Transcriptomic and functional genomics data).

·        Approval of citation of any personal communications.

·        If the manuscript is a resubmission, please upload a letter giving point-by-point responses to the referees as a Supporting document.

On successful submission of a manuscript, you will receive onscreen acknowledgement with a reference number and all authors will receive an email acknowledgement.

Submission of a revised manuscript
Please follow instructions in the revision letter provided in the editorial decision letter. You will need to:

·        Respond to the referees' comments online.

·       Upload a revised version of the text, including any Tables, as a .doc file. Alterations to the text should by highlighted by using track changes in Word. Authors are asked to ensure that only ONE set of changes is visible. Alternatively, changes can be highlighted in BOLD TYPE.

·    Upload an unmarked copy of the manuscript text as a Supporting Document. Should your paper be accepted for publication, an unmarked copy of the document is needed for Accepted Articles Published Online.

·        Upload separate print quality figure files in PDF, TIFF or EPS format. It is essential to follow the instructions described below in Preparation of electronic artwork for publication.

·        Upload a short abstract of no more than 60 words plus a small figure, to be used as an Illustrated Abstract in the online published version (see Illustrated Abstracts for more information).

Editorial policy

Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a lecture, review or thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication in the present form has been approved by all authors and by the responsible authorities in the institutions where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in any language, without the consent of FEBS, the licence holder. Previously published abstracts etc. should be referred to in the Introduction.

Authors are encouraged to include all necessary experimental evidence in the main text of their paper so that it is complete and self-contained (see Supplementary material).

An electronic copy of any related paper under consideration or in press elsewhere should also be submitted to facilitate evaluation by the referees.su

Submission of a research article is taken to imply that the authors are willing to make available to academic researchers cell lines, DNA clones, antibodies or similar materials that have been used in the experiments reported.

Any conflict of interest must be stated on the title page of the manuscript.

The FEBS Journal endorses the San Francisco Declaration of Research Assessment.

Evaluation of manuscripts
Submitted manuscripts are assigned to an Editor of the Journal who is responsible for its evaluation. The Editor's decision regarding publication is based on the reports of referees, which will, at the Editor's discretion, be transmitted to the authors. Authors will be informed of the Editorial decision, on average, within 4 weeks of submission of a Regular Paper. The status of each manuscript within the editorial process can be followed online at: 
http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/febsj/. Enquiries should be addressed to the Editorial Office (febsj@camfebs.co.uk).

This journal works together with FEBS Open Bio to enable rapid publication of good quality research that cannot be accepted for publication by our Journal. Authors may be offered the option of having the paper, along with any related peer reviews, automatically transferred for consideration by the Editors of FEBS Open Bio.

Authors are required to meet the criteria for authorship as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Provision of information about the specific contributions of each author is required in an Author Contribution statement.

Ethical standards
Authors should consider and follow the ethical standards described below. The processing of papers may be delayed if there is any doubt about their conformity with these ethical standards.

1. Research Misconduct
Any breach of research or publication ethics including plagiarism, submission of fraudulent results/data including doctored figures, dual publication and false or incomplete attribution of authorship will not be tolerated. It will also be considered malpractice for an author to make inappropriate contact with a reviewer/editor during the review process with the aim of influencing the outcome. The FEBS Journal will take action where misconduct is suspected, along the lines of the general principles outlined in Guidelines on Good Publication Practice, produced by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The Guidelines are available from the COPE website (www.publicationethics.org).

2. Animal Experiments
The FEBS Journal
endorses the ARRIVE Guidelines for reporting in vivo animal experiments (http://www.nc3rs.org.uk/page.asp?id=1357). Whenever appropriate, authors should include in the Materials and Methods  (Experimental Procedures) section:

·        A statement indicating that the experiments were performed in accordance with named national legislation, where it exists, or, in its absence, with the named institutional/local body concerned with the ethics of experimentation (e.g. the National Research Council, or NIH in the USA). Experiments should be carried out in accordance with the European Communities Council Directive of 24 November 1986 (86/609/EEC) or with the Guidelines laid down by the NIH in the USA regarding the care and use of animals for experimental procedures.

·        A full description of the anaesthetic and surgical procedures used, and of peri-operative care.

·        Authors must provide evidence that they took adequate steps to ensure that animals did not suffer unnecessarily at any stage of an experiment, whether acute or chronic.

