Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 90 Issue 4

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean Cadet

Impact Factor: 2.684

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 36/74 (Biophysics); 161/291 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1751-1097

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  1. 1 - 45
  1. Research Articles

    1. Self-aggregation of Synthetic Zinc Chlorophyll Derivatives Possessing 31-Hydroxy or Methoxy Group and 131-Mono- or Dicyanomethylene Moiety in Nonpolar Organic Solvents as Models of Chlorosomal Bacteriochlorophyll-d Aggregates

      Hitoshi Tamiaki, Masaki Kuno and Masaki Ohata

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12327

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      A synthetic zinc chlorophyll-a derivative possessing the 31-hydroxy and 131-dicyanomethylene groups self-aggregated in 1% THF–hexane despite lacking the 131-oxo moiety as a hydrogen-bonding acceptor to give chlorosome-like large oligomers with its Qy band at a near-infrared region.

    2. Validation and Application of a Model of Oxygen Consumption and Diffusion During Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro

      Mark A. Weston and Michael S. Patterson

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12320

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      Previously acquired phosphorescence signals generated during Pd(II) meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine-PDT of cells in monolayers and suspensions are shown to be well described by PDT oxygen diffusion models. The diffusion models are used to determine the photodynamic oxygen consumption rates and in essence the treatment fluence rates, that maximize PDT dose in each of the treatment geometries. The cell suspension diffusion model was extended to describe multicell tumor spheroids. Due to large anoxic cores that develop during PDT, much less PDT dose is delivered to spheroids in comparison with similar treatments in cell suspensions and cell monolayers.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Photophysical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Generation Efficiencies of Water-Soluble Fullerene Nanoparticles

      Alexander S. Stasheuski, Victor A. Galievsky, Alexander P. Stupak, Boris M. Dzhagarov, Mi Jin Choi, Bong Hyun Chung and Jin Young Jeong

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12294

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      Conventional and time-resolved spectroscopy has been used to investigate polyhydroxylfullerene molecule and five fullerene-based nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate formation of disorder-induced states both in the polyhydroxylfullerene and in the nanoparticles.

    4. Simultaneous Irradiation with Different Wavelengths of Ultraviolet Light has Synergistic Bactericidal Effect on Vibrio parahaemolyticus

      Mutsumi Nakahashi, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akiko Hirata, Miki Maetani, Takaaki Shimohata, Takashi Uebanso, Yasuhiro Hamada, Masatake Akutagawa, Yousuke Kinouchi and Akira Takahashi

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12309

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      Bactericidal damages induced by UVA (320–400 nm) and UVC (<280 nm) are different. In this study, we revealed that simultaneous irradiation with UVA-LED (365 nm) and UVC (254 nm) induced bactericidal synergistic effects and suppressed the recovery of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). The synergistic effect was absent in SOS response-deficient strains, such as the recA and lexA mutants. Because recA- and lexA- mediated SOS responses have crucial roles in DNA repair pathway, the synergistic bactericidal effect produced by the simultaneous irradiation could depend on suppression of the CPDs repair. This simultaneous irradiation is a candidate new procedure for effective water disinfection.

  2. Invited Reviews

    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Chemical and Biological Mechanisms of Pathogen Reduction Technologies

      Janna M. Mundt, Lindsay Rouse, Jeroen Van den Bossche and Raymond P. Goodrich

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12311

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      Illustrated summary of photochemical mechanisms for Theraflex UVC, Mirasol, Intercept and Theraflex MB pathogen reduction technologies.

  3. Research Articles

    1. In Vitro Investigations on the Effect of Dermal Fibroblasts on Keratinocyte Responses to Ultraviolet B Radiation

      Tara L. Fernandez, Derek R. Van Lonkhuyzen, Rebecca A. Dawson, Michael G. Kimlin and Zee Upton

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12317

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      Cellular cross-talk between dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes is critical for orchestrating cutaneous repair and regeneration. Herein, we describe the influence of keratinocyte–fibroblast interactions on key processes in the ultraviolet B photoresponse. Importantly, fibroblast-produced factors were observed to enhance keratinocyte survival and DNA repair by regulating the expression of specific apoptotic and cell cycle regulation proteins.

