Annals of Applied Biology

Cover image for Vol. 171 Issue 1

Edited By: Simon Leather

Impact Factor: 2.046

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2016: 7/56 (Agriculture Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1744-7348

Author Guidelines

The Association of Applied Biologists holds the authors, not the Association, Editors or Referees, entirely responsible for the content of material that is published.

Submission of a manuscript to Annals of Applied Biology implies that all persons listed as authors qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify are listed.

Authors must only submit their own original work to the journal. A submitted manuscript must not contain any material that has been previously published or is under consideration as an article in another journal or book, including self-plagiarism. This includes any type of article, whether published in print or on line. The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

All previous discoveries and information must be correctly acknowledged with the full original reference clearly cited. Authors should be aware that the unreferenced use of the published and unpublished ideas, writing or illustrations of others, from whatever source (including research grant applications), in the same or a different language, constitutes plagiarism. When necessary, Authors must obtain permission to reproduce any copyright material, and include an acknowledgement of the source in their article.


Wiley Blackwell requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and to collectively list in the cover letter to the Editor-in-Chief, in the manuscript (in the footnotes, Conflict of Interest or Acknowledgments section), and in the online submission system ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.


The journal publishes original research papers on all aspects of applied agricultural, horticultural and forestry research on crop production, crop protection and the cropping ecosystem. Annals contribute substantially to the advancement of knowledge and may, among others, encompass the scientific disciplines of: Agronomy; Agrienvironmental sciences; Applied genomics; Biodiversity; Biological control; Climate change; Crop ecology; Entomology; Genetic manipulation; Mycology; Nematology; Pests; Plant pathology; Plant breeding & genetics; Plant physiology; Post harvest biology; Soil science; Virology and Weed biology. Contributions that focus on the description of genetic diversity and genotype analysis without advancing knowledge of applied biology will not be considered for publication. Manuscripts submitted as reports on antagonists, growth-promoting microbes or biopesticides are expected to include results obtained under plant growth conditions (e.g. pot or field experiments). Results based on in vitro experiments only will not be considered for publication.

Review papers in all areas of applied biology are also invited. They should be authoritative and critical surveys of the field and offer new insights. It is recommended that the Editor-in-Chief be contacted in advance to confirm the suitability of the subject.


Annals will also consider referrals from independent review services such as Axios Review. An independent review service like Axios Review allows authors to choose Annals as one of several “target journals”. The paper will receive anonymous external peer review overseen by Axios and its editorial board. Please note that the service is paid for by the author. An Editor at Axios Review then decides whether the paper is of sufficient novelty and importance to merit a referral to Ecology Letters. If so, the paper and the reviews are passed to Annals for editorial evaluation. Like all manuscripts received by Annals the manuscript is subject to journal’s full evaluation procedures. The process should however, be able to be speeded up by having existing reviews in-hand and offers the ability for the reviews to be used by other journals should Annals be unable to publish the manuscript. If we agree that the paper is a worthwhile submission, we will ask the authors to revise their paper and submit via ScholarOne Manuscripts, including a detailed 'response to reviewers' as a supplemental file. If the paper is not appropriate for Annals, it can instead be referred to the other target journals. This process helps authors find a journal that is interested in their manuscript, while simultaneously reducing the workload for both reviewers and journals. More details can be found at Axios Review.

Pre-submission English-language editing

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Annals requires online submission at This enables the quickest possible review.

Manuscript submission online can be as Word document (.doc) or RTF (.rtf). If using LaTeX, please upload a PDF file (.pdf) of the manuscript for the reviewers - note that upon acceptance we will require your TeX/LaTeX source files to edit and typeset the article. Figures can be embedded in the native word processor file or uploaded separately as GIF (.gif), JPEG (.jpg), PNG (.png), TIFF (.tif), or EPS (.eps). On acceptance, you will be required to provide high resolution graphics files (TIFF or EPS files only). Full upload instructions and support are available online from the submission site via the Get Help Now button. Please submit your covering letter or comments to the Senior Editor when prompted online.