3. Human Experiments
Research involving human subjects should comply with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). See: 

If human subjects are used:

·        Manuscripts must be accompanied by a statement in the Materials and Methods  (Experimental Procedures) section, indicating that:
1) the experiments were undertaken with the understanding and written consent of each subject;
2) the study methodologies conformed to the standards set by the
Declaration of Helsinki; and
3) the study methodologies were approved by the local ethics committee.

·        Authors should ensure that all risks are minimised and the subjects are not injured and do not feel they have been abused as a result of participating in the study. Fully informed consent should always be sought.

·        In cases of experiments involving minors, in addition to meeting above mentioned precautions, evidence must be presented that the experiments were performed with the understanding and consent of the legal guardian.

The Editor reserves the right to reject a paper if there is doubt as to whether appropriate procedures have been used.

Types of papers

Regular papers
Regular papers are the main form of publication of new research results in The FEBS Journal. There is no formal limitation on length but a regular paper rarely exceeds about 7,500 words (39,000 characters, without spaces). Shorter papers are of course welcome and the Editors will make recommendations for shortening any paper if that appears appropriate without loss of essential content. A concise, well-written paper is easier for the Editor and referees to evaluate and this can help to speed up publication.

We have no formal limit on the number of references, again subject to readability, and strongly encourage citation of primary literature, where appropriate, instead of reviews in research articles. It is important to ensure the original authors are given due credit.

The FEBS Journal
publishes reviews in all areas of the molecular life sciences. Reviews should appeal to a broad readership and should be accessible to non-specialists. Ideally, reviews should convey new ideas and should not be simply a collation of information on a topic. All reviews submitted to The FEBS Journal are subject to peer review, therefore an invitation to contribute a review does not guarantee acceptance.

Authors are encouraged to provide the details of three preferred reviewers at submission.

To maximize exposure of reviews and minireviews published in The FEBS Journal, these are made freely available immediately upon publication.

Authors of reviews and coordinators of minireviews are also encouraged to record a podcast to accompany publication of their article.

Unsolicited reviews are not considered but, if authors wish to submit a review proposal, they may do so. Pre-submission enquiries about timely contributions can be addressed to: Professor Seamus Martin (Editor-in-Chief; martin@camfebs.co.uk) or Professor Nicholas Tonks (Reviews Editor; febsj@camfebs.co.uk) and should include a 250-word summary, an overview of the article structure, and a list of key recent references.

This should be informative, punchy and eye-catching.

This needs to set the subject in context for non-specialist readers. Make clear the emphasis of your review and take-home message [250 words].

These will be used to supplement the words in the title as search terms and so need to encompass the major topics of your review. Please supply between 5 and 10 keywords.

Main text
This should normally be between 5000-15,000 words.

Use descriptive subheadings to subdivide your review, and ensure there are clear links between sections. Start with an Introduction that explains why the subject is important and why you are reviewing it now. End with a brief summary or concluding remarks emphasizing the take-home message and the direction of future research.

Submissions are subject to checking for textual similarity to other published works via the CrossCheck software employed by the Journal. Please ensure that your review does not 'recycle' text from other reviews, including those your have written, and that any reuse of text, figures or tables is acknowledged.

We recommend 15 references per 1000 words of text. To ensure that original work is properly acknowledged, where possible, please try to refer to original key papers and not just other reviews.

Figures and Tables
Please include at least 1 figure or table per 1000 words. If figures are reproduced from other sources, then permission, if appropriate, should be sought. Please include details of the source of figures in the caption. Tables can be a good way of summarizing information but think about the level of detail and how much information will fit on one screen or page. A series of two or three tables might be better than one large one.

Material in tables should not normally be duplicated in figures, and vice versa.

Authors of Minireviews
Please see key points for authors of reviews above, but note the following guidance on length, etc.

Main text: this should normally be between 3000–5000 words.

References: 50-75 references. If appropriate, please include the other minireviews in the series. Your coordinator will be able to provide authors’ names and titles, and the publisher will insert pagination at proof stage.

Figures and Tables: up to 5 figures and tables can be included.

Types of data

Papers with mathematical models
For papers that contain a mathematical model, The FEBS Journal offers the opportunity for specialist refereeing of such articles plus online publication of live versions of the models for accepted manuscripts.