    2. Therapeutic Effect of Irradiation of Magnetic Infrared Laser on Osteoarthritis Rat Model

      Chul-Hwan Moon, Ogon Kwon, Chang-Hoon Woo, Hee-Duk Ahn, Young-Sam Kwon, Soo-Jin Park, Chang-Hyun Song and Sae-Kwang Ku

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12304

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      Eight rats per group received a surgical operation for osteoarthritis (OA) or sham. Controls for sham (A) and OA (B) had no treatment, and other OA models were treated with either of diclofenac sodium at 2 mg kg−1 (Diclofenac, C) as a reference or magnetic infrared laser (MIL) at 6.65 J cm−2 (D), 2.66 J cm−2 (E) and 1.33 J cm−2 (F) with constant magnetic field. Comparing to OA control, 4-week MIL treatment improved maximum extension angle of knee joint dose dependently. Histopathological analyses revealed that the MIL treatment inhibits the cartilage degradation. Together with other results, these suggest that MIL can be useful for OA treatment.

    3. Short-term UV-B Dose Stimulates Production of Protective Metabolites in Matricaria chamomilla Leaves

      Veronika Petruľová, Zuzana Dučaiová and Miroslav Repčák

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12300

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      Short-term irradiation with UV-A and UV-B influenced some physiological processes (photosynthesis, enzyme activity) in 7-week-old rosette leaves of chamomile and stimulated protective response. Enhanced accumulation of simple phenylpropanoid derivatives, like chlorogenic and 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coumarin glycoside, daphnin and flavonols related to UV-stimulated PAL activity. Decreased content of free coumarins and their glycosides may indicate redirecting precursors of coumarin biosynthesis to biosynthesis of substances with higher antioxidative potential. Two chamomile cultivars, differed in ploidy level, were irradiated. Tetraploids were more damaged by oxidative stress, but in the course of experiment diploids expressed enhanced accumulation of compounds with higher antioxidative potential.

    4. Red Light Interferes in UVA-Induced Photoaging of Human Skin Fibroblast Cells

      Tianhui Niu, Yan Tian, Qu Ren, Lizhao Wei, Xiaoxin Li and Qing Cai

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12316

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      This study demonstrated the use of LED red light with a wavelength of 633 nm leads to an attenuation of subtoxic UVA irradiation-induced skin photoaging. Red light intervention decreased the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, upregulated SIRT1 expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 and the acetylation of p53 expression. Our results suggest that red light plays a key role in the antiphotoaging of human skin fibroblasts by acting on different signaling transduction pathways.

    5. Photooxidation of Tryptophan Leading to 2-Aminoacetophenone – A Possible Reason for the Untypical Aging Off-flavor in Wine

      Nora Horlacher and Wolfgang Schwack

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12321

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      2-Aminoacetophenone (AAP) is known as the key compound for the so-called untypical aging off-flavor (UTA) in Vitis vinifera wines. In the present work we show that photooxidation of tryptophan (free and bound) in combination with a subsequent storage in model wine leads to the formation of AAP. Furthermore, we could show that the AAP formation mechanism proceeds via N-formyl-2-aminoacetophenone (FAP), but not exclusively. Both time of irradiation and time of storage in model wines greatly favored the formation of AAP.

    6. Sun protection Provided by Regulation School Uniforms in Australian Schools: An Opportunity to Improve Personal Sun protection During Childhood

      Denise Turner and Simone L. Harrison

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12312

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      Ultra violet exposure during the childhood years is linked to the development of melanocytic nevi (moles) which are a risk factor for the development cutaneous melanoma. Sun-protective clothing protects the skin from ultra violet radiation, reducing the development of melanocytic nevi and skin cancer risk. Simple alterations to school uniforms (such as slightly longer sleeves and hems) would increase body surface area covered without causing heat stress. Sensibly designed school uniforms/clothing would be a practical way to protect school children from ultra violet radiation. Body surface area covered needs to be added to clothing standards.