Revised manuscripts must be submitted in their final form, within 2 months of authors being notified of conditional acceptance (pending satisfactory revision). Resubmissions after this time will be considered as new.



Text should be divided into the following sections and appear in the order: (1) title page (with short running page heading, title, authors names and affiliations), (2) summary, (3) keywords, (4) introduction, (5) materials and methods, (6) results, (7) discussion, (8) acknowledgements, (9) references, (10) supporting information, (11) tables, (12) figure legends, (13) figures.

Authorities for the latin binomial of every organism are not used in the title or summary, and only on the first mention in the main body of the text. Common names of pests and diseases should follow ‘MAFF Technical Bulletin No. 6’ and the ‘List of Common British Plant Diseases’ compiled by the British Mycological Society.

Gene names and loci should be italic, proteins should be roman.

Virus nomenclature (and acronyms) should follow the guidelines of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). The current report is: van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL (Eds) (2001) Virus Taxonomy: Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy Viruses. San Diego: Academic Press. Authors are also advised to check the ITCV website for the latest information.

Chemical nomenclature should follow the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) definitive rules for nomenclature.

Pesticides and other industrial products should be referred to by their common names (ISO Publications 1831, 2474, etc.). In the absence of a common name, use the full name or a defined abbreviation, in preference to a trade name. At first mention, trade names should be capitalised.

Article types

Original Article

A report of research addressing a specific research question, including the methods used, the results of the research, and conclusions drawn from the research. Papers should be in clear concise English and should not normally exceed 7000 words of text (excluding abstract and references) but longer papers of particular merit may be considered. Papers should be novel and of wide general interest the readership of the Annals.

Major Review

These should be either a systematic review of the published literature addressing a specific research theme, including an exhaustive search of the literature to date (with or without a quantitative meta-analysis). In rare cases a more narrative review discussing a particular topic may be considered with appropriate justification. Reviews should not normally exceed 12000 words.

Minor Review

A short review of a highly topical subject area, usually covering the most recent literature on fast moving and important topics that merit rapid consideration and publication. Mini-reviews should not normally exceed 7000 words.


Essays on new ideas and perspectives that will appeal to a wide audience. Policy forum essays are particularly encouraged, addressing political, social or management aspects of agricultural practice. These should not normally exceed 3000 words.

Plant phenological growth stages

Descriptions of the growth stages of plants of economic importance following the BBCH scale. Illustrations of all pertinent growth stages must be included. Please refer to previously published papers for further guidance.


Editorial articles are normally produced by the Editorial team but on occasion may be invited to address a particular topic.


The design of all experiments should be explicit and clear. Particular care should be taken to explain what is meant by a replicate; only biological replication from independent units can be used to assess variation within and between treatments. Authors should consult a statistician if they require assistance in making inferences from designed experiments.

Prior to analysis, means and standard deviations (SDs) should be used for summarising data. Biologically meaningful comparisons among treatments must respect the factorial and blocking structures of the experimental design. The use of contrasts in ANOVA and regression for unplanned comparisons is also appropriate.

Results as presented should be derived from and be consistent with the analysis done. For designed experiments in particular, results should be summarised by treatment means estimated from the ANOVA, regression, GLM etc. analysis. The summary should also include the corresponding standard errors of differences between means (SEDs), (or Least Significant Differences (LSDs) or standard errors of means (SEs)) and the degrees of freedom for the residual term from which the SED has been derived. Table 2 of Bithell et al. 159, 252-266 illustrates this approach.

Standard errors used to compare treatments should be derived from the residual or deviance statistics of ANOVA, regression or GLM etc. analyses. When such analyses have been carried out, the inclusion of individual standard deviations or standard errors for every mean, based on the raw data, is prohibited.

Excessive comparisons between treatments, not based on biological hypotheses, are discouraged. In particular, the use of multiple comparison adjustments such as Duncan's or Tukey's is not acceptable, nor is the use of letters to denote treatments which are 'not significantly different from each other'.

Help and advice from the Annals statistical editors is available to authors.


