Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 91 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean Cadet

Impact Factor: 2.266

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 44/73 (Biophysics); 184/289 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1751-1097


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  1. Research Articles

    1. Effect of LED Blue Light on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum Strains

      María T. Lafuente and Fernando Alférez

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12519

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      The effect of LED blue light on growth and morphology of Penicillium digitatum strains resistant and sensitive to fungicides and Penicillium italicum, the major postharvest pathogens of citrus fruits, has been investigated. The photographs show how blue light (L) affects morphology and delays fungal growth with respect to the control cultures held under darkness (D). Results also show that blue light has a nonreversible detrimental effect on fungal growth and that spore germination is avoided by exposing the cultures of all strains to high blue light quantum flux.

    2. Noninvasive Optical Imaging of UV-Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Murine Skin: Studies of Early Tumor Development and Vitamin D Enhancement of Protoporphyrin IX Production

      Kishore R. Rollakanti, Sanjay Anand, Scott C. Davis, Brian W. Pogue and Edward V. Maytin

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12503

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      Newly formed squamous cell skin cancers on the back of a hairless mouse (top panel), observed at 24 weeks after the start of a UV-exposure protocol, selectively express high levels of protoporphyrin IX following a 4-h application of aminolevulinate and noninvasive fluorescence detection (bottom panel).

    3. Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyta) Avoids Cell Death Under Ultraviolet Radiation By Triggering Alternative Photoprotective Mechanisms

      María Segovia, Teresa Mata, Armando Palma, Candela García-Gómez, Rosario Lorenzo, Alicia Rivera and Félix L. Figueroa

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12502

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      Two modes of photoprotection under P and UVB, respectively (light-gray areas). The white area represents the photoprotective mechanism observed only under simultaneous P+UVB, i.e. incomplete protection if one of them is absent. Dark-gray area represents UVB-caused damage.

    4. Thermal Effects and Structural Changes of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers Characterized by Wide Frequency Band Hydrophone: Effects of Carotenoids and Terbutryn

      László Nagy, Vladimir Kiss, Vlad Brumfeld, Károly Osvay, Ádám Börzsönyi, Melinda Magyar, Tibor Szabó, Márta Dorogi and Shmuel Malkin

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12511

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      Photothermal characteristics and light induced structural (volume) changes of carotenoid containing and noncontaining photosynthetic reaction centers were investigated by wide frequency band hydrophone and compared. The presence of carotenoid either does not play considerable role in the light induced conformational movements or these rearrangements are slow enough for inducing the photoacoustic signal. Binding of terbutryne to the acceptor side of the RC contributes specifically to the overall RC dynamics. Our results do not confirm large displacements and volume changes induced by the charge relaxation processes existing in RCs in the microseconds time scale that accompanies the interquinone electron transfer.

  2. Invited Reviews

    1. You have free access to this content
      Rethinking the Concepts of Fluence (UV Dose) and Fluence Rate: The Importance of Photon-based Units – A Systemic Review

      James R. Bolton, Ian Mayor-Smith and Karl G. Linden

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12512

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      This diagram depicts the reactor that could be used to study photochemical or photobiological reactions in a collimated beam apparatus. The reactor is configured so that photons from the UV lamp that pass through the hole in the mask impinge directly on the surface of the solution, but no photons impinge on the walls of the dish. This diagram illustrates the fundamental concept in the paper, namely that photochemical and photobiological reactions should use photon-based terms, such as photon irradiance (einstein m−2 s−1), rather than power-based terms, such as irradiance (W m−2).

    2. You have free access to this content
      Photochemistry and Photobiology of the Spore Photoproduct: A 50-Year Journey

      Peter Setlow and Lei Li

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12506

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      In 1965, a thymine dimer was discovered as the dominant DNA photolesion in UV-irradiated endospores, which was later named the spore photoproduct (SP). Formation of SP is due to the unique environment in central core of endospores surrounded by several spore-specific layers, in which the genomic DNA adopts an A-conformation supporting SP photochemistry. Spore photoproducts, if unrepaired, are toxic to germinated bacteria; developments on synthetic chemistry now make it possible to understand the molecular basis of SP toxicity. This review covers the SP research in the past 50 years, which indicates a rich SP biology existing beyond endospores.

  3. Research Articles

    1. UV Sensitivity of Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues of Two Antarctic Brown Algae is Related to Differential Allocation of Phenolic Substances

      Pirjo