  4. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Effect of Immunosuppressants Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil on the Keratinocyte UVB Response

      Mei Ming, Baozhong Zhao, Lei Qiang and Yu-Ying He

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12318

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      This study investigated the effects of the newer generation of immunosuppressants including tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on keratinocyte UVB response. Tacrolimus and MMF impairs UVB-induced DNA repair and apoptosis in human keratinocytes. In addition, tacrolimus inhibits UVB-induced checkpoint signaling, while MMF had no effect. Our findings have demonstrated that tacrolimus and MMF compromises proper keratinocyte UVB response, suggesting an immunosuppression-independent mechanism in the tumor-promoting action of these immunosuppressants.

  5. Research Articles

    1. Study of the Photodegradation Kinetics and Pathways of Hexaflumuron in Liquid Media

      Chengying Lu, Xing Yin, Xiaofeng Liu and Minghua Wang

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12314

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      1. The photodegradation kinetics of hexaflumuron under irradiation were investigated.
      2. Effects of light sources, pH values, organic solvents and water substances on hexaflumuron photodegradation were analyzed.
      3. Three photodegradation products were identified by GC-MS and the presumed photodegradation pathways of hexaflumuron in methanol were proposed.
    2. The Injury and Cumulative Effects on Human Skin by UV Exposure from Artificial Fluorescence Emission

      Yan Tian, Wei Liu, TianHui Niu, CaiHong Dai, Xiaoxin Li, Caijuan Cui, Xinyan Zhao, Yaping E and Hui Lu

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12315

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      The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from compact fluorescence lamp (CFL) were studied on human skin. (A) HE staining. The thickness of the cuticle and epidermis increased. Dermal collagen fibers were clumped and aggregated with light color and unclear staining; (B) Elastic fiber staining. Fragmentation of the elastic fibers and intermittent zonal distribution was observed; (C) MMP-1 expression. The staining intensity of MMP-1 increased; (D) SIRT1 expression. Both staining intensity and area of SIRT1 increased; (E) p53 expression. The staining intensity of p53 expression increased.

    3. Disinfection of Escherichia Coli Gram Negative Bacteria Using Surface Modified TiO2: Optimization of Ag Metallization and Depiction of Charge Transfer Mechanism

      LakshmipathiNaik Gomathi Devi and Basavalingaiah Nagaraj

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12308

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      Metallization of silver on the surface of TiO2 is carried out by the photodeposition method and its evaluation for disinfection of 10Escherichia coli cell suspension in the presence of solar light illumination is depicted.

  6. Research Notes

    1. Photoactive Hybrid Materials of Lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+, Sm3+) Beta-Diketonates and Polymer Resin Through Ionic Liquid Bridge

      Ying Mei and Bing Yan

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12307

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      A special multifunctional ionic liquid compound (1-methyl-3-(2-(thiocarboxyoxy)-ethyl)-2H-imidazole-1,3-diium bromide (SHIL)) is engaged as the chemical bridge to link lanthanide beta-diketonates and polymer sphere-like resin to construct the hybrid materials Ln(L)4-SHIL-WR/MR. The results provide a novel path to construct photofunctional hybrids for further device application.

  7. Research Articles

    1. ROS and p53 in Regulation of UVB-induced HDM2 Alternative Splicing

      Lingying Tong and Shiyong Wu

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12306

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      Hdm2, the human homologue of mdm2 (murine double minute oncogene 2), is an oncogene for its role in suppression of p53. Hdm2 alternative splicing, occurs in both tumor and normal tissues, is suggested to be a response of cells for cellular stress, and thus modulate p53 activity. In this study, we demonstrated that UVB is weaker inducer of alternative splicing than UVC is. We also provided evidences that the UV-induced alternative splicing is promoted by DNA-damage, but suppressed by ROS formation and p53 activity of the irradiated cells.