Authors are requested to submit an ASCII text file containing the model description (reaction stoichiometries, rate equations, parameter values and initial conditions, i.e. everything that is needed to program the model) in parallel to their manuscript file, following the instructions given at http://jjj.biochem.sun.ac.za/journals/febsj/submit.html.  Models can also be submitted in SBML format. The files should be sent as an email attachment to Prof. Jacky Snoep (jls@sun.ac.za) after online submission of the manuscript at: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/febsj. The allocated manuscript number should be quoted in this email. Please copy the email to the Editorial Office (email: febsj@camfebs.co.uk) for information. At this stage the model will be converted to a replica that can be run over the Internet only by the reviewers of the paper. If the paper is accepted for publication in The FEBS Journal, the model will subsequently be made freely accessible online.

Manuscripts supplied in LaTeX format should be accompanied by a PDF version of the full manuscript, for reference. Please see LaTeX Article Submission section below. Model descriptions should always be present within the manuscript text, preferably within the main manuscript text or as a supplementary file if model descriptions run over several pages.

The submission letter should clearly indicate that it is requested that the paper be treated technically as a modelling paper. When it is published in the journal, the paper will not be distinguishable from its normal counterparts, except for a reference in a separate Database section below the article Abstract to the modelling database.

Papers with three-dimensional models of proteins
If your manuscript describes a three-dimensional model of a protein that has been manually built, you should consider depositing it in the PMDB database (https://bioinformatics.cineca.it/PMDB/, see also NAR 34, 306-309). The database will return a unique identifier which you can include in your manuscript, thereby allowing readers to have access to your model without the need to contact you directly. The accession number should be included in the manuscript on the first page, in the format: 'Database: model data are available in the PMDB database under the accession number XXXX'. The model can be stored as either a full model with 3D coordinates in PDB format, or as an alignment to a known structure in the CASP format. You may keep your model on hold (i.e. not public) for up to three months after deposition.

Structural data
For manuscripts describing macromolecular structures, the atomic coordinates and related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities and/or NMR restraints and chemical shifts) must be deposited in the RCSB Protein Data Bank.

The PDB ID must be included in the manuscript. Authors must also submit the PDB Summary Validation Report (provided after annotation by the wwPDB) for review at the time of submission. If the coordinates discussed in the manuscript have already been released by the PDB, submission of the validation report is not necessary.

Authors must agree to release the atomic coordinates and experimental data when the associated article is published.

Electron microscopy-derived density maps (all averaging methods, including sub-tomogram averaging) must be deposited in EM Data Bank (EMDB). For electron tomographic studies with no averaging, deposition of one or more representative tomograms in EMDB is strongly recommended. In cases where PDB models have been fitted into EMDB maps, the correspondences between them should be clearly stated.

Please include PDB and/or EMDB accession codes in the manuscript on the first page: Database: structural data are available in XXX database(s) under the accession number(s) XXX.

If requested by the Editor and/or reviewers, the authors must make the atomic coordinates and related experimental data (structure factor amplitudes/intensities and/or NMR restraints and chemical shifts) available for review purposes only.

Sequence and proteomics data
Sequences should be treated as follows:

·        Protein sequences, which have been determined by direct sequencing of the protein, must be submitted to UniProt through their website: http://www.uniprot.org/help/submissions. Please note that accession numbers are not provided in advance for protein sequences that are the result of translation of nucleic acid sequences. These translations will automatically be forwarded from the EMBL nucleotide database and are assigned UniProt accession numbers.

·        Results from characterization experiments should also be submitted to UniProt. This can include such information as function, subcellular location, subunit composition etc. See website: http://www.uniprot.org/update.

·        Proteomics data with protein identifications by mass spectrometry should be submitted to the PRIDE database at the EMBL Outstation The European Bioinformatics Institute website (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/#submission).

·        Nucleotide sequences of DNA should be determined from both strands. Authors must describe the sequencing strategy employed and must justify in their paper why any regions of the sequence have been determined from only one strand.

·        Novel nucleotide sequence data (including predicted translations) must be submitted to one of the partner databases of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (www.insdc.org), the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/Submission/index.html), GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Genbank/submit.html) or the DNA Databank of Japan (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/submission-e.html). Submission to any one of the three collaborating databanks is sufficient to ensure data entry in all. The accession number should be included in the manuscript on the first page in the format: 'Database: nucleotide sequence data are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under the accession number(s) XXXX'. If requested, the database will withhold release of data until publication.

·        For special styles of submission (e.g. genomes, bulk submissions etc.), additional submission systems are available from the above sites.

