Acta Physiologica

Cover image for Vol. 219 Issue 1

Edited By: Pontus B. Persson

Impact Factor: 4.066

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 13/83 (Physiology)

Online ISSN: 1748-1716

Author Guidelines

Acta Physiologica is published in an online-only format.


Acta Physiologica, the official journal of the Federation of European Physiological Societies, is published by the Scandinavian Physiological Society and contains original contributions to physiology and related sciences such as pharmacology and biochemistry, provided the physiological relevance is evident either from the title, the content of the article or an explanatory statement by the author. The journal is read internationally and welcomes submission of original papers and reviews by authors from throughout the world. No affiliation to a Scandinavian institution is required. Examination of all submitted papers by at least two well-respected specialists guarantees a high scientific standard of the papers accepted for publication.

Electronic submission

When preparing typescripts for submission, authors should follow the style of the journal. Submissions should be made online at ScholarOne Manuscripts by clicking here. Authors will need their entire manuscript in a digital format (text, tables and figures) plus a user ID and password, which can be obtained by visiting the site. Any number of files and file types can be uploaded but authors are reminded that not all users will have access to specific software. Figures should be TIFF, EPS or PDF. For guidance on submitting electronic artwork please click here.

All manuscripts must be accompanied by a valid email address.


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.
For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions
For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Accepted Articles

Acta Physiologica now offers Accepted Articles for all articles within a short time of acceptance.

Accepted Articles is a service whereby peer reviewed, accepted articles are published online as and when they are ready, prior to their ultimate inclusion in an online issue and without having been copy-edited. It has been designed to ensure the ealiest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance. Readers should note that all articles published within Accepted Articles have been fully refereed, but have not been through the copy-editing and proof correction process. Wiley Blackwell cannot be held responsible for errors or consequences arising from the use of information contained in these articles; nor do the views and opinions expressed necessarily reflect those of Wiley Blackwell.

Accepted Articles appear in PDF-only format, without the accompanying full-text HTML. Accepted Articles are fully citable using the DOI number.

Author Services

Author services enables authors to track their article  - once it has been accepted - through the production process to online publication. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production. The author will receive an email with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete email address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.


OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see

Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen should complete the Copyright Transfer Agreement (see above) and the OnlineOpen payment form available here.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform the Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated the same way as any other article. They go through the Journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Correspondence to the journal is accepted on the understanding that the contributing author licenses the publisher to publish the letter as part of the journal or separately from it, in the exercise of any subsidiary rights relating to the journal and its contents.

A revised manuscript received by the editorial office later than two months after it has been returned to the author for final revision may be treated and dated as a new submission.

Genomic and/or Proteomic high-throughput studies

High-throughput data (genomic or proteomic, e.g. microarrays or next-generation sequencing) must comply with the Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment (MIAME) criteria. Editors and reviewers must be able to access the data at the time of submission, e.g. through the provision of a GEO (, ArrayExpress ( or CYBEX ( accession number. Upon acceptance, data must be publicly available, and no more amendments to the data must be made.

Guidelines for Nucleic Acid and Protein Sequence reporting

If a manuscript reports novel protein or nucleotide sequences, authors are requested to, prior to submission, upload the sequence information to GenBank (, EMBL (, or the DNA Databank of Japan ( and provide an accession number in the manuscript upon submission. Upon acceptance, data must be publicly available, and no more amendments to the data must be made.

Clinical Trial Registration

Clinical trials are studies that prospectively assign human beings to either intervention/treatment or control groups, usually to report clinical/health-related outcomes. All clinical trials must, prior to subject enrolment, be registered in a public clinical trials registry. Trial identification numbers and registry URLs must be provided in the manuscript. Appropriate clinical trials registries provide, free of charge, public information on the trial and are managed by independent not-for-profit providers, examples include ISRCTN (, UMIN-CTR (, Australian-New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (, Nederlands Trial Registry (, a primary register of WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ( or .

Ethical Approval

Animal experiments

Papers describing animal experiments on vertebrates can be accepted for publication only if the procuration of animals, the husbandry and the experiments conform to the 'European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes' (Council of Europe No 123, Strasbourg 1985). Equally important is an appropriate definition of the animals used, i.e., genetics, control of homeostatic influences, nutrition and health status.

Human experiments

All papers describing experiments on human subjects must include a statement that the experiments were performed with the written informed consent of each subject. With regard to this the editors wish to draw the attention of authors to the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) according to the revision valid at the time of data acquisition. A statement of approval by the Official Ethics Committee is required.

Reporting Guidelines

Acta Physiologica requires, if applicable to the study format reported in the manuscript, adherence to current reporting guidelines, as given by the EQUATOR Network, an international initiative that seeks to improve reliability and value of medical research literature by promoting transparent and accurate reporting of research studies.


Appropriate statistical methods should be used to establish significance. When data deviate from a normal distribution, nonparametric tests should be used or transformation of data should be performed. When more than two simultaneous comparisons are made, ANOVA, multiple t-test or similar techniques (not Student's t-tests) should be employed. Authors are encouraged to seek professional advice.

