Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 93 Issue 1

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean Cadet

Impact Factor: 2.008

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 45/72 (Biophysics); 205/289 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1751-1097


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  1. Special Issue Invited Review

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      Selected Least Studied but not Forgotten Bioluminescent Systems

      Yuichi Oba, Cassius V. Stevani, Anderson G. Oliveira, Aleksandra S. Tsarkova, Tatiana V. Chepurnykh and Ilia V. Yampolsky

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12704

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      Bioluminescent organisms are found in 800 genera of 13 phyla and 4 kingdoms of Life. They use ~50 distinct independently evolved bioluminescence systems comprising different chemical components: luciferin–luciferase pairs or photoproteins. Currently, the chemical structures of these components are known for only nine bioluminescence systems. Here, we review the current status and perspectives, in the context of postgenomic era, of novel bioluminescence systems of 10 selected organisms under study by the international collaborative project led by the authors: earthworm, parchment tubeworm, fireworm, scaleworm, limpet, millipede, brittle star, acorn worms, tunicate and shark.

  2. Research Articles

    1. A Comparison of Dose Metrics to Predict Local Tumor Control for Photofrin-mediated Photodynamic Therapy

      Haixia Qiu, Michele M. Kim, Rozhin Penjweini, Jarod C. Finlay, Theresa M. Busch, Tianhao Wang, Wensheng Guo, Keith A. Cengel, Charles B. Simone II, Eli Glatstein and Timothy C. Zhu

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12719

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      This preclinical study examines light fluence, photodynamic therapy (PDT) dose and “apparent reacted singlet oxygen,” [1O2]rx, to predict local control rate (LCR) for Photofrin-mediated PDT of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors. LCR was stratified for different dose metrics for 74 mice (66 + 8 control). Complete tumor control at 14 days was observed for [1O2]rx ≥ 1.1 mm or PDT dose ≥1200 µm J cm−2 but cannot be predicted with fluence alone. LCR increases with increasing [1O2]rx and PDT dose but is not well correlated with fluence. Comparing dosimetric quantities, [1O2]rx outperformed both PDT dose and fluence in predicting tumor response and correlating with LCR.

    2. UVA Light-mediated Ascorbate Oxidation in Human Lenses

      Stefan Rakete and Ram H. Nagaraj

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12717

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      This study shows that UVA light (320–400 nm) can oxidize human lens ascorbate and decrease glutathione levels. The combined effects are a decline in ascorbate reduction and an increase in the production of α-dicarbonyl compounds. The latter can react with lens proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can cross-link proteins and could contribute to lens aging and cataract formation.

    3. In vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopic Analysis of the Effects of Infrared Radiation in the Human Skin Dermis

      Monica Bergamo Lopes, Ramu Rajasekaran, Ana Clara Figueira Lopes Cançado and Airton Abrahão Martin

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12701

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      Infrared (IR) radiation is capable of penetrating deeply into the skin producing free radicals and irreversible damage. In this regard, confocal Raman spectroscopy is considered for the in vivo analysis of the different metabolic conditions, and we verify the influence of IR radiation on the skin dermis after having been exposed to 432 J cm−2. On average, no significant variations were observed in group I, and decreased collagen was observed in group II. However, when considered individually, collagen degradation was detected in 60% of volunteers.

    4. Computed Regioselectivity and Conjectured Biological Activity of Ene Reactions of Singlet Oxygen with the Natural Product Hyperforin

      Inna Abramova, Benjamin Rudshteyn, Joel F. Liebman and Alexander Greer

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12706

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      This is a theoretical study of “ene” reactions of singlet oxygen with hyperforin. Shown is a brief compass to give directions of prenyl locations where the southern part of the natural product is more susceptible to singlet oxygenation.

    5. Bimodal Targeting Using Sulfonated, Mannosylated PEI for Combined Gene Delivery and Photodynamic Therapy

      Upendra Chitgupi, Yi Li, Mingfu Chen, Shuai Shao, Marie Beitelshees, Myles Joshua Tan, Sriram Neelamegham, Blaine A. Pfeifer, Charles Jones and Jonathan F. Lovell

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12688

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      Polyethyleneimine (PEI), an amine-rich, cationic polymer is modified with sulfonate and mannose groups. This results in targeting to cells that express selectins and mannose receptors. The polymer is also modified with pyropheophorbide-a, a photosensitizer. The modified polymer is demonstrated for use both as a targeted photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy and as a vector for gene delivery.