    2. Influence of Dye Content on the Conduction Band Edge of Titania in the Steam-treated Dye-dispersing Titania Electrodes

      Rudi Agus Setiawan, Hiromasa Nishikiori, Nobuaki Tanaka and Tsuneo Fujii

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12297

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      The titania and dye-dispersing titania electrodes were prepared by a nitric acid-catalyzed sol-gel process. The dye-dispersing titania contains the dye molecules dispersed on the surface of the individual nanosized titania particles. The conduction band edge of the titania was shifted in a negative direction in the electrode containing a greater amount of the dye due to the dye-titania complex formation on the titania particle surface. The effect of the dye-titania complex formation on the shift in the titania conduction band edge was greater than that of the adsorption of nitrate ions due to strong interaction between the dye and titania.

    3. Retarded Photooxidation of Cyamemazine in Biomimetic Microenvironments

      Daniel Limones-Herrero, Raúl Pérez-Ruiz, Maria Consuelo Jiménez and Miguel A. Miranda

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12303

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      The photobehavior of cyamemazine (CMZ) has been examined within α1-acid glycoproteins, cyclodextrins and SDS micelles. Irradiation of the entrapped drug, under air, leads to the corresponding N,S-dioxide (CMZ-SONO). Within glycoproteins or SDS micelles the photooxidation reaction is clearly slower than in phosphate buffered solution, while the effect of cyclodextrins is less marked. The highest protection is achieved inside SDS micelles. The results of the steady-state irradiations in combination with laser flash photolysis studies are consistent with photoxidation of CMZ through photoionization and subsequent trapping of the resulting radical cation by oxygen, ultimately leading to CMZ-SONO.

    4. Possible Involvement of a Tetrahydrobiopterin in Photoreception for UV-B-induced Anthocyanin Synthesis in Carrot

      Junko Takeda, Rieko Nakata, Hiroshi Ueno, Akio Murakami, Mineo Iseki and Masakatsu Watanabe

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12302

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      On the basis of inhibitor studies in cultured carrot cells and a re-examination of action spectra reported previously, the authors propose that anthocyanin synthesis is coordinately regulated by a reduced pterin-type UV-B sensor and UVR8.

    5. Ultraviolet Erythematic Radiation Dose Received by Golfers in Winter, in Valencia

      Gonzalo Gurrea Ysasi, Juan Carlos Moreno and María Antonia Serrano

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12295

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      This article analyzes Ultraviolet Erythematic Radiation (UVER) dose received by several golf players in winter in Valencia. Playing golf involves spending several hours outdoors because of the length of golf matches and training. Moreover, in Valencia there are many golf players coming from northern Europe, with a very sensitive phototype (I–II). For that reason these people have an increased risk while playing. This article shows that harmful effects coming from UVER radiation may occur not only in summer time but also in winter, especially at cities with a latitude similar to Valencia's one (39°28′N, 0°22′W).

  8. Research Notes

    1. Xeroderma Pigmentosum in the United Kingdom

      Alan R. Lehmann

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12301

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      Early diagnosis and rigorous protection from daylight can completely prevent the skin problems in XP. Patient XP59BR (left) has had poor protection from daylight and has developed many skin cancers. In contrast, patient XPJCLO was diagnosed in his first year of life, has been rigorously protected from sunlight and has not developed any significant skin lesions. Curiously, despite having similar mutations in the XPD gene, XP59BR has no severe neurological problems, whereas XPJCLO has shown features of neurological degeneration since the age of 2. Photographs published with consent of patient or their family.

  9. Research Articles

    1. The Light-Induced FOS Response in Melanopsin Expressing HEK-293 Cells is Correlated with Melanopsin Quantity and Dependent on Light Duration and Irradiance

      Birgitte Georg, Lene Rask, Jens Hannibal and Jan Fahrenkrug

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12298

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      HEK-293 cells expressing tetracycline inducible melanopsin were used to evaluate aspects of the melanopsin dependent light inducible FOS response. The FOS response's dependency on melanopsin amount and irradiance are shown to the left and right, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluated the time-course of the response to both continuous light and light followed by darkness. The study reveals new facets of melanopsin's response, which hopefully will be of value for future studies of effects mediated by melanopsin.