For further information see Altman D. G. et al., 1983. Statistical guidelines for contributions to Medical journals. Br Med J 286, 1489-1493.


Manuscripts must be written in English. Revision of the language is not the responsibility of the editor, and manuscripts otherwise acceptable but written in incorrect English will be returned for language revision.

British spellings should be used for haemoglobin, anaemia, etc., and 'z' spellings for characterize, categorize, etc., but not for dialyse, analyse, etc.

Authors are requested to use negative indices for derived units throughout in text, tables and figures: eg., mmol L-1 , counts mg-1 (not mmol/L, counts/mg, etc.).


Manuscripts must be word-processed, double-spaced throughout on one side of standard A4 paper. All pages should be correctly numbered at the top right hand corner, beginning with the title page. The manuscript should include the following:

·         Title page with the author's name, department, university and country. A short title not exceeding 40 letters and spaces should be included. The name, full address, telephone and fax numbers and an e-mail address of the author to whom proofs are to be sent should be given on the title page. The title of the paper should be as informative as possible and must not include abbreviations and symbols. The animal species should appear in the title.

·         An abstract not exceeding 250 words in length. The abstract should have four headings: Aim, Methods, Results and Conclusion. It should describe briefly and concisely the aim of the investigation, the methods used, the results including quantitative figures and the conclusions drawn. Novel aspects and physiological relevance should be emphasized. Up to six keywords should be appended to the abstract in alphabetical order. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.
Please note that clear, descriptive and search-optimized titles and abstracts are important considerations to the journal. Guidelines available here.

·        Introduction

·        Results

·        Discussion

·        Materials and methods

·        Acknowledgements

·        Conflict of interest

·        References

·        Tables with their headings

·        Legends to figures

·        Figures. For online submission figures should be of sufficient quality to allow reasonable interpretation by editors and reviewers; publication quality images can either be provided at upload or with the final accepted manuscript.

·        Physiological relevance. The authors should point out the physiological relevance of the paper, if this is not clearly evident from the title or content of the article.

Conflict of Interest

A conflict of interest exists when professional judgment concerning a primary interest (such as patients’ welfare or the validity of research) may be influenced by a secondary interest (such as financial gain) (ICMJE, 2013). This occurs, for example, when an author or the author's institution has financial or personal relationships with other people or organisations that inappropriately influence (bias) his or her actions. Financial relationships are easily identifiable, but conflicts can also occur because of personal relationships, academic competition, or intellectual passion. A conflict can be actual or potential, perceptions of conflict of interest are as important as actual conflicts of interest and full disclosure to the Editor is mandatory.

All submissions to Acta Physiologica must include disclosure or all relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. If there are no conflicts of interest, authors should state that there are none.


We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. EndNote reference styles can be searched for here. For the use of Reference Manager, please read the following instructions:

1. Insert the references from Reference List (in RMX file) of Reference Manager into the text.
2. To format the references, save the Acta Physiologica Output Style (OS file) on the desktop.
3. Then, click the arrow icon on the Bibliography Tool Bar located on the lower right corner- a new window “Reference Manager 12 Format Bibliography” will appear.
4. In this window, browse and select Acta Physiologica Output Style (OS file) by clicking on the browse icon located to the left of the Reset icon, and then click OK.
5. The selected OS file will appear in the Style window on the Bibliography of Reference Manager toolbar in the MS Word document.
6. Finally, click Update Citations and Bibliography to format the references.

The number of references should be restricted as much as possible. They should be listed at the end of the paper, as exemplified below. Observe the punctuation most carefully. Abbreviate journal titles according to the Index Medicus. References to books should include the editor(s), publisher and place of publication.

References should be listed double-spaced, in order of their appearance in the text. Superscripted numbers in the text should be used to indicate references; these superscripted numbers must be placed immediately after a comma or period if cited at the end of a phrase or sentence.

1. Example A, Secondly B, Thirdson C: An example of how to cite. Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England), 217: 311-324, 2016.

2. Fourthfellow DE, Fifth FG: Pathophysiology of citing. In: The Brain, 5th ed., edited by Sixten HIJ, Philadelphia, Pounders, 2001, pp 2136–2148

3. Sevenstead KL: Reference points in the normotensive ruminator. [Abstract]. Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England), 21: 4185, 2016.

References to material available on the World Wide Web can be given, but only if the information is available without charge to readers on an official site. Authors will be asked to provide electronic copies of the cited material for inclusion on the APH homepage at the discretion of the Editors. The format for citations is as follows:

After-Eight PLS (2014). How do taste buds function? (WWW document).

Electronic Submission

Authors must ensure that files have been updated to incorporate all revisions, and hence that the version on the file is the correct version. Please include all parts of the text in a single file, i.e. maintext, references, legends and tables. Files should be formatted double-spaced with no hyphenation and automatic wordwrap (no hard returns within paragraphs). Please type your text consistently, e.g. take care to distinguish between '1' (one) and 'l' (lower-case L) and '0' (zero) and 'O' (capital O), etc. Please do not use carriage returns at the end of lines within a paragraph. Turn hyphenation option off.