References in the text should be inserted in parentheses in full for single and dual authored papers, but using the first author and et al. for multiple authored papers. Reference to personal communications, unedited and un-refereed work, and work that is unpublished should be minimal and should appear in the text only. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain permission from colleagues to include their work as a personal communication.
References in the list should follow the Harvard system. Refer to a recent copy of the journal for examples.

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here.

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here.

Supporting Information

Quantitative biological data too extensive for inclusion in the print edition of the journal may be presented in the online edition, as supporting information. As such, it will be reviewed as an integral part of the paper. The availability of the supporting information should be indicated in the main manuscript by a paragraph, to appear after the references, providing titles of figures, tables, etc. There are guidelines regarding supporting information here.

Graphical Abstracts

Annals of Applied Biology can include a graphical abstract that summarizes the key finding of a given article or represents the scope of that paper. This involves the display of an image of your choice and a caption. On submission, authors will be asked to select a suitable figure from the main article to be used as the graphical abstract. They will also be asked to provide a summary of their article in no more than 100 words to accompany the image.


Numerical results should be presented either as tables or figures, but not both. The journal welcomes colour figures and plates, when information would be lost if reproduced in black and white. Please note there is a charge for colour in print - if you have colour figures, please fill in the form here. If you are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor at and they will be able to email or fax a form to you. Once completed, please post or courier all pages of your completed form to the address below:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way
Bognor Regis
West Sussex
PO22 9NQ

Please note that electronic or faxed copies cannot be accepted. Any article received by Wiley Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned.

In the event that an author is not able to cover the costs of reproducing colour figures in colour in the printed version of the journal, Annals of Applied Biology offers authors the opportunity to reproduce figures in colour for free in the online version of the article (but they will still appear in black and white in the print version). If an author wishes to take advantage of this free colour-on-the-web service, they should liaise with the Editorial Office to ensure that the appropriate documentation is completed for the Publisher.

Electronic artwork: Annals requires submission of electronic artwork. Vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) should be saved in Encapsulated Postscript Format (.eps), and half-tones in Tagged Image File Format (.tif). TIFF files should be supplied at a minimum resolution of 300 dpi (dots per inch) at the final size at which they are to appear in the journal. Colour files should be in CMYK mode. CMYK stands for Cyan, Majenta, Yellow and Black – these are the colours displayed by computer monitors. Labelling should be in 10pt Times New Roman. Figure sections should be designated with upper case letters. Magnification bars should be given on electron and light micrographs. Detailed information on our digital illustration standards is available at this webpage.

Tables: Tables should be typed on separate pages, as an integral part the text file. They should have a brief descriptive title and be self-explanatory. Units should appear in parentheses in the column headings, not in the body of the table. Repeated words or numerals on successive lines should be written in full. Footnotes should be minimal. When the precision of data is expressed as standard error (se) or standard errors of differences (sed) the degrees of freedom (df) should be given.

Legends: Table and figure legends should be included within the text file and contain sufficient information to be understood without reference to the text. Each should begin with a short title for the figure. Refer to a recent copy of the journal for the prefered ordering off symbols. All symbols and abbreviations should be explained within the legend.

Cover images: Electronic artwork/original photographs of high quality suitable for the cover of Annals are welcomed. They should be sent to the Editorial Office and be accompanied by a relevant caption. It is preferred, but not essential, that images should be related to submitted papers. Contributors are required to assign copyright to the Association by UK law.


OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.


If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing ONLINE OPEN

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by certain funders [e.g. The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) or the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)] you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with your Funder requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.


A PDF proof will be available to download from our website. An email with access codes and full instructions will be sent to the corresponding author when the proof is available for collection. Acrobat Reader is required in order to read this file. This can be downloaded (free of charge) from Adobe

In your absence, please arrange for a colleague to correct on your behalf.


Free access to the final PDF offprint or your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. Additional paper offprints may be ordered online. Please click on the following link for more details: If you have queries about offprints please email


Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor ( as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.

Last update: March 2016