Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 91 Issue 3

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean Cadet

Impact Factor: 2.684

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 36/74 (Biophysics); 161/291 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1751-1097

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  1. 1 - 19
  1. Research Articles

    1. Photo and Chemical Reduction of Copper onto Anatase-Type TiO2 Nanoparticles with Enhanced Surface Hydroxyl Groups as Efficient Visible Light Photocatalysts

      Hamed Eskandarloo, Alireza Badiei, Mohammad A. Behnajady and Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12455

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      The visible–light-induced photocatalytic activity of anatase-type TiO2 nanoparticles was enhanced by a combined process of copper reduction and surface hydroxyl groups enhancement.

    2. Effects of Silencing Heme Biosynthesis Enzymes on 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-mediated Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence and Photodynamic Therapy

      Xue Yang, Weihua Li, Pratheeba Palasuberniam, Kenneth A. Myers, Chenguang Wang and Bin Chen

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12454

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      Three heme biosynthesis enzymes porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and ferrochelatase (FECH) were silenced to evaluate its effects on aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in human breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Knockdown of PBGS or PBGD significantly decreased ALA-PpIX fluorescence and rendered resistance to PDT. In contrast, silence of FECH greatly sensitized cells to PDT by increasing ALA-PpIX production.

    3. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Biochemical Traits in Postharvest Flowers of Medicinal Chrysanthemum

      Chao Si, Xiao-Qin Yao, Xue-Li He, Jian-Zhou Chu, Chun-Hui Ma and Xiao-Fei Shi

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12450

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      This article mainly studied enhanced UV-B radiation effects on biochemical traits in postharvest flowers of chrysanthemum. The experiment included six levels of UV-B radiation (UV0, 0 μW cm−2; UV50, 50 μW cm−2; UV200, 200 μW cm−2; UV400, 400 μW cm−2; UV600, 600 μW cm−2 and UV800, 800 μW cm−2). The results indicated that UV-B effects on biochemical traits in postharvest flowers depended on UV-B radiation intensities, and enhanced UV-B radiation could promote secondary metabolism processes in postharvest flowers.

    4. Photodegradation of Hydrophobic Pyridineketoximes in Toluene and Heptane

      Karolina Wieszczycka and Joanna Zembrzuska

      Article first published online: 6 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12453

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      This study presents the photochemical reactivity of the hydrophobic 2- and 3- pyridineketoximes – (Z)-oxime of 1-(2-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one and (E)-oxime of 1-(3-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one – in toluene and heptane as solvent. The data indicated that the both oximes underwent significant E-Z photoisomerization, photo-Beckmann rearrangement and the photosubstitution to the pyridine ring. For example, in aliphatic solvent, the photo-Beckmann rearrangement of (Z)-oxime of 1-(2-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one led to the formation of 2-aminopyridine, eicosan-8-one and N-dodecylpyridine-2-carboxamide. In the case of (E)-oxime of 1-(3-pyridyl)tridecan-1-one, the photodegradation led to formation of N-dodecylpyridine-3-carboxamide, 3-aminopyridine and eicosan-8-one.

    5. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM

      Rajesh Prasad Rastogi, Ravi Raghav Sonani and Datta Madamwar

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12449

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      UV irradiances significantly affected the structural and functional integrity of biologically relevant molecules phycocyanin (PC, λmax: 615 nm), phycoerythrin (PE, λmax: 563 nm) and allophycocyanin (APC, λmax: 652 nm). UV radiation also affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). The spectroscopic as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) analyses of the PC, PE and APC of Lyngbya sp. showed a marked decrease in the PBPs content with an increase in UV exposure time. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation.

    6. Susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to Methylene Blue-Mediated Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: An in vitro Study

      Tinglu Ye, Bancheng Chen, Bo Yu, Qili Zhong, Guoxin Huang, Xiaoping Hu and Wei Zhang

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12438

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      This work investigated the susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum to methylene blue-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). When U. urealyticum strains were incubated with methylene blue for 20 or 60 min, irradiation with 633 nm red light led to a significant inactivation effect on the growth of U. urealyticum. Higher light dose, or longer incubation time with methylene blue induced more extensive inactivation of U. urealyticum. Thus, PACT provides a promising alternative treatment for resistant U. urealyticum infections.