    2. 5-Aminolevulinic acid-Loaded Fullerene Nanoparticles for In Vitro and In Vivo Photodynamic Therapy

      Zhi Li, Li-Li Pan, Fei-Long Zhang, Xia-Li Zhu, Yang Liu and Zhen-Zhong Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12299

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      Nonfluorescent C60-5-ALA is taken up by tumor cells and then induces the biosynthesis and accumulation of fluorescent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX).

    3. On the Role of Exponential Smoothing in Circadian Dosimetry

      Luke L. A. Price

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12282

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      Exponential smoothing is used to convert noisy light exposure time series into circadian variables for amplitude, phase and duration of light exposures (or photoperiod). This modifies the reciprocity view of dose calculation, and matches the duration-response of melatonin suppression to light. As well as applying these calculations to personal light exposures, available light exposures within buildings can be analyzed using these metrics to investigate the effects of design on circadian entrainment. Data for a sample of private UK dwellings are analyzed in contrasting seasons.

    4. Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation (UVA+UVB) on Young Gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: Growth Rate, Photosynthetic Pigments, Carotenoids, Photosynthetic Performance, and Ultrastructure

      Carmen Simioni, Éder C. Schmidt, Marthiellen R. de L. Felix, Luz Karime Polo, Ticiane Rover, Marianne Kreusch, Debora T. Pereira, Fungyi Chow, Fernanda Ramlov, Marcelo Maraschin and Zenilda L. Bouzon

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12296

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      The radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum affected the structure and resulted in depigmentation of the thallus and growth rate reduction. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, increased of carotenoids compounds, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin, suffered significant reduction in concentration after exposure to PAR+UVA+UVB. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposing to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR).

    5. Neurotransmitter Transporter Family Including SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 Contributes to the 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA)-Induced Accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX and Photodamage, through Uptake of ALA by Cancerous Cells

      Tai Tien Tran, Anfeng Mu, Yuka Adachi, Yasushi Adachi and Shigeru Taketani

      Article first published online: 23 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12290

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      GABA-related compounds, including taurine and β-alanine inhibited the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin in colon canerous cells. The expression of Na+- and Cl-dependent neurotransmitter transporter SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 increased the uptake of ALA by the cells, the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin and photodamage. Silencing of SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 reduced the accumulation of protoporphyrin. Based on observations that SLC6A6 and SLC6A13 were expressed in various cancerous cells and in adenocarcinoma cells, neurotransmitter transporters are involved in the uptake of ALA, followed by ALA-PDT.

  10. Method Articles

    1. A Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for Singlet Oxygen Measurement

      Maarit Karonen, Heta Mattila, Ping Huang, Fikret Mamedov, Stenbjörn Styring and Esa Tyystjärvi

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12291

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      Singlet oxygen, a harmful reactive oxygen species, can be detected with TEMP (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) that reacts with singlet oxygen, forming a stable nitroxyl radical called TEMPO. TEMPO has earlier been quantified with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. In this study, we show that TEMPO can be measured from both nonbiological and biological samples with an ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. The results suggest that thylakoid membranes produce 3.7 × 10−7 molecules of singlet oxygen per chlorophyll molecule in a second when illuminated with the photosynthetic photon flux density of 2000 μmol m−2 s−1.

  11. Research Articles

    1. Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy and Ultrasonic Irrigation Against Enterococcus faecalis In Vitro

      Yanhuang Wang and Xiaojing Huang

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12293

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      Enterococcus faecalis is one of the primary organisms that play an important role in post-treatment endodontic failure. The results of this study shown that a synergistic root canal disinfection strategy combining ultrasonic irrigation with photodynamic therapy together had a significant effect on the viability of Enterococcus faecalis in infected root canals.

    2. New Advances in Protection Against Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Textiles for Summer Clothing

      José Aguilera, María Victoria de Gálvez, Cristina Sánchez-Roldán and Enrique Herrera-Ceballos

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12292

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      Microscopic analysis of different types of fabrics used in traditional summer clothing shows differences in structure, yarn and composition. Five different types of fabric were classified as follows: linen shirts (A), polyester shirts (B), T-shirts (C), polo T-shirts (D) and the latest generation of sport textiles (E), which leads to different abilities of light transmission, namely cover. Ultraviolet protection factor, based on the potential of protection against the erythematic fraction of UV radiation increases exponentially as the fabric cover does.

    3. Photophysics, Excited-state Double-Proton Transfer and Hydrogen-bonding Properties of 5-Deazaalloxazines

      Dorota Prukala, Igor Khmelinskii, Jacek Koput, Mateusz Gierszewski, Tomasz Pędziński and Marek Sikorski

      Article first published online: 5 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12289

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      Photophysics of 5-deazaalloxazine and its 1,3-methyl substituted derivatives in different solvents indicate strong influence of solvent acidity on their emission properties. The experimental results are compared to the theoretical calculations on different level of theory. Excited-state double-proton transfer of 5-deazaalloxazine in methylene chloride in the presence of acetic acid has been detected and studied.

    4. The Photolytic Activity of Poly-Arginine Cell Penetrating Peptides Conjugated to Carboxy-tetramethylrhodamine is Modulated by Arginine Residue Content and Fluorophore Conjugation Site

      Nandhini Muthukrishnan, Stephen Donovan and Jean-Philippe Pellois

      Article first published online: 3 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12288

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      Fluorophore–cell-penetrating peptide (Fl-CPP) conjugates can disrupt membranes of endocytic organelles upon light irradiation and promote the delivery of entrapped macromolecules such as proteins or nucleic acids into a cells’ cytosol. ROS production by the fluorophore and a latent lytic ability of CPPs act in synergy to elicit photolysis. In this report, using red blood cells as a model of biological membranes, we show that the number of arginine residues in a CPP as well as the position of fluorophore with respect to the CPP dramatically affect the photolytic activity of a fluorophore–CPP conjugate. These factors should therefore be considered for the development of effective photoinducible delivery agents.

    5. Combination of Oral Vitamin D3 with Photodynamic Therapy Enhances Tumor Cell Death in a Murine Model of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

      Sanjay Anand, Kishore R. Rollakanti, Ronald L. Horst, Tayyaba Hasan and Edward V. Maytin

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12286

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      We report the results of a preclinical study in mice, showing that a combination of oral vitamin D (vit D3) and PDT can improve therapeutic killing of subcutaneous SCC tumors without the risk of hypercalcemia usually associated with calcitriol, the active hormonal form of vit D3. Dietary supplementation with vit D3 (10 days) enhanced PpIX levels, promoted tumor differentiation and proliferation and resulted in enhanced tumor cell death following PDT. These data suggest that a clinical study using oral vit D3 prior to PDT could establish a promising new approach for effective therapy of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    6. Risk of Ocular Exposure to Biologically Effective UV Radiation in Different Geographical Directions

      Fang Wang, Liwen Hu, Qian Gao, Yanyan Gao, Guangcong Liu, Yang Zheng and Yang Liu

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12287

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      The image shows the distributions of the 1-h cumulative effective radiant exposure (Heye, in J m−2) in 60 geographical directions. The maximum 1-h cumulative Heye values in the six trials ranged from 45 to 59 J m−2. The dangerous periods in summer (Trials 1–3) occurred between 9:00 and 10:00 CST around east and between 15:00 and 16:00 CST around west. In Trials 4–6, the dangerous period was at noon (12:00–13:00 CST) around south. The higher risk of eye caused by biologically effective UV radiation varies according to the midday maximum SEA corresponding to different geographical direction.

    7. Photooxidation of Tetrahydrobiopterin under UV Irradiation: Possible Pathways and Mechanisms

      Andrey A. Buglak, Taisiya A. Telegina, Tamara A. Lyudnikova, Yulia L. Vechtomova and Mikhail S. Kritsky

      Article first published online: 20 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12285

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      The photochemistry of tetrahydrobiopterin (H4Bip) has never been studied, probably because it is pretty unstable. This cofactor is essential for higher organisms as it participates in several important biocatalytic reactions. We studied the photooxidation of H4Bip using HPLC and absorption spectroscopy. The process of H4Bip oxidation is induced by triplet state biopterin 3Bip. Apparently, electron transfer sensitization (Type-I mechanism) is dominant. Energy transfer (Type-II mechanism) and singlet oxygen generation play only a secondary role. The mechanisms of H4Bip photooxidation and their biological application are discussed in the context of vitiligo etiology.

    8. Therapeutic Effects of Full Spectrum Light on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-like Lesions in NC/Nga Mice

      Tae-Rin Kwon, Seog Kyun Mun, Chang Taek Oh, Hyuckki Hong, Yeon Shik Choi, Bong-Jun Kim and Beom Joon Kim

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12284

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      Full spectrum light includes UVA, visible light and infrared light. FSL phototherapy exerts positive therapeutic effects on Df-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by reducing IgE levels, thus promoting recovery of the skin barrier. The mechanisms by which FSL phototherapy exerts its effects may involve the inhibition of scratching behavior, reduction of IL-6 levels and reductions in the levels of expression of adhesion molecules. The present study indicates that FSL phototherapy inhibits the development of AD in NC/Nga mice by suppressing the expression of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules, and thus could potentially be useful in treating AD.

  12. Research Notes

    1. Reversible Effects of Photodamage Directed Toward Mitochondria

      David Kessel

      Article first published online: 14 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12283

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      Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) directly after mitochondrial photodamage predicts for the subsequent loss of viability as determined by a clonogenic assay. MitoTracker Orange was used as the fluorescent probe for Δψm.

  13. Research Articles

    1. Activation of Sperm EGFR by Light Irradiation is Mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species

      Shiran Shahar, Pnina Hillman, Rachel Lubart, Debby Ickowicz and Haim Breitbart

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12281

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      We previously showed that light irradiation of human sperm induces ROS production in the mitochondria. In turn, ROS activate voltage–dependent-Ca2+ channels causing elevation of intracellular Ca2+ which activates soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) resulting in cAMP production and PKA activation. We also show that PKA activates Src, which phosphorylates EGFR and gelsolin, resulting in increased actin polymerization and hyperactivation. Here, we show that visible-light irradiation of human spermatozoa, enhances ROS-dependent-EGFR phosphorylation/activation and actin polymerization leading to stimulation of hyperactivated motility. Moreover, light irradiation of mouse sperm enhances fertilization capacity mediated by ROS, EGFR and hyperactivated motility.

    2. Photoactive Titania Float for Disinfection of Water; Evaluation of Cell Damage by Bioanalytical Techniques

      R. Shwetharani, M. S. Jyothi, P. D. Laveena and R. Geetha Balakrishna

      Article first published online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12277

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      The titania-coated polymeric float effectively disintegrates the bacteria by adsorption and diffusion to cause complete disintegration of cell membrane and thus disinfects water.

  14. Research Notes

    1. Preliminary Ultrasonication Affects the Rate of the Bacteriorhodopsin Bleaching and the Effectiveness of the Reconstitution Process in Bacterioopsin

      Anna B. Druzhko and Sergey K. Pirutin

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12275

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      A high-concentrated BR suspension is bleached in a PHA reaction at a very low rate. To accelerate this reaction the preliminary ultrasonication (kGz range) has been used. This is largely responsible for increasing the rate of this reaction and high quality of resulted apomembrane. A further process of apomembrane reconstitution with retinal relies upon preliminary ultrasonication (kGz range) of a high-concentrated apomembrane either. After ultrasonication the effectiveness of reconstitution has been increased. The quantitative characteristics of two processes depend upon types of BR strains. So, we offer a simple way to enhance the PM bleaching and AM reconstitution.