NB All accession numbers must be obtained before the paper can be accepted for publication

Transcriptomic and functional genomics data
Functional genomics data, in particular gene expression (microarray or RNAseq), chromatin binding and modification (Chip-seq) and similar must be submitted to ArrayExpress at EBI or Gene Expression Omnibus at NCBI and should be compliant with MIAME or MINSEQE standards.

Enzyme activity data

For papers reporting kinetic and thermodynamic data concerning biological catalysts (enzymes, other catalytic proteins and nucleic acids), authors must include the identity of the catalyst, its origin (e.g. species, tissue) and the nature of any post-translational modification. The method of preparation and criteria of purity, assay conditions, methodology, activity and any other information relevant to judging the reproducibility of the results must also be reported. Authors are advised to consult the Beilstein Institut/STRENDA (standards for reporting enzymology data) Commission website (http://www.beilstein-institut.de/en/projects/strenda/guidelines) for more details and suggestions.

Enzyme activity (steady-state) should be reported in terms of Vmax (nmol or µmol product formed per amount ((protein)) per time) or, preferably, as kcat (Vmax divided by molar enzyme concentration), in min-1 or s-1. Km units are given in molarity. Values of kcat (Vmax) and Km should be estimated using nonlinear fitting. The software system used in nonlinear fitting should be cited.

Parameters should include estimates of error (e.g. SE). The use of linear transformation for Michaelis-Menten parameters is discouraged. Only in selected cases should linear graphical data be shown (e.g. graphical presentation of inhibition to inform on mechanism).

A lack of activity should be defined in terms of a limit of detection. In a series of comparisons to a basal or "control" level of activity (e.g., set as unity or "100%"), this activity should be indicated, in the units mentioned above, along with estimates of error.

The inclusion of examples of some of the raw data is encouraged, at least as part of a Supplemental Data section. Please refer to the STRENDA website regarding enzyme inhibition (http://www.beilstein-institut.de/en/projects/strenda/guidelines). Ki values are preferred to IC50.

Preparation of the manuscript

Please use standard fonts (Times, Times New Roman, Arial or Helvetica for general text; Courier or Courier New for sequence alignments; Symbol font should be used to convert Greek characters and other non-standard characters such as the degree symbol) in your document. NB: Asian based font sets may produce uncertain results.

Please note that Materials and Methods or Experimental Procedures should be located after the Discussion (not after Introduction).

Authors must ensure that they include all funding, with grant numbers, in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript.

Any conflict of interest must be stated on the title page.

Submissions may be subject to testing for textual similarity to other published works via the CrossCheck software employed by the Journal.

Manuscripts must contain the following:

Title page
This should be concise but informative. See http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/seo.asp for suggestions on how to optimise your title and abstract for search engine discoverability. Subtitles, if necessary, should not follow a colon. Avoid abbreviations.

Authors' names. These should appear below the title, with the first or middle name of each author given in full. Given names should appear first.

Addresses. The laboratories where the work was carried out should be given below the authors' names. If the work was carried out at more than one laboratory, the names of the authors should be followed by superscript numbers, which should also precede the names of the appropriate laboratories.

Corresponding author(s). The full name and address of the author for correspondence, including fax and telephone numbers and email address, should be given. The author should indicate if any of these should not be published. Authors are encouraged to provide the URL of their departmental website for publication.

Running title. This should contain not more than 50 characters (including spaces).

Abbreviations. These should be defined unless included in the table of accepted abbreviations. They should be introduced only if essential due to frequent repetition or excessive length of the full name. For further details, see the Nomenclature, symbols, units and abbreviations section below.

Enzymes. It is recommended that Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers be supplied for enzymes; these are provided in the NC-IUBMB list (www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/), which has a search facility and explains how to submit suggestions for new listings and for updating older entries. Please show all EC numbers in bold type.

Databases. Please provide accession codes, if appropriate.

Keywords. Up to 5 keywords for Regular papers and up to 10 for Reviews should be provided. These keywords will be printed alongside the summary.

The abstract should give a concise statement of the problem, the experimental approach, and the major findings and conclusions. The abstract should be carefully worded to reflect search terms on PubMed.

·        It should contain not more than 250 words.

·        It should be intelligible without reference to other parts of the paper.

·        References, if cited, should be given in full (without the title of the paper).

·        Abbreviations should be avoided. If used, they should be defined in the summary.

Manuscript sections
Discussion (It is permissible to combine Results and Discussion if a clearer, shorter paper is produced)
Materials and Methods or Experimental Procedures
Acknowledgements Author Contributions
Supporting information (Titles of
Supplementary material)

Figure legends

Authors must ensure that they include all funding grant numbers, in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript.