  2. Invited Reviews

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      Photosensitizing Activity of Endogenous Eye Lens Chromophores: An Attempt to Unravel Their Contributions to Photo-Aging and Cataract Disease

      Felipe Avila, Bertrand Friguet and Eduardo Silva

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12443

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      Human eye lens aging is accompanied with the generation of numerous chromophores, which can be found at higher concentrations in cataractous lenses. In this review we discuss the presence and UVA-visible photosensitizing capacity of the main families of chromophores associated with the etiology and progression of human cataract disease.

  3. Research Articles

    1. High Final Energy of Low-Level Gallium Arsenide Laser Therapy Enhances Skeletal Muscle Recovery without a Positive Effect on Collagen Remodeling

      Carlos Eduardo Assumpção de Freitas, Raquel Santilone Bertaglia, Ivan José Vechetti Júnior, Edson Assunção Mareco, Rondinelle Artur Simões Salomão, Tassiana Gutierrez de Paula, Gisele Alborghetti Nai, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Francis Lopes Pacagnelli and Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12446

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      This study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at a high final energy (4.8 J) during muscle regeneration after cryoinjury. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs, 904 nm) laser applied for 5 days in two points of the lesion resulted in a significant decrease in the TNF-α and myogenin, without change in the TGF-β gene expression. The Injured/LLLT group presented a higher number of regenerating fibers and fewer degenerating fibers without changes in the collagen remodeling. The results suggest that the GaAs laser at a high final energy (4.8 J) promotes muscle recovery without changing the collagen remodeling.

    2. A Novel Microsensor for Measuring Angular Distribution of Radiative Intensity

      Thomas E. Murphy, Stuart Pilorz, Leslie Prufert-Bebout and Brad Bebout

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12452

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      Measurement of the directional dependence of radiative intensity is essential for understanding light transport in microbial mats, plant leaves, soils and phototrophic biofilms. Previously, measuring the directional intensity in these environments required inserting a field radiance probe with a small acceptance angle into a tissue at multiple angles, which required significant time and labor. This paper presents a novel differential acceptance angle (DAA) light probe, which can measure the directional intensity in light fields from a single location without reorienting the probe. We discuss the construction of the DAA probe and its performance compared to a conventional field radiance probe.

    3. Endogenous Retinoic Acid Required to Maintain the Epidermis Following Ultraviolet Light Exposure in SKH-1 Hairless Mice

      Katherine L. Gressel, F. Jason Duncan, Tatiana M. Oberyszyn, Krista M. La Perle and Helen B. Everts

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12441

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      Ultraviolet light B (UVB) exposure alters the expression of some retinoid metabolism proteins; but an analysis of the complete system in vivo is lacking. We analyzed the expression of retinoid metabolism proteins by immunohistochemistry 48 h after UVB treatment of SKH-1 mice. Acute UVB localized retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and signaling to the upper stratum granulosum; localized RA degradation to the lower stratum granulosum and stratum spinosum; and reduced retinoid storage. Inhibition of RA synthesis by disulfiram damaged the epidermis (image). These results suggest that endogenously synthesized RA is important in epidermal differentiation and repair following UVB exposure.

    4. Biomodulation of Inflammatory Cytokines Related to Oral Mucositis by Low-Level Laser Therapy

      Fernanda G. Basso, Taisa N. Pansani, Diana G. Soares, Débora L. Scheffel, Vanderlei S. Bagnato, Carlos Alberto de Souza Costa and Josimeri Hebling

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12445

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      This study evaluated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the expression of inflammatory cytokines involved in the development and severity of oral mucositis. Human gingival fibroblasts treated with LPS (Escherichia coli, 1 μg mL−1) were subjected to LLLT irradiation (LaserTABLE—InGaAsP diode prototype—780 nm, 25 mW) delivering 0, 0.5, 1.5, or 3 J cm². LLLT promoted significant decreases in the expression of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 at 1.5 J cm−2 and 3 J cm−2. These results demonstrate that LLLT promoted a beneficial biomodulatory effect on the expression of inflammatory cytokines related to oral mucositis by human gingival fibroblasts.

    5. Fluorescence Properties of Diphenylthiazolo[4,5-b]pyrazines Tuned by Donor-Acceptor Substituent Effects

      Tatsuki Nakagawa, Minoru Yamaji, Shojiro Maki, Haruki Niwa and Takashi Hirano

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12440

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      Fluorescence properties of 2,6- and 2,5-diphenylthiazolo[4,5-b]pyrazines having an electron-donating substituent (methoxy and dimethylamino) on the 6- and 5-phenyl groups were studied. Furthermore, 2,6-diphenyl derivatives having an additional cyano group on the 2-phenyl ring were developed, to give an excellent fluorophore.

