Cover image for Vol. 55 Issue 2

Edited By: Wayne Osgood, Lead Editor; Eric Baumer, Co-Editor; Rosemary Gartner, Co-Editor

Impact Factor: 4.778

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 2/57 (Criminology & Penology)

Online ISSN: 1745-9125

Author Guidelines


Please read this document carefully and take steps to ensure that your manuscript is consistent with these guidelines. Once a paper is accepted for publication, any deviations from these guidelines can cause significant delays in publishing. Thank you.


The journal is interdisciplinary, devoted to the study of crime, deviant behavior, and related phenomena, as found in the social and behavioral sciences and in the fields of law, criminal justice, and history. The major emphases are theory, research, historical issues, policy evaluation, and current controversies concerning crime, law, and justice.


Manuscripts must be submitted online at our secure site

Papers accepted for publication should comply with the American Psychological Association’s guidelines concerning non-sexist language.

In preparing the final draft of your manuscript, please note the following:


Our style provides for four levels of headings. Leave extra space in the double-spaced draft before all levels of headings. The four heading levels are:

Subheading Level “C”
Subheading Level “D” (text follows a period on the same line)

“A” is centered, all capital letters, and boldface. “B” is flush left and all capital letters. “C” is flush left on a separate line, capital letters for all important words. “D” Begins at paragraph indentation, capital letters for all important words, and is in italics.


Please note that if a paper is accepted for publication, all the formatting and layout of tables and graphs will have to be redone in the composition stage of publication. It is therefore requested that table formatting and layout be kept simple and straightforward. Information should be conveyed as simply as possible.

In a draft manuscript, which will undoubtedly undergo revision, please place all tables, even small ones, on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Tables should be numbered consecutively throughout the article. Insert a location note at the appropriate place in the text, e.g. “Table 2 about here”.

The title of the table is flush left at the top of the page. “Table” is followed by a space, the table number, and a period. This is followed by two spaces and then the title of the table, with initial capital letters for all important words, and no period.

Tables should have no borders or shading. This will be added during composition. Set the first column heading and column flush left; other headings and columns can be arranged in whatever format best presents the data, so long as all data within a column are aligned with the heading and with other data in the column.

Consult a recent issue of Criminology for style and placement of general notes to the table, specific footnotes, and the source.

If tables/figures originate in a program other than MS Word or WordPerfect, please supply the native format files, for example, PowerPoint or Excel. Please be sure to provide a sample size (N) in each table.

Put every figure, even small ones, on a separate page at the end of the paper. Be sure the text refers to all figures, including photographs, line drawings, and graphs and insert a location note at the appropriate place in the text. “Figure” followed by a space and the figure number is centered at the top of the page. The title of the figure also is centered on the next line with initial capital letters for all important words. Figures submitted with the final draft must be of professional quality and ready for reproduction.

Equations must be typed in symbol font. Expressions should be aligned and compound subscripts and superscripts clearly marked if there is any potential for confusion. Clarify all symbols with notes in the margin of the manuscript.


We use an author-date citation style, with complete bibliographic entries appearing in a reference list at the end of the paper. In text, all source references (including subsequent citations of the same source) are to be identified at the appropriate point in the text by the last name of the author, year of publication, and (where needed) pagination. Examples:

  • If the author’s name is in the text, follow it with the year in parentheses.
    Thrasher (1927)
  • If the author’s name is not in the text, insert, in parentheses, the last name and
    year (Gibbs, 1981)
  • Pagination follows year of publication after a colon:
    (Kornhauser, 1978: 73). Note, there should be a space after the colon.
  • Give both last names for dual and three authors. When there are four or more authors, use the first author’s name and et al. (Johnson et al., 1985: 3-4)
  • If there are two works of multiple authors and of the same date that abbreviate to the same thing (for example) Smith, et al., 2001, give the first two names, followed by et al. (Smith, Watkins et al., 2001; Smith, Murphy et al., 2001). If the first two names are the same, provide the first name and a short title of the work being cited (Smith et al., Social Development, 2001).
  • Separate a series of references with semicolons and enclose them in alphabetical order within a single pair of parentheses: (Miller, 1958; Sellin, 1938; Sutherland and Cressey, 1955; Sutherland, 1956).
  • For unpublished materials, use “in press” for material that is scheduled for
    publication; use “unpublished” otherwise.
  • The reference appendix, headed by the word “REFERENCES”, follows the last page of text. Facts of publication for each item must be complete, including the full names of authors and editors (not initials). Failure to include full names may delay publication. List the first and last names of all authors--do not use “et al.” in the appendix.

List all items alphabetically by author(s). If there are two or more items by the same author(s), list them in order of the year of publication. If there are two or more items by the same author(s) within the same year, distinguish them by adding (in order of first text mention) the letters a, b, ... order.

Please note that quotation marks are generally not employed in the references.

Please make sure that all articles included in the references are cited in the manuscript and that all articles cited in the manuscript are included in the references

Type the references double-spaced, using Chicago Style. A few examples follow, but consult the Chicago Style Guide for further examples.


Fox, James A. 1978. Forecasting Crime Data. Toronto: Lexington.

Rusche, George, and Otto Kircheimer. 1939. Punishment and Social Structure. New York: Russell and Russell.

U.S. Department of Justice. 1980. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics—1984. Washington, DC: National Criminal Justice Information and Statistics Service.


Messner, Steven F. 1982a. Poverty, inequality, and the urban homicide rate: Some unexpected findings. Criminology 20:103-14.

Messner, Steven F. 1982b. Societal development, social inequality, and homicide: A cross-national test of a Durkheimian model. Social Forces 61:225-40.

Miethe, Terance D., and Charles A. Moore. In Press. Racial differences in criminal processing: The consequences of model selection on conclusions about differential treatment. Sociological Quarterly 27.


Kobrin, Solomon. 1971. The formal logical properties of the Shaw-McKay delinquency theory. In Ecology, Crime and Delinquency, eds. Harwin L. Voss and David M. Peterson, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Cohen, Jacqueline. 1986. Research on criminal careers: Individual frequency rates and offense seriousness. In Criminal Careers and “Career Criminals”, vol. I., eds. Alfred Blumstein, Jacqueline Cohen, Jeffrey Roth, and Christy Visher, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Goss v. Lopez, 1975. Supreme Court of the United States 419 U.S. 565.


Hunt, Matthew. 1999. City sees decline in burglary rates. Norman (Oklahoma) Transcript, 24 June, A15.


Wall Street Journal. 1994. National crime statistics misleading. Editorial, B12.

If the citation is from a newspaper that includes numbered sections, such as a Sunday edition, include the section and page number: sec. 1A, p. 5.


Cannon, Jane. 1985. What about the parents of delinquent children? Parents’ Weekly, February, 19-21.


Because the citation-reference style for Criminology eliminates the use of notes or footnotes for bibliographic material, only substantive comments on the text should appear as notes. In a draft manuscript, place all substantive notes in a numbered list at the end of the paper.


All material must be typed double-spaced (including indented material, notes, tables, and references) on 8 1/2 x 11-inch paper.

Hyphenate only those words that appear in your dictionary as hyphenated words. Do not hyphenate at the ends of lines.

Letters used as statistical symbols or algebraic variables should be italicized, for example p t test; SEM; a/b = c/d; trial n. Greek letters (e.g. â, ë) should not be italicized

Do not use word processor auto-numbering functions. These usually cause delays in the composition and publishing phases.


Note: Beginning with the February 2012 issue, the ASC Board will offer Criminology authors a pdf file of their article as the standard practice and, upon request, 4 hard copies of the entire issue in which their article appears.


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: