International Zoo Yearbook

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 1

Edited By: F.A. Fisken (Managing Editor) with Editors: D. Field, C. Lees, K. Leus, R. E. Miller, K. Pullen and A. Rübel

Online ISSN: 1748-1090

Associated Title(s): Animal Conservation, Journal of Zoology, Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation

Author Guidelines



Papers should be submitted online at Full upload instructions and support are available online from the submission site via the 'Get Help Now' button. Please submit your covering letter or comments to the Editors when prompted online.

Submission of a manuscript will be taken to imply that the material is original and that no similar paper is being, or will be, submitted elsewhere, either in whole or substantial part. Serialized studies should not be submitted and titles should not contain part numbers. Authors may suggest up to four referees for their paper; however, the Editors reserve the right to choose referees other than those suggested. The Editors may seek advice from the Ethical Committee of the Zoological Society of London on ethical matters.


Conflict of Interest

Authors must declare details of any potential conflict of interest. A conflict of interest exists when professional judgement concerning a primary interest (such as animal welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by secondary interests (personal matters, such as financial gain, personal relationships or professional rivalry).


Note Papers concerned with experimental work must comply with the standards and procedures laid down by British national or equivalent legislation. Papers based on work involving cruelty to animals or endangering populations or species will not be accepted. For guidelines refer to the ‘Guidelines for the treatment of animals in behavioural research and teaching’ published each January in the journal Animal Behaviour.



Typescripts must be in English and should not exceed 4000 words. Manuscripts submitted for consideration for publication must consist of a single text file with plate and figure captions included at the end of the references. Plate and Figure files, and Table files with full captions, must be uploaded separately. Typescripts must be double spaced with wide margins, and pages must be numbered consecutively. The Editors reserve the right to modify accepted manuscripts that do not conform to scientific, technical, stylistic or grammatical standards. A copy of the edited typescript will be sent to the author before it goes to press and this should be checked carefully to avoid costly proof corrections later.



The metric system and the International System of Units (SI) must be used. For further details see Baron, D. N. & McKenzie Clarke, H. (2008): Units, Symbols, and Abbreviations. London: Royal Society of Medicine Press. Temperatures should be given in degrees Centigrade. Whole numbers one to ten should be spelled out and number 11 onwards given in numerals, unless they are associated with a unit of measurement. Full binomial names should be given on first occasion an organism is mentioned, and abbreviated thereafter, except at the beginning of a sentence. Common names of organisms should have an initial capital letter: e.g. Scarlet macaw, Anegada Island iguana, etc.



1.    Title. A short title, preferably about 12 words, should be given, including the common and scientific names of the study animal(s), and the name of the institution where the data were collected.

2.    Authors' names and addresses of the institutions to which they are affiliated. The name, address and e-mail address of the corresponding author should be given. ‘Authors’ are considered to be those who have contributed a substantial amount of the work described. Others who have made only a small contribution should be credited in the acknowledgements.

3.    Abstract (not more than 250 words) giving details of the study animal(s), the aims of the study and significant results. In addition, authors may submit non-English abstracts to allow the international community greater access to published articles. Translated abstracts should be submitted in pdf format as supplementary material. The Editors have no input into the content of supplementary material, therefore accuracy is the sole responsibility of the authors.

4.    Key-words: up to ten key-words that are representative of the content of the article.

5.    Text of the article should be divided into appropriate headings. PRIMARY HEADINGS should be written in capitals. Secondary subheadings should be in sentence case and bold. Tertiary subheadings should appear as italic with the text running on.

6.    Acknowledgements should be given as a brief paragraph at the end of the text under a separate heading.

7.    Commercial Products Mentioned in the Text should be listed alphabetically under their trade names. In each case the name, a brief description of the product and the postal address of the manufacturer should be given. For example: Mazuri primate: primate diet, manufactured by Special Diet Services, Witham, Essex CM8 2AD, UK.



Accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author(s). References must be checked against the text to ensure (a) that the spelling of authors’ names and the dates given are consistent and (b) that all authors quoted in the text (in date order if more than one) are given in the reference list and vice versa. The list should appear in alphabetical order under the authors' names. In each case an author's name should be followed by the initials; if there is more than one author then all the names should be given. The year of publication should appear in brackets. Journal titles should not be abbreviated. Book titles should be followed by place of publication and the publisher.

In the text, references must be arranged chronologically with the surname(s) of the author(s) followed by the date. Use a, b, etc, after the year to distinguish papers published by the same author(s) in the same year both in the text and in the reference list. Reference to unpublished data should only be made in the text (e.g. J. Lemm, unpubl. data).

(i) Two authors: use both names: (Manning & Dawkins, 1992)

(ii) Three or more authors: use et al.: (Fritz et al., 1995)

Note When using et al. please differentiate between a reference with the same first author and year but different co-authors. For example: Wiess, Seal et al., 1993; Wiess, Willis et al., 1993



1.    Barbosa, A. (2009): The role of zoos and aquariums in research into the effects of climate change on animal health. International Zoo Yearbook 43: 131–135.

2.    Dixon, A. M. (1994): Legalities and logistics of meta-population management. In Creative conservation: interactive management of wild and captive animals: 201–206. Olney, P. J. S., Mace, G. M. & Feistner, A. T. C. (Eds). London: Chapman & Hall.

3.    Wilson II, D. E. & Reader, D. M. (Eds) (1993): Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference (2nd edn). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

4.    Owen-Smith, N. (1973): The behavioral ecology of the white rhinoceros. PhD thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA.