Author Contribution Statement
Authors are required to meet the criteria for authorship as recommended by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). A short description of the contribution of each author (initials only) should be provided under the heading Author Contributions to appear before the References. Specific categories of contribution: Planned experiments; Performed experiments; Analyzed data; Contributed reagents or other essential material; Wrote the paper; Other.


·        The FEBS Journal uses a numbered system for references.

·        References must be cited in the text, starting in the Introduction, by numbers in square brackets, e.g. [1], in numerical order of their citation in the text.

·        Titles must be provided for all serial publications.

·        Reference to articles cited as 'in press' should include the title and the name of the journal.

·        Reference to unpublished work, including papers in preparation, should be kept to a minimum and should be mentioned in parentheses in the text as unpublished work, not in the reference list. The names of all contributors to the work should be given.

·        Personal communications should be mentioned only in the text.

·        Web pages should not be included in the reference list.

·        Avoid footnotes

The reference list should appear in numerical order. Examples of the correct styles are shown below:

1.      Tsubokawa M, Tohyama Y, Tohyama K, Asahi M, Inazu T, Nakamura H, Saito H & Yamamura H (1997) Interleukin-3 activates Syk in a human myeloblastic leukemia cell line, AML193. Eur J Biochem 249, 792-796.
2.      Tsubokawa M, Tohyama Y, Tohyama K, Asahi M, Inazu T, Nakamura H, Saito H & Yamamura H (2002) Interleukin-3 activates Syk in a human myeloblastic leukemia cell line, AML193. Eur J Biochem 269, in press.
3.      Tsubokawa M, Tohyama Y, Tohyama K, Asahi M, Inazu T, Nakamura H, Saito H & Yamamura H (2002) Interleukin-3 activates Syk in a human myeloblastic leukemia cell line, AML193. Eur J Biochem 269, doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.02960.x
4.      Sambrook J, Fritsch EF & Maniatis T (1989) Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
5. Langer T & Neupert W (1994) Chaperoning mitochondrial biogenesis. In The Biology of Heat Shock Proteins and Molecular Chaperones (Morimoto RI, Tissières A & Georgopoulos C, eds), pp. 53-83. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Plainview, NY.
6.     Smith A (2000) The role of potassium channels in lymphocytes. PhD Thesis, University of Bristol, UK.
7.      Rep M, van Dijl JM, Suda K, Schatz G, Grivell LA & Suzuki CK (1996) Promotion of mitochondrial membrane complex assembly by a proteolytically inactive yeast Lon. Science 274, 103–106 (erratum appears in Science 275, 741).
8.      Tsubokawa M III, Tohyama Y Jr, Tohyama K, Asahi M, Inazu T, Nakamura H, Saito H & Yamamura H (1997) Interleukin-3 activates Syk in a human myeloblastic leukemia cell line, AML193. Eur J Biochem 249, doi: 10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.02960.x
9.      Yous S, Depreux P, Adam G, Caignard DH, Lesieur D, Guardiola B & Renard P (1993) European Patent Application No. EP0562956.

The use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager is recommended for reference management and formatting. The EndNote reference style for The FEBS Journal can be found here, and Reference Manager reference style can be downloaded here.


·        These must be supplied as editable text and not as embedded figures/objects;

·        They should have a bold title and appear in the text following the references;

·        Experimental conditions and general remarks should appear in a legend between the title and the table. They should not reproduce the detail given in Materials and Methods;

·        Footnotes should be used only if information cannot be included in the legend; they should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters;

·        All columns should have a heading; units should appear under the column heading(s).


·        Schema should appear in the text following the references

·        Authors should not use Microsoft Word 2007 equation tool to supply equations/schema. Instead, authors should use Mathtype plug-in, an equation editor for Word that is freely available to download.

Figure legends

·        Figure legends should appear in the text document following the references, each with a title, and be comprehensible without reference to the text.

·        The figure title must be relevant to the entire figure.

·        Supplementary figure legends should be included in the actual supplementary figure files (see Supplementary material).

Images should not be modified to change their appearance or enhance any specific feature. Any adjustments of brightness and contrast or colour balance must be applied to the entire image and should not result in loss or gain of information. Unacceptable modifications include the addition, alteration or removal of a particular feature of an image. All figures in manuscripts will be examined for any indication of improper modifications. The final acceptance of all manuscripts is contingent on any concerns raised by referees being resolved.

