Annals of Applied Biology
© Association of Applied Biologists
Edited By: Jari Valkonen
Impact Factor: 2.147
ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2012: 4/57 (Agriculture Multidisciplinary)
Online ISSN: 1744-7348
Phytoplasma Virtual Issue - April 2012
Phytoplasmas: detection, differentiation and classification, and relationships with plant and insect hosts
Plant-pathogenic phytoplasmas are wall-less, unculturable bacteria of the class Mollicutes that are associated with diseases in more than a thousand plant species worldwide and are transmitted in nature by phloem-feeding homopteran insects, mainly leafhoppers and planthoppers, and less frequently psyllids. By the introduction of DNA-based methods into phytoplasmology about two decades ago, specific and sensitive detection methods have been developed, mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. It also became possible to differentiate, characterize and classify phytoplasmas on a phylogenetic basis, using sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Recently, multi-locus sequence analysis employing genes with varying degrees of genetic variability revealed new insights into the genetic diversity of phytoplasmas that are relatively homogeneous at 16S rDNA sequence level.
The numerous papers published over the last few years in Annals of Applied Biology, reflect the tremendous progress made in differentiation and classification, and also in detection and identification of phytoplasmas in both plants and insects. Annals of Applied Biology also published a number of papers on phytoplasma-insect vector relationships, newly reported phytoplasma diseases, colonization behavior of phytoplasmas in plants, a pathogen eradication method useful to produce healthy plant materials, and etiological elucidation of decline diseases supposed to be induced by phytoplasmas. Some of the mentioned papers are highlighted below.
Advances in differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas
Identification of two new phylogenetically distant phytoplasmas from Senna surattensis plants exhibiting stem fasciation and shoot proliferation symptoms.
Wu W., Cai H., Wei W., Davis R.E., Lee I.-M., Chen H., Zhao Y.
The groEL gene as an additional marker for finer differentiation of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris’-related strains.
Mitrović J., Kakizawa S., Duduk B., Oshima K., Namba S., Bertaccini A.
Multiple gene analyses reveal extensive genetic diversity among ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’ populations.
Casati P., Quaglino F. Stern A.R., Tedeschi R., Alma A., Bianco P.A.
A new phytoplasma associated with little leaf disease in azalea: multilocus sequence characterization reveals a distinct lineage within the aster yellows phytoplasma group.
Wei W., Cai H., Jiang Y., Lee I.-M., Davis R.E., Ding Y., Yuan E., Chen H., Zhao Y.
Surveys reveal the occurrence of phytoplasmas in plants at different geographical locations in Peru.
Hodgetts J., Chuquillangui C., Muller G., Arocha Y., Gamarra D., Pinillos O., Velit E., Lozada P., Boa E., Boonham N., Mumford R., Barker I., Dickinson M.
New 16Sr subgroups and distinct single nucleotide polymorphism lineages among grapevine Bois noir phytoplasma populations.
Quaglino F., Zhao Y., Bianco P.A., Wei W., Casati P., Durante G., Davis R.E.
Multigene analysis for differentiation of aster yellows phytoplasmas infecting carrots in Serbia.
Duduk B., Calari A., Paltrinieri S., Duduk N., Bertaccini A.
Characterisation and phylogeny of a phytoplasma inducing sandal spike disease in sandal (Santalum album).
Khan J.A., Sing S.K., Ahmad J.
Phytoplasma from little leaf disease affected sweetpotato in Western Australia: detection and phylogeny.
Tairo F., Jones R.A.C., Valkonen J.P.T.
Universal and group-specific real-time PCR diagnosis of flavescence dorée (16Sr-V), bois noir (16Sr-XII) and apple proliferation (16Sr-X) phytoplasmas from field-collected plant hosts and insect vectors.
Galetto L., Bosco D., Marzachì C.
Ability of Reptalus quinquecostatus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) to inoculate stolbur phytoplasma to artificial feeding medium.
Pinzauti F., Trivellone V. Bagnoli B.
Study of the transmission of stolbur phytoplasma to different crop species, by Macrosteles quadripunctulatus.
Batlle A., Altabella N., Sabaté J., Laviña A.
Seasonal infectivity of Cacopsylla pruni, vector of European stone fruit yellows phytoplasma.
Carraro L., Ferrini F., Labonne G., Ermacora P. Loi N.
Lethal yellowing-type diseases of palms associated with phytoplasmas newly identified in Florida.
Harrison N.A., Helmick E.E., Elliot M.L.
A new phytoplasma detected in the South Australian native perennial shrub, Allocasuarina muelleriana.
Gibb K.S., Tran-Nguyen L.T.T., Randles J.W.
Phytoplasma distribution in coconut palms affected by lethal yellowing disease.
Oropeza C., Cordova I., Chumba A., Narváez M., Sáenz L., Ashburner R., Harrison N.
Cryotherapy of shoot tips: a technique for pathogen eradication to produce healthy planting materials and prepare healthy plant genetic resources for cryopreservation.
Wang Q.C., Panis B., Engelmann F., Lambardi M., Valkonen J.P.T.
Zophiuma lobulata (Hemiptera: Lophopidae) causes Finschhafen disorder of coconut oil palms.
Gitau C.W., Gurr G.M., Dewhurst C.F., Mitchell A., Fletcher M.J., Liefting L.W., Cowling A.