It is in the interest of authors to follow the guidelines below, as this would lessen the risk of errors in redrawing/correction and also reduce both the time and costs of manuscript preparation which may help to keep subscription costs down.

Figures should be submitted online with the original submission. These figures should be of sufficient quality for review. Publication quality images can be uploaded with the submission or sent on disk with hardcopy at acceptance. Submit four copies of each hardcopy figure.  Figures must be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals.

Figures submitted should be of a size suitable to withstand 50% reduction for either a single column of 77 mm width or a double column of 159 mm width.

Each figure should have a legend containing sufficient information to make the figure intelligible without reference to the text. In the full text online edition of the journal, figure legends may be truncated in abbreviated links to the full screen version. Therefore the first 100 characters of any legend should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure.

Figures should ideally be EPS (line art) or TIFF (photographs) files. For further details please see

Acta Physiologica welcomes topical and interesting colour or B & W images for the cover. If you have such an image please send to the editor either via email to or on disk. These need not necessarily have previously been published. The figures should be supplied in the format detailed above and should have a suitable legend of no more than 100 words, including publication details. We reserve the right to redraw images prior to publication, subject to discussion.

Some further points about figures

·         Headings, symbols, histograms and the like should be identified in the figure and not in the figure legend. Unnecessary explanations or other distracting material should be avoided in figures.

·         In case where there are several parts to a figure, please label them in lower case in parentheses, e.g. (a), (b), etc., preferably in the upper left corner inside figure.

·         Axes should be labelled centrally with an initial capital followed by all lower case letters.

·         Vertical labelling on the vertical axis.

·         Axis units should follow the labelling in parentheses.

·         Curve points should not be so large as to merge on reduction.

·         The dots in tints should be sufficiently large that they do no disappear on reduction.

·         Unless otherwise indicated, tables and figures will be placed near their first mention in the text (usually in the results section).

·         Figures in colour may be enclosed.

For further information on guidelines to figure, please click here.

Electronic Artwork

We would like to receive your artwork in electronic form. Please save vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS), and bitmap files (e.g. half-tones) in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Ideally, vector graphics that have been saved in metafile (.WMF) or pict (.PCT) format should be embedded within the body of the text file. Detailed information on our digital illustrations standards is available here.


Tables should be provided double-spaced on separate pages. Each table should have only three dividing lines – to separate the titles and data. (No vertical rules should be used.) Tables should ideally be created in a word processor table editor. Avoid including multiple data in single table cells.


In-line equations should be typed as text. The use of graphics programs and 'equation editors' should be with care. Displayed equations (unless prepared by the 'MathType Equation Editor) may be re-keyed by our typesetter.

Supporting Information

The Acta Physiologica Online gives authors the opportunity to include data that would be inappropriate or impractical to include in the article itself. These data may substantially enhance the importance of the research and may also be of benefit to readers. Authors are encouraged to include data such as videos, 3-D structures/images and any other supporting information. All supporting information must be submitted with the original manuscript via ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Supplementary material guidelines including acceptable file formats and sizes are available here.


Proofs will be sent via e-mail as an Acrobat PDF (portable document format) file. The e-mail server must be able to accept attachments up to 4 MB in size. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following Web site:

This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen, and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available; in your absence, please arrange for a colleague to access your e-mail to retrieve the proofs.


Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers.


Theses and monographs may be published as supplements to the Journal, the cost of publication being paid by the author. Permission and instructions for the publication of supplements must be obtained from the Chief Editor. The covers may be supplied by Wiley Blackwell (quotations may be obtained direct from the Publisher), or printed by the author according to information given by the Publisher or the Editorial office.

Abbreviations and terminology

Abbreviations should be kept to a minimum and, if not internationally accepted, defined at first mention. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract. Unnecessary abbreviations make reading difficult. Quantities and units should be expressed according to the recommendations of the Système International d'Unités (SI), although certain non-SI units are permissible.

For fuller instructions about abbreviations authors are advised to consult 'SI Units in Medicine', (1978) by Urban & Schwarzenberg, Inc. Baltimore Munich.

Authorship and Originality

The manuscript must be accompanied by a covering letter, where each author attests that: 1) the manuscript is not under consideration elsewhere and that the research reported will not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a final decision is made by APH as to the acceptability of the manuscript; 2) the manuscript represents original work without fabrication, fraud or plagiarism; and 3) he/she takes full responsibility for the content of the manuscript. The corresponding author may sign on behalf of all authors, but by doing so attests that all coauthors agree to the terms and responsibilities outlined above.

All individuals mentioned in the Acknowledgements should have given written permission to the corresponding author to do so, available upon request.

It is not acceptable to withdraw a submitted manuscript that is under review.

Author material archive policy

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted 2 months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.