Authors should have their original figures available for inspection by the Editor or referees, if requested.

Colour figures
Colour figures are published free of charge in the journal. Authors are strongly encouraged to include colour in all figures, including histograms, line graphs, schematics as well as photomicrographs, in order to enhance the quality of data presentation for our readers.

Reproduced figures
Reproduction of a previously published figure should be acknowledged at the end of the figure legend as follows: 'Figure reproduced from [ref number]'. References to the source should be included in the reference list.

For each reproduced figure, it is the author’s responsibility to check with the relevant publisher whether permission for reproduction is required. Authors should inform the Editorial Office (febsj@camfebs.co.uk) when permission is required for a figure. Permission must be obtained before publication and sent to the Editorial Office by email or fax.

Cover illustrations
Authors with a colour figure appearing in an accepted paper that they believe would make a good image for the journal cover are invited to submit a copy of the figure, 21 cm (width) by 16 cm (height), in colour, without any labels or scale bars. Please supply an electronic copy of the figure, with a short legend (max. 15 words), following instructions in the Preparation of electronic artwork for publication section below

Preparation of electronic artwork for publication
Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, for online and possible print on demand publication, high quality images are required to prevent the final product being blurred or pixelated. Information on the appropriate file formats for electronic graphics is available at: http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/illustration.asp.

To facilitate production of publication quality artwork, we recommend that authors generate their artwork in software packages incorporating a SAVE AS or EXPORT TIFF/EPS function, e.g. Adobe Illustrator 7.0 and above (EPS), Adobe Illustrator 9.0 (EPS but can also export files as TIFF), Deneba Canvas 6.0 and above (EPS), CorelDRAW 7.0 and above (EPS), Adobe Photoshop 4.0 and above (TIFF). You can EXPORT low resolution figs (GIF/JPG) from these packages for review purposes. EPS files can be produced from other applications [e.g. PowerPoint] BUT results can be unpredictable (e.g. fonts and shading not converted correctly, lines missing, dotted lines becoming solid). All scanned images embedded into other applications should be scanned at the recommended resolutions (see below).

Sizing guidelines

·        Supply figures at final size widths: 80 mm (single column); 165 mm (double column) or 105 mm (intermediate). Max. depth is 230 mm. Larger figures will be reduced as appropriate so please ensure that any line widths and lettering are in proportion to the size of the figure. Figures saved as .tiff, or containing embedded .tiffs will not be enlarged, as this leads to loss of resolution.

·        Use sans serif, true-type fonts for labels if possible (preferably Arial or Helvetica) and Times (New) Roman if serif fonts required. Use Courier or Courier New for sequence data.

·        Line drawing lettering/lines must be clear. The axes of each graph should be lettered with the numerical scale and the measured quantity with units.

·        Halftones (photographs) must have scale bars where applicable.

·        Multipart figures should be supplied in the final layout in one file, with each part labelled.

File format and resolution guidelines

·        Submit TIFF, EPS or PDF files only.

·        Save line art such as charts, graphs and illustrations in EPS or PDF format. Most programs have a ‘Save as…’ or ‘Export…’ feature to allow you to do this.

·        Save photographic images in TIFF format. These should be saved at final publication size and should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi (dots per inch) at final size.

·        Save figures containing a combination of photographic images and text (eg annotated photographic images with text labels) as EPS or PDF. Any photographic images embedded within these should be at least 300 dpi.

·        EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

·        When creating PDF files, it is essential that Press Quality settings (with a resolution of 300 dpi) are used in your PDF-generating software.

·        For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size, see above for a guide to sizes) should be 300 dpi to ensure adequate reproduction.

·        TIFF files can be very large; use LZW compression if possible, as this can greatly reduce the file size. For all TIFF files, it is important not to exceed the resolutions stated. Doing so will not improve the quality of output of your figure, but may produce impractically large files.

·        Perform a visual check of the quality of the generated image. You should be able to zoom in to about 300% without the image becoming noticeably blurred or pixelated. If the image does appear pixelated at this zoom, then try going back to the original image and checking that it complies with the recommended format and settings.

Colour modes

·        Black and white images should be supplied as 'grayscale'.

·        Colour images should be supplied as RGB.

Supplementary material
All data that are essential to the interpretation of the paper should be included within the main text of the paper so that it is complete and self-contained.