    6. Chemiluminescence of Cigarette Smoke: Salient Features of the Phenomenon

      Galina F. Fedorova, Valery A. Menshov, Aleksei V. Trofimov, Yury B. Tsaplev, Rostislav F. Vasil'ev and Olga I. Yablonskaya

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12689

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      Chemiluminescence of cigarette smoke comes about from an excited-state generation in a unimolecular transformation of the smoke-borne free radical species, while a predominant disappearance of the latter is bimolecular. The particulate phase (tar) of the smoke exhibits remarkable antiradical propensity manifested by the decrease in the α value upon increasing the smoke tar content.

    7. The Anthocyanins, Oenin and Callistephin, Protect RPE Cells Against Oxidative Stress

      Sally M. Yacout and Elizabeth R. Gaillard

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12683

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      The antioxidant properties of the anthocyanins oenin and callistephin were tested in photo-stressed retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Intracellular ROS production and mitochondrial redox activity was assessed in response to blue light irradiation. LC/MS was used to identify oxidation products of these anthocyanins and elucidate structural modifications. A decrease in intracellular ROS with concurrent increase in mitochondrial redox activity was observed for oenin while callistephin was beneficial to stressed cells at higher concentrations. In vitro, oenin and callistephin behave as antioxidants against blue light-mediated photo-oxidation in human RPE cells and may offer an accessible means of preventing oxidative damage to RPE cells.

  3. Special Issue Invited Reviews

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      Crosstalk Among UV-Induced Inflammatory Mediators, DNA Damage and Epigenetic Regulators Facilitates Suppression of the Immune System

      Ram Prasad and Santosh K. Katiyar

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12687

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      Crosstalk among UV radiation-induced inflammatory mediators, DNA damage and epigenetic regulators results in photo-immunosuppression. UVB radiation-induced photodamage initiates migration of antigen-presenting cells from skin to regional lymph nodes, where they present antigen to T cells in an unusual way. UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and DNA damage affect epigenetic regulators and all together play crucial roles in suppression of immune system in UV radiation-exposed mouse skin. This suppression of immune system is implicated in skin cancer risk.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Subcellular Targeting as a Determinant of the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy

      David Kessel

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12692

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      A very low level of prior or simultaneous lysosomal photodamage (NPe6) can convert a 10% photokilling effect from mitochondrial photodamage (BPD) into an LD50 effect.

  5. Special Issue Invited Reviews

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      Autophagy in UV Damage Response

      Ashley Sample and Yu-Ying He

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12691

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      Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure has a number of effects on skin cells, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Recent evidence has shown that autophagy is also activated by UV to mediate the complex response to UV-induced stress. This review investigates the current understanding of the role of autophagy in UV response and UV-induced disease, as well as the implications of autophagy modulation in the treatment or prevention of skin cancer.

  6. Invited Reviews

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      Fluorescent Protein–photoprotein Fusions and Their Applications in Calcium Imaging

      Adil Bakayan, Beatriz Domingo, Cecilia F. Vaquero, Nadine Peyriéras and Juan Llopis

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12682

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      The Ca2+-activated photoprotein aequorin has been widely used to measure Ca2+ dynamics in cells and living organisms. Chimeric fusion proteins between GFP or related fluorescent proteins and aequorin have been constructed to provide various hues for multicolor imaging or for multiplexing assays. These genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators, whose expression levels can be conveniently followed by fluorescence, show increased stability within live cells and enhanced total luminescence capacity. We review the available photoproteins, the rationale and strategies used for shifting their emission, and examples of biological applications targeted to organelles, microdomains, cell types or in vivo in transgenic organisms.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Cation- and Anion-Substituted Potassium Manganese Phosphate, KMnP3O9: Luminescence and Photocatalytic Studies

      Sudhakar Reddy Chandiri, Ravi Gundeboina, Sreenu Kurra, Ravinder Guje, Malathi Maligi and Vithal Muga

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12673

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      The framework structure of KMnP3O9 is built from P3O93- anions sharing corners or edges with MnO6 polyhedra. Potassium ions are located in P3O9 tunnels and surrounded by six oxygen atoms.

  8. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Cloning of the Orange Light-Producing Luciferase from Photinus scintillans—A New Proposal on how Bioluminescence Color is Determined

      Bruce R. Branchini, Tara L. Southworth, Danielle M. Fontaine, Martha H. Murtiashaw, Alex McGurk, Munya H. Talukder, Rakhshi Qureshi, Deniz Yetil, Jesse A. Sundlov and Andrew M. Gulick

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12671

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      Photograph of a live Photinus scintillans male firefly provided by Dr. Heloise DeRosis Morgan next to an in vitro bioluminescence reaction produced by mixing its luciferase with beetle luciferin and ATP. The recombinant enzyme, which was produced from the corresponding cloned gene, produced light of identical color as that observed from the live firefly. We determined that the color of the light, which differs from the typical green, was determined by a single amino acid change. Additional mutagenesis and crystallographic results point to an active site H-bond network having a key role in color determination.

  9. Research Notes

    1. Daily Variation of UV-induced Erythema and the Action of Solar Filters

      Ana Flo, Ana C. Calpena, Antoni Díez-Noguera, Alfons del Pozo and Trinitat Cambras

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12670

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      UV-induced erythema in hairless rats was tested at two times of the day using a colorimeter method. Erythema was detected when irradiation occurred 4 hours after the activity onset of the animals (16 HALO), but not at 4 HALO. Variables a*, R and x were all useful to measure erythema. However, the action of the solar filters was only detected using a* and only at 16 HALO.

  10. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Tyr72 and Tyr80 are Involved in the Formation of an Active Site of a Luciferase of Copepod Metridia longa

      Marina D. Larionova, Svetlana V. Markova and Eugene S. Vysotski

      Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12694

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      Luciferase from copepod Metridia longa is a naturally secreted enzyme catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of coelenterazine with the emission of blue light. To date, the spatial structure of luciferase and the function of certain amino acids in bioluminescent reaction are still undetermined. From the quenching studies on intrinsic tyrosine fluorescence of the smallest isoform of M. longa luciferase and its tyrosine mutants with substitutions to Phe (Y72F and Y80F), we infer that both tyrosine residues are localized in the active site of luciferase.

    2. A Novel Streptavidin–luciferase Fusion Protein: Preparation, Properties and Application in Hybridization Analysis of DNA

      Daria V. Smirnova, Maya Y. Rubtsova, Vitaly G. Grigorenko and Natalia N. Ugarova

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12666

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      A streptavidin–luciferase fusion protein comprising the thermostable mutant form of firefly luciferase Luciola mingrelica and minimal core streptavidin was produced in highly active tetrameric form and successfully applied in a biospecific bioluminescence assay based on biotin–streptavidin interactions. The DNA hybridization analysis for the specific identification of E. coli cells was developed using this fusion protein. The unique for these cells GadB fragment encoding glutamate decarboxylase was biotinylated during amplification, hybridized with the immobilized oligonucleotide probes; then, the biotin in the DNA duplexes was detected using the streptavidin–luciferase fusion protein.

    3. Spectroscopic Properties of Amine-substituted Analogues of Firefly Luciferin and Oxyluciferin

      Michio Kakiuchi, Soichiro Ito, Minoru Yamaji, Vadim R. Viviani, Shojiro Maki and Takashi Hirano

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12654

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      The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of firefly luciferin and oxyluciferin analogues with an amine substituent (NH2, NHMe and NMe2) at the C6’ position were studied. The electron donating strength of the amine substituent has important role to modulate their π-electronic, fluorescence and bioluminescence properties.

    4. Unanimous Model for Describing the Fast Bioluminescence Kinetics of Ca2+-regulated Photoproteins of Different Organisms

      Elena V. Eremeeva, Sergey I. Bartsev, Willem J. H. van Berkel and Eugene S. Vysotski

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12664

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      Bioluminescence of a great number of marine organisms, mostly coelenterates, is due to the presence of Ca2+-regulated photoproteins demonstrating the same bioluminescent kinetics pattern. In the present study, we investigate bioluminescence kinetics of the entire photoprotein family using five recombinant hydromedusan Ca2+-regulated photoproteins—aequorin from Aequorea victoria, clytin from Clytia gregaria, mitrocomin from Mitrocoma cellularia and obelins from Obelia longissima and Obelia geniculata. For the first time, we propose a unanimous kinetic model describing the bioluminescence mechanism of Ca2+-regulated photoproteins.

  11. Special Issue Invited Review

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      Perspectives on Bioluminescence Mechanisms

      John Lee

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12650

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      What's in the Bioluminescence Black Box? (1) The means by which vibrational energy of the transition state transforms into a product electronic state with more than 50% efficiency. (2) The direct evidence for the firefly luciferin and coelenterazine dioxetanones. (3) The nondioxetanone excitation mechanism in bacterial bioluminescence and identification of the emitter. (4) The variation within firefly luciferases from different species that explains how the bioluminescence color is modulated among species. (5) The interaction with their cognate antenna proteins, lumazine protein and GFP (Green-Fluorescent Protein), responsible for bioluminescence color tuning in the bacterial and coelenterazine systems.

  12. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Theoretical Study of Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence

      Ming-Yu Wang and Ya-Jun Liu

      Version of Record online: 2 DEC 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12657

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      This figure shows the schematic process of dinoflagellate bioluminescence. LCF is in blue. The excited state is in dark red with star and the ground state in gold.

  13. Special Issue Invited Reviews

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      Firefly Luciferase-based Fusion Proteins and their Applications in Bioanalysis

      Daria V. Smirnova and Natalia N. Ugarova

      Version of Record online: 30 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12656

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      Firefly luciferase is widely used in molecular biology and bioanalytical systems as a reporter molecule. The firefly luciferase-based fusion proteins are represented as an effective tool for the development of different bioanalytical systems, such as (1) systems in which luciferase is attached to the surface of the target and the bioluminescence signal is detected from the specific complexes formed; (2) BRET-based systems, in which the specific interaction induces changes in the bioluminescence spectrum; (3) systems that use modified or split-luciferases, in which the luciferase activity changes under the action of the analyte.

  14. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Cloning of the Blue Ghost (Phausis reticulata) Luciferase Reveals a Glowing Source of Green Light

      Bruce R. Branchini, Tara L. Southworth, Leah J. Salituro, Danielle M. Fontaine and Yuichi Oba

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12649

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      This time-lapse photograph by Spencer Black ( entitled “Searching for Love” is a beautiful illustration of the mysterious Blue Ghost (Phausis reticulata) fireflies on a summer night in North Carolina. We recently witnessed this fascinating natural display in the Dupont State Recreational Forest while collecting several adult males. Using tiny lanterns from 18 specimens, we cloned the Blue Ghost luciferase gene and then studied the properties of the corresponding enzyme. We offer an explanation for the mesmerizing bluish-white color of the luminous streaks and report the puzzling similarity of the luciferase to that of fireflies found only in Japan.

    2. Tibetan Firefly Luciferase with Low Temperature Adaptation

      Yasuo Mitani, Ryo Futahashi, Zichao Liu, Xingcai Liang and Yoshihiro Ohmiya

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12643

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      A firefly living in the Tibetan plateau, Shangri-La, was collected and analyzed for its luciferase activity using recombinant protein. The altitude of collecting place was more than 3300 m, and the temperature was around 10°C. The luciferase activity showed high activity at low temperature suggesting its adaptation to the habitat.

    3. Hybrid Minimal Core Streptavidin–Obelin as a Versatile Reporter for Bioluminescence-based Bioassay

      Eugenia E. Bashmakova, Vasilisa V. Krasitskaya, Alexander N. Kudryavtsev, Vitaly G. Grigorenko and Ludmila A. Frank

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12648

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      Novel hybrid protein possessing obelin's Ca2+-triggered bioluminescence and streptavidin's affinity to biotin moiety was developed and applied as a highly-sensitive bioluminescent reporter for binding assays.

    4. Skin Exposure to Ultraviolet B Rapidly Activates Systemic Neuroendocrine and Immunosuppressive Responses

      Cezary Skobowiat, Arnold E. Postlethwaite and Andrzej T. Slominski

      Version of Record online: 1 NOV 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12642

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      Possible neuroendocrine pathways involved in spleenic immunosuppressive action evoked by exposure of murine skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. UVB-induced afferent neural signals activate the central HPA axis resulting in pituitary proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH and adrenal corticosterone release to plasma. Slower immunosuppressive action, takes 12–24 h (upper part). UVB-induced afferent neuronal signals affect CNS and directly activate adrenal gland (CORT, neurotransmitters) and spleen (neurotransmitters, neuropeptides). Rapid immunosuppression, 30–90 min (lower part).

    5. Bioluminescent Enzymatic Assay as a Tool for Studying Antioxidant Activity and Toxicity of Bioactive Compounds

      Nadezhda S. Kudryasheva, Ekaterina S. Kovel, Anna S. Sachkova, Anna A. Vorobeva, Viktoriya G. Isakova and Grigoriy N. Churilov

      Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12639

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      Principles for evaluation of the toxic effect (lower line) and antioxidant effect (upper line) of fullerenols which were used as a representative of bioactive compounds.


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