    6. Salvianolic Acid B Protects Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts Against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Photoaging Through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase and Activator Protein-1 Pathways

      Zhengwang Sun, Sang-Yong Park, Eunson Hwang, Mengyang Zhang, Fengxie Jin, Baochun Zhang and Tae Hoo Yi

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12427

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      UV causes increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decreased collagen synthesis, leading to skin photoaging. We found that salvianolic acid B (SAB) significantly inhibited the UVB-induced expression of metalloproteinases-1 (MMP-1) while promoting the production of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Moreover, SAB strongly inhibited UVB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation, which resulted in decreasing UVB-induced phosphorylation of c-Fos and c-Jun. These results indicate that SAB down-regulates UV-induced MMP-1 expression by inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation.

    7. Luciferin-Regenerating Enzyme Mediates Firefly Luciferase Activation Through Direct Effects of D-Cysteine on Luciferase Structure and Activity

      Roohullah Hemmati, Saman Hosseinkhani, Reza H. Sajedi, Taha Azad, Amin Tashakor, Nuredin Bakhtiari and Farangis Ataei

      Article first published online: 18 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12430

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      The addition of D-cysteine in the absence of T69R T-LRE (closed circle) to luciferase reaction increased the bioluminescent level over time in comparison with a luciferase reaction containing D-cysteine in the presence of T69R T-LRE (closed diamond) and control (solid line). Thus, even in the presence of LRE the majority of this increase occurs from the direct effects of D-cysteine.

    8. Variability of Solar Radiation and CDOM in Surface Coastal Waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

      Richard Sempéré, Julien Para, Marc Tedetti, Bruno Charrière and Marc Mallet

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12434

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      The wavelengths 305 and 380 nm have been chosen as biologically effective wavelengths for the induction of DNA damages (CPDs) and photorepairs (PERs) respectively. The ratio of the mean doses received within the mixed layer at 305 and 380 nm [Q in % = H(m,305)]/H(m,380) × 100] along with the mixed layer depth (Zm) are presented. Q ratio can be considered as an indicator of changes in the balance between DNA damages (CPDs) and repairs (PERs). Clearly, Q increased with the stratification of the water column.

    9. Actual Isothermal Effects of Water-Filtered Infrared A-Irradiation

      Annika Höhn, Petra Hartmann, Veronika Gebhart, Johanna Sonntag, Tilman Grune and Tobias Jung

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12439

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      In this work, we exposed human dermal fibroblasts to water-filtered infrared A (wIRA)-irradiation under isothermal conditions in order to investigate changes in the parameters intracellular free calcium, mitochondrial membrane potential and radical production, DNA and protein oxidation, cell proliferation and protection against UVB.

    10. Human Hair as a Natural Sun Protection Agent: A Quantitative Study

      María Victoria de Gálvez, José Aguilera, Jean-Luc Bernabó, Cristina Sánchez-Roldán and Enrique Herrera-Ceballos

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12433

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      Hair provides a barrier against both UVB and UVA radiation which is significantly increased with respect to the hair density (A), thickness (B) and the presence of melanins (hair color) (C). This is the first study to quantify sun protection factor offered by hair, namely hair ultraviolet protection factor (HUPF). Hair should be recognized as an important natural sun barrier in the prevention of UV-induced skin cancers.

    11. Histopathological Analysis of UVB and IR Interaction in Rat Skin

      Vinícius C. Gonzalez, Ana C. M. Beheregaray, Bárbara M. Peres, Eliza S. V. Sallis, Antônio S. Varela Junior and Gilma S. Trindade

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12435

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      Chronic IR exposure before UVB irradiation can reduce some of the histopathological alterations caused by UVB while chronic IR exposure after UVB irradiation can enhance most of the histopathological features caused by UVB skin damage.

    12. Interfacial Engineering of CdO–CdSe 3D Microarchitectures with in situ Photopolymerized PEDOT for an Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance

      Iseul Lim, Dipak V. Shinde, Supriya A. Patil, Do Young Ahn, Wonjoo Lee, Nabeen K. Shrestha, Joong Kee Lee and Sung-Hwan Han

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12429

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      Interfacial engineering of 3D CdO–CdSe-microstructured film by deposition of PEDOT accelerates the interfacial electron transfer rate, and thereby the interfacial electron collection efficiency is enhanced. Thus, the short-circuit current of the device is enhanced significantly.

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