Supplementary material is limited to:
- movies
- 3D structures/images [these may be included in the main text, if desired]
- large datasets
- lists of primers, plasmids and strains
- 'raw' data (e.g. kinetic stopped flow transients; tables of kinetic data; mass spectrometry mzdata; outputs and analyses from complex data fitting routines, or similar types of output)

Any supplementary material that conforms to the above criteria must be included with the original submission and will be subject to peer review. After acceptance, supplementary material will be published online exactly as submitted by the authors (i.e. it will not be copyedited and will not be available for checking and editing at proof stage).

Thus, any material that is deemed appropriate for publication as supplementary material must be correctly supplied, labelled and cited, as follows:

·        All supplementary items should be cited within the main text using the correct abbreviated form (see below)

·        The full titles of all supplementary items must be listed in a 'Supporting Information' section after the references (which will provide readers with a 'table of contents' of the Supporting Information zip file accompanying your published articles).

·        The full titles and, where appropriate, legends of supplementary data, movies, text, figures and tables should be included above or below each respective supplementary file.

·        All supplementary material must be included within a single .pdf file (excluding movies).

Example supplementary item

Title format

Citation format

Table (e.g. list of primers, plasmids, strains)

Table S1: Full title of table

Table S1, Table S2, etc.

Figure (e.g. 3D structures)

Figure S1: Full title of figure

Fig. S1, Fig. S2, etc.

Movie (e.g. video clips, animations)

Movie S1: Full title of movie

Movie S1, Movie S2, etc.

LaTex Article Submission
The FEBS Journal is happy to receive submissions in LaTeX. Please use “article” class for LaTeX submissions and include any associated packages/files with the submitted LaTeX source files. Please also include a PDF of the manuscript. Do not add coding to “force” line breaks or the positioning of “floats”, as these will need to be removed in the processing of your manuscript.

LaTeX Bibliography
If you wish to use a citation package such as BibTeX and natbib.sty then please do so. There is no bespoke “.bst” file for The FEBS Journal. Please provide all the necessary bibliographic information in a standard format. This will allow for clearer conversion and formatting to the The FEBS Journal style by the typesetters. As articles undergo considerable conversion and transformation during production, we achieve the most efficient processing if articles are presented in as generic a form as possible.

Hyperlinking to databases
For the benefit of readers, the online version of a manuscript in The FEBS Journal provides direct hyperlink access to entries in the databases listed below.

Accession numbers referred to within the body text can also be hyperlinked in the online version. Please ensure that accession numbers (IDs) are complete and in an accurate format in bold in the manuscript in the following format: Database ID: XXXX
1. GenBank database
2. European Nucleotide Archiv
3. DDBJ database
4. UniProt Protein Database
5. EC database

Where appropriate, authors are requested to include accession numbers for these databases in their manuscripts. For those manuscripts that contain new structures, structural models or sequences, there should be a separate Database section underneath the Abstract on the first page of the manuscript, set out in the following format: Nucleotide sequence data are available in the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ databases under the accession number(s) XXXX.’

Illustrated abstracts
The journal publishes illustrated (graphical) abstracts in its online table of contents and content alert emails. This is an opportunity to create not just a concise text summary but also a clear visual representation of your article's main message to attract potential readers (remember: 'a picture is worth a thousand words'). Ideally, graphical abstract files should be colour images containing one or two graphical elements and should be visually attractive and contain minimal text. The main objective of a graphical abstract file is to capture the main message or topic of your paper, at a glance, drawing the reader towards the article. For examples, see a recent issue at:

Please provide as two separate Supporting Documents:

• a short abstract of up to 60 words (as a Word document named 'IllustratedAbstract_text.doc'), which is easy to understand by a general readership.

• an image file (as a tiff or PDF named 'IllustratedAbstract_figure'). This should be a newly created colour image that simply and clearly emphasises the main finding(s) of your article (do not simply re-use a figure from your article). Please make sure the image:
- Is square, measuring 5.5 inches x 5.5 inches (140 mm x 140 mm), and has a resolution of 300 dpi.
- Is in colour (more attractive than black and white).
- Does not include too much text and that any labels are clear and simple.
- Uses Arial font 12 to 16 (so that text is easy to read, especially on mobile devices).
- Consists of a single panel of elements that progress clearly from top to bottom, or left to right (to aid understanding).

Nomenclature, abbreviations, units and symbols
The FEBS Journal prefers abbreviations and nomenclature to follow internationally agreed recommendations, e.g. those of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (see www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/nomenclature), however:

·        Authors may use commonly used abbreviations/acronyms but these must be defined in the text at first citation and included in the Abbreviations list. For standard abbreviations for semi-systematic or trivial names, please see this table.