We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Please ensure settings provide full page range for citations (and not only the start page)

EndNote reference styles can be searched for here:

Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:



Oversize tables will not be accepted. Tables are referred to as Table 1, Table 2, etc, and any sub-sections as (a), (b), etc. Footnotes in tables should be indicated by superscript a, b, etc, and defined in the table caption.



Our preferred electronic file type is vector-format encapsulated post script (EPS) because these images are scalable and therefore do not lose quality in the online PDF. All line drawings, graphs or photographs with added labelling should be supplied as EPS. Half tones without any labelling should be supplied in TIFF format at 300 dots per inch minimum. If line drawings cannot be supplied as EPS files then they must be in TIFF format with a minimum resolution of 800 dpi. These resolutions also apply to any images embedded into an EPS file. Our artwork guidelines are available at: Please also see the illustration submission section in the ‘author resources’ section of the Author Services site: This page has some useful documents that explain why we prefer vector format images and TIFF files rather than JPEG or other formats.



Illustrations may be line drawings or graphs and should be numbered consecutively in the text as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, etc. Component parts of figures should be labelled (a), (b), (c), etc.
The axes of graphs should be chosen to occupy the space available to the best advantage. When reduced, the drawing should fit into either one (62 mm) or two (132 mm) columns, preferably the former. Lines should be bold enough to stand reduction to about 0·25–0·35 mm. Line drawings should be as simple as possible. Many computer-generated figures, such as three-dimensional graphs, fine lines, gradations of stippling and unusual symbols, cannot be reproduced satisfactorily when reduced. Preferred symbols are open and filled circles, boxes and triangles, and these should be used consistently.

Lettering should be kept to a minimum and should be self-explanatory, unambiguous and of sufficiently high quality and size to be clearly visible after reduction to final size. Lettering of all figures within the manuscript should be of uniform style in a sans serif typeface (Arial) and lower-case lettering should be used throughout, with the exception of proper nouns. All added labelling should be explained in the captions.

Note Raw data should be provided with electronic figures.



Black-and-white photographs are preferred, although colour photographs will be processed to black-and-white for printing if the contrast is sufficient. It is seldom possible to publish more than two or three photographs illustrating one article. Photographs referred to in the text should be termed ‘Plate 1’, ‘Plate 2’, ‘Plate 3’, etc. The plate number and the name of the owner of the copyright of the photograph should be added to the caption of each photograph.

The Society does not request copyright of photographs appearing in the Yearbook but it is the responsibility of anyone submitting a photograph to obtain permission from the owner of that copyright for publication in the Yearbook. When given, the name of the copyright holder is printed underneath the plate in the Yearbook.


Colour figures and photographs

Colour figures and photographs may be accepted provided that they are of a very high quality. The cost of reproduction in the print version of the Yearbook must be met by the author(s) and a binding agreement to meet the costs will be required before the manuscript can be accepted for publication. For colour figures, the instructions for the preparation of photographs should be followed. Original illustrations should not be sent until the paper has been accepted and will only be returned on request. Any article received by Wiley-Blackwell with colour work will not be published until the Colour Work Agreement Form has been returned. All colour figures and photographs will appear in colour in the online version of the published article at no cost to authors, although these illustrations may have been printed in black-and-white in the print version of the Yearbook.


Pre-submission English-language editing

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.



Following acceptance of a manuscript, authors will be asked to send their final version as a Word file. Figures should be saved in an EPS format and photographs saved as TIFF files. Authors will be asked to register with Author Services and sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement before manuscripts can be processed.


Online production tracking via Wiley Blackwell's Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article – once it has been accepted – through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.



The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a web site from where a PDF file of the proof can be downloaded. The corresponding author must provide a reliable e-mail address and inform the Production Editor of any extended period when the e-mail address is not effective. Instructions for returning the proofs will be sent with the proof. Excessive alterations to the text, other than printer’s errors, may be charged to the author. The Editors reserve the right to correct the proof themselves, using the accepted version of the typescript, if the author’s corrections are overdue and the volume would otherwise be delayed.



OnlineOpen is a pay-to-publish service from Wiley Blackwell that offers authors whose papers are accepted for publication the opportunity to pay up-front for their manuscript to become open access (i.e. free for all to view and download) via Wiley Online Library. Each Online Open article will be subject to a one-off fee of US$3000 to be met by or on behalf of the author in advance of publication. Upon online publication, the article (both full-text and PDF versions) will be available to all for viewing and download free of charge. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the payment form available from our website at: (Please note this form is for use with OnlineOpen material ONLY.)

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.



International Zoo Yearbook is covered by Wiley Blackwell's EarlyView service. EarlyView articles are complete full-text papers published online in advance of the print issue. Articles published online are complete and in their final form: the author’s final corrections have been incorporated and changes cannot be made after online publication. EarlyView articles do not have volume, issue or page numbers, and therefore cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is assigned to an issue. After print publication the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.


Author material archive policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted 2 months after publication. If you require the return of material submitted please inform the Production Editor when your paper is accepted for publication.



On publication, free access to the final PDF offprint of the article will be available via Author Services only. Therefore, lead authors must sign up to Author Services if they would like to access their article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits Author Services offer. A copy of the Publisher's Terms and Conditions for the use of the PDF file will accompany the electronic offprint and the file can only be distributed in accordance with these Terms and Conditions. Additional paper offprints may be ordered when proofs are sent out, provided that the order is placed promptly (i.e. at the time of proof correction).