International Zoo Yearbook

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: F.A. Fisken (Managing Editor) with Editors: D. Field, C. Lees, K. Leus, R. E. Miller, K. Pullen and A. Rübel

Online ISSN: 1748-1090

Associated Title(s): Animal Conservation, Journal of Zoology, Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation


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  1. Original Articles

    1. Long-term management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in callitrichids with oral anti-hyperglycaemic medication

      T. B. Strike and Y. Feltrer

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12154

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      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (i.e. non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) is the most common form of spontaneous diabetes in humans and non-human primates, and has frequently been reported in callitrichids. Oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs are the first line of therapy for T2DM along with dietary changes. Descriptions are given for the diagnosis of five cases of T2DM in callitrichids at ZSL London Zoo, UK, based on persistent hyperglycaemia, glucosuria and elevated blood-serum fructosamine. The stabilization and long-term management of diabetes mellitus using oral anti-hyperglycaemic medication is reported. Treatment with metformin monotherapy was successful in controlling and maintaining normoglycaemia in three individuals for between 4 and 6 years. The addition of glipizide was required to achieve glycaemic control in a fourth animal. A fifth animal was refractory to treatment. Based on these findings, we suggest that anti-hyperglycaemic drugs, together with appropriate dietary changes, can be effective in the long-term treatment of T2DM in callitrichids. (Photo: Kelly-Anne Kelleher, ZSL London Zoo)

    2. Successful reintroduction of the Critically Endangered Antiguan racer Alsophis antiguae to offshore islands in Antigua, West Indies

      J. C. Daltry, K. Lindsay, S. N. Lawrence, M. N. Morton, A. Otto and A. Thibou

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12153

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      In 1995, the Critically Endangered Antiguan racer Alsophis antiguae was arguably the world's rarest known snake, with only an estimated 51 individuals remaining on Great Bird Island (8·4 ha). Since then, the snake's habitat has been improved by eradicating invasive alien Black rats and Small Asian mongooses, and Antiguan racers have been successfully reintroduced to three islands: Rabbit Island, Green Island and York Island. By 2016, the world population of Antiguan racers had risen to over 1100 individuals on the four Islands, but the long-term survival of the species depends on Antigua's offshore islands being effectively protected from invasive mammals and harmful developments. (Photo: Jeremy Holden, Fauna & Flora International)

    3. You have free access to this content
      Environmental enrichment for Killer whales Orcinus orca at zoological institutions: untried and untested

      G. Law and A. C. Kitchener

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12152

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      The keeping of Killer whales Orcinus orca in zoos and aquariums has become highly controversial. However, the recent decision to stop the breeding programme in the USA does not obviate the need to continue to improve husbandry for this species. In this paper, we outline several novel ideas for enriching the lives of Killer whales through the provision of intergroup communication, and enhancement of feeding methods, health and fitness, and the ambient environment, all of which are aimed at eliciting natural behaviours seen in the wild. The enrichments proposed here may require adaptation for use with Killer whales and many could be modified for use with other cetacean species. We believe that by providing species-appropriate enrichment, both the welfare and educational value of Killer whales can be greatly enhanced in the future. (Image: Rosanne Strachan Law)

    4. Introductions of two insect species threatened by sea-level rise in Essex, United Kingdom: Fisher's estuarine moth Gortyna borelii lunata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Mottled grasshopper Myrmeleotettix maculatus (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

      T. Gardiner, Z. Ringwood, G. Fairweather, R. Perry and L. Woodrow

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12148

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      The approaches taken to establish on the Essex coast (south-east England, UK) new wild populations of the nationally rare Fisher's estuarine moth Gortyna borelii lunata and the locally scarce Mottled grasshopper Myrmeleotettix maculatus differed in both scale and method. The aim of this paper is to describe and contrast the differing introductions, and discuss their appropriateness for specific locations. (Photo: Micky Andrews)

    5. Rotoroa Island: building a designed ecosystem for conservation education, training and visitor engagement

      I. D. L. Fraser, J. Wilcken, C. Gibson, R. Gibson, B. Ireland and K. Buley

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12145

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      In partnership with the Rotoroa Island Trust, Auckland Zoo in New Zealand is delivering a project on Rotoroa Island that contributes to the conservation of wildlife, through education, training and visitor-engagement activities. Auckland Zoo has translocated seven native species to Rotoroa Island, all selected to demonstrate a range of techniques across the spectrum of intensive and extensive wildlife-management systems. The creation of a designed ecosystem, primarily directed towards servicing education and training programmes, is unique in New Zealand. This project also aims to demonstrate an ecosystem where human intervention is integral to enabling higher levels of biodiversity in the available area than would otherwise be possible. (Photo: Ian Fish, Auckland Zoo)

    6. Challenges of operating a multi-species breeding-for-release facility at Perth Zoo, Australia

      P. R. Mawson and C. Lambert

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12150

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      Running a multi-species breed-for-release programme targeting threatened species presents challenges and opportunities. Animal biology and knowledge gaps, along with unreliable funding sources, are challenges that can be managed. Being able to develop a purpose-built facility with dedicated staff allows critical knowledge to be accumulated and disseminated, to the benefit of breeding programmes. (Numbat Myrmecobius fasciatus. Photo: Perth Zoo)

    7. Embedding animal welfare in staff culture: the Taronga Conservation Society Australia experience

      E. Walraven and S. Duffy

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12149

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      The aim of embedding animal welfare into staff culture is to ensure that, at all times, the needs, interests and well-being of the animals in human care are of primary concern. Over the past few years, Taronga Conservation Society Australia has been working to define what is meant by good animal welfare in zoological institutions and develop a more effective approach to achieving this. The Taronga Animal Welfare Programme began in 2011. This included carrying out staff surveys and workshops, developing a charter, policies and procedures, and embarking on a process of engagement with staff and non-governmental animal-welfare organizations. This paper describes the actions that have been undertaken to date and suggests the steps that will be taken in future to carry this process forward. (Photo: Taronga Conservation Society Australia)

    8. Influence of visitors on the behaviour of Yellow-breasted capuchins Sapajus xanthosternos at Belo Horizonte Zoo (BH Zoo), Brazil

      N. S. S. O. Rodrigues and C. S. Azevedo

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12147

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      Visitors, especially large noisy crowds, have the potential to influence the life of animals in zoological institutions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect visitors had on four Yellow-breasted capuchins Sapajus xanthosternos at BH Zoo, Brazil. The study comprised 60 hours of behavioural observations. Results showed that the responses to visitors varied between individuals for almost all behaviours; undesirable behaviours decreased for two capuchins when public were present but increased for one female. Behaviours such as ‘self-grooming’ and ‘social interactions’ increased, showing that the capuchins could be stressed by the presence of the public. At BH Zoo the public often interacted with the capuchins. Therefore, to reduce visitor-induced stress response for the individuals affected by it, a public-education programme, to reduce human–capuchin interactions, should be introduced at BH Zoo. (Photo: Herlandes Penha Tinoco, Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte, 2015)

  2. Reviews

    1. The welfare of wild animals in zoological institutions: are we meeting our duty of care?

      T. A. Blackett, C. McKenna, L. Kavanagh and D. R. Morgan

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12143

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      Globally there are many different species of wild animals maintained in zoological institutions. Their welfare is directly dependent upon the quality of life they experience, which in turn is driven by the understanding the owner/keeper has of the animals’ needs. Suboptimal conditions and/or husbandry can result in injury, disease and poor mental health. This paper arises from an initiative aimed at developing a methodology based on the Five Domains animal-welfare model to improve and promote good welfare in zoological institutions that have suboptimal conditions in countries where help is needed most. The approach to this work, based on animal-welfare assessment, emphasizes the need to understand the founding principles of good animal husbandry and management, which involves providing for the fundamental welfare requirements. Providing guidance in animal-welfare fundamentals, along with the necessary support in meeting those essential needs via direct involvement and collaboration is vital to initiate change. (Photo: Julia Maltzan, Wild Welfare)

  3. Original Articles

    1. Reintroduction strategy for the Andean Condor Conservation Program, Argentina

      V. Astore, R. Estrada and N. L. Jácome

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12140

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      The Andean condor Vultur gryphus is the largest bird in the world with flight capacity. In 1991, the Andean Condor Conservation Program (PCCA: Programa Conservación Cóndor Andino) was founded in Argentina. The PCCA started by performing genetic analyses and documenting the condor population in zoological institutions. Using a system of specifically developed artificial-incubation programmes and techniques for hand rearing birds without human contact, in tandem with work to rescue and rehabilitate wild condors, the PCCA has succeeded in rearing 57 chicks and rescuing 197 condors from the wild. This paper describes the strategies used by the PCCA to reintroduce 160 Andean condors, both captive-bred and rehabilitated wild birds, throughout South America. (Photo: Silvia Peralta, Fundación Bioandina Argentina)

    2. Metapopulation management of an Endangered species with limited genetic diversity in the presence of disease: the Tasmanian devil Sarcophilus harrisii

      C. J. Hogg, A. V. Lee, C. Srb and C. Hibbard

      Version of Record online: 25 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12144

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      Tasmanian devils Sarcophilus harrisii are endangered because of the existence of a contagious cancer. A large metapopulation, consisting of Tasmanian devils in zoos, in free-range fenced enclosures, on an island and on a fenced peninsula, has been developed to ensure the survival of the species in the long term. This article describes the development of this metapopulation and its associated challenges over the past ten years. (Photo: Carolyn Hogg, Zoo & Aquarium Association Australasia)

    3. Improving the welfare of African elephants Loxodonta africana in zoological institutions through enclosure design and husbandry management: an example from Blair Drummond Safari and Adventure Park

      C. Lucas and B. Stanyon

      Version of Record online: 24 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12139

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      Maintaining high welfare standards for elephants in zoological institutions poses a significant challenge because of their size, intelligence and complex social dynamic. In 2012, at Blair Drummond Safari and Adventure Park, a new indoor enclosure was constructed for two female African elephants Loxodonta africana, substantial improvements were made to the outdoor habitat and the husbandry regime was changed. The alterations were designed to facilitate an increase in the prevalence of walking, feeding and the manipulation of objects in order to match more closely the activity levels observed in wild counterparts and provide a more enriching environment. These changes resulted in a decrease in the amount of stereotypic behaviour observed and an improvement in the condition of the feet of both elephants. (Photo: Chris Lucas, Blair Drummond Safari and Adventure Park)

    4. A note on the effect of concerts on the behaviour of Domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris at Taronga Zoo, Sydney

      J. Meade, I. Formella and V. Melfi

      Version of Record online: 23 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/izy.12141

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      The impact of concerts on resident animals in zoological institutions is very under researched. In a pilot study we investigated the behaviour of two Domestic dogs Canis lupus familiaris on evenings with and without concerts at Taronga Zoo, Sydney, Australia, and found no behavioural differences. (Photo: Rick Stevens, Rick Stevens Photography)


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