·        SI units and quantities should be used (see http://www.bipm.fr/enus/3_SI/si.html) but Å, cal, p.p.m. can be used where appropriate.

·        It is often convenient, especially in figures and table headings, to give a multiple of the quantity set or measured by multiplying it by a stated factor. The units in which it is expressed should not be multiplied by a number but may be indicated by prefixes such as: M, k, m, µ, n or p.

·        A negative index style is used for units.

·        Square brackets are commonly used to indicate concentrations.

English language editing before submission
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found here. All services are to be arranged and paid for by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.


Accepted Articles Published Online
Articles in this journal which have been peer-reviewed and accepted, but not yet copy-edited, are published online through our Accepted Articles feature. This service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research papers immediately after acceptance, and as such will not be checked or corrected in any way. Readers should note that articles published within Accepted Articles have been fully refereed, but have not been through the copy-editing and proof correction process, or amended to journal style. Graphics are placed at the end of the PDF and may be compressed to reduce download time of the PDF. Once the manuscript has been through the production process (approximately 30 days) the article is removed from the Accepted Articles area and published as normal.

Embargo period
The FEBS Journal Reviews and Minireviews are freely available from the journal platform immediately on publication.
Research papers are freely available after a 12-month period.

After publication, authors will retain the right to self-archive the peer-reviewed (but not final) version of the paper submitted to The FEBS Journal on their personal website, in their company/institutional repository or archive, and in certain not for profit subject-based repositories such as PubMed Central as listed at the following website: http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-820227.html, subject to an embargo period of 12 months following publication of the final version. The version posted must include a legend to make clear that 'This is the accepted version of the following article: FULL CITE, which has been published in final form at [Link to final article]'. Please note that authors may not update the accepted version or replace it with the published version. Please also see the section on Copyright and OnlineOpen below.

Authors of accepted articles may choose to pay a fee in order for their final published article to be made openly accessible without a 12 month embargo. The charge for this OnlineOpen service is fixed at US$3000.

Copyright and OnlineOpen

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to log into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions http://exchanges.wiley.com/authors/faqs---copyright-terms--conditions_301.html

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://exchanges.wiley.com/authors/faqs---copyright-terms--conditions_301.html and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/copyright--licence.html

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement

NIH funded authors and The FEBS Journal
From April 2008, the NIH is mandating grantees to deposit their peer-reviewed author manuscripts in PubMed Central, to be made publicly available within 12 months of publication. The NIH mandate applies to all articles that are based on research that has been wholly or partially funded by the NIH, and that are accepted for publication on or after April 7, 2008. If the authors acknowledge NIH funding in the manuscript and give the grant number, then the paper will be automatically handled by Wiley Blackwell to meet the terms of the NIH mandate.

In order to help authors comply with the NIH mandate, Wiley Blackwell will post accepted manuscripts of NIH grant-holders (incorporating all amendments made during peer review, but prior to the publisher’s copy-editing and typesetting) to PubMed Central at the point of acceptance by the journal. This version will then be made publicly available in PubMed Central 12 months after publication. Following the deposit Wiley Blackwell authors will receive further communications from the NIH with respect to the submission. For further information, see here.

Wellcome and HHMI grantees can find out further information here.

Authors or a third party wishing to reproduce figures, tables or brief quotations from the text of articles published in The FEBS Journal for non-commercial purposes may do so, providing the original publication is acknowledged accordingly and the approval of all the authors is obtained. No special permission is needed from either FEBS or the Publisher for this. If authors or a third party wish to use a major part of an article or an entire article elsewhere, whether in English or in any translation, permission must be asked from the Publisher, who will contact FEBS, the licence holder, if necessary.

Publication date
Papers accepted for publication in The FEBS Journal will be placed on the online version of the journal, as soon as they are ready for publication. This can occur at any time up to 3 weeks in advance of the cover date of the printed issue. Authors should take this into account when planning their intellectual and patent activities related to a document.

Online production tracking
Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley Blackwell Author Services.

Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production so they don't need to contact the Production Editor to check on progress. Visit http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/ for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Author material archive policy
Please note that unless specifically requested otherwise, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all submitted hardcopy or electronic material two issues after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the Editorial Office or Production Editor as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.

Free access to the final PDF offprint or your article is available via Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor only.