  15. Research Articles

    1. Sun exposure and Protection Behavior of Danish Farm Children: Parental Influence on Their Children

      Mette Bodekær Larsen, Bibi Petersen, Peter Alshede Philipsen, Antony Young, Elisabeth Thieden and Hans Christian Wulf

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12280

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      We examined sun exposure and protection behavior in children, and the association to their parents. Sun behavior was recorded daily during summer (15 985 diary days) and the Pigment Protection Factor (PPF) was used as an objective measure of sun exposure. Risk behavior (upper body sun exposure) was exhibited on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys’ and girls’ sun exposure produced an increased photo protection of 1.7 and 0.9 SED (upper arm), respectively, and 0.8 and 0.5 SED (shoulder), respectively. Boys’ sunscreen use and girls’ number of risk days and sun exposure correlated with their mothers.

    2. “Pointsource” Delivery of a Photosensitizer Drug and Singlet Oxygen: Eradication of Glioma Cells In Vitro

      Ashwini A. Ghogare, Imran Rizvi, Tayyaba Hasan and Alexander Greer

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12274

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      A sensitizer-tipped microoptic device for the eradication of glioma U87 cells is described. The device has a porous silica tip that emits 1O2 molecules and small quantities of pheophorbide sensitizer for additional production of 1O2 in the immediate vicinity. The implication of these results for a new PDT tool of hard-to-resect tumors, e.g. in the brain, is discussed.

    3. Excited State Photoreaction between the Indole Side Chain of Tryptophan and Halocompounds Generates New Fluorophores and Unique Modifications

      Carol L. Ladner, Khai Tran, Mary Le, Raymond J. Turner and Robert A. Edwards

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12279

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      Several fluorophores were produced by photoreactions between the amino acid tryptophan and halocompounds. The reaction with trihalocompounds in aqueous solution yielded products with carbonyl groups conjugated to the aromatic system at the 4 and 6 positions of the indole fluorophore and led to emission near 500 nm. This photoreaction also proceeded with monohalocompounds, but resulted in additions to the indole fluorophore without enlarging the conjugated systems so that the fluorescence properties of the indole in tryptophan did not change significantly.

    4. Observation of Magnetic Field Effects on Transient Fluorescence Spectra of Cryptochrome 1 From Homing Pigeons

      Xian-li Du, Jing Wang, Wei-song Pan, Qi-jun Liu, Xiao-jie Wang and Wen-jian Wu

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12276

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      Cryptochrome is suggested to be the most probable candidate magnetoreceptor in bird magnetoreception. Two members of cryptochrome/photolyase family have been found to be sensitive to the magnetic field and the magnetic sensitivity was proposed to be the general feature of this protein family. In this study, we constructed a magnetic field by Helmholtz coils and tested the magnetic field effects on the transient fluorescence of cryptochrome from homing pigeons at room temperature. Our results showed that, comparing to other flavin controls, the transient fluorescence of clCRY1 protein is sensitive to microtesla level magnetic field.

    5. Chlorin e6 Derivative Radachlorin Mainly Accumulates in Mitochondria, Lysosome and Endoplasmic Reticulum and Shows High Affinity toward Tumors in Nude Mice in Photodynamic Therapy

      Raktim Biswas, Jeong Hwan Moon and Jin-Chul Ahn

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12273

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      Cellular uptake and tumor affinity of chlorin e6 photosensitizer, radachlorin were studied in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and xenograft nude mice model. Results showed radachlorin mainly accumulated in mitochondria and partially in lysosome and endoplasmic reticulum. It showed a higher accumulation in tumor site within 3–6 h and was further cleared from the tumor in next 24–48 h. Radachlorin also showed a higher efficacy in photodynamic therapy after 6 h of drug injection. Therefore, the knowledge of possible sites and time of photosensitizers accumulation in tumor cells may help in optimizing the efficacy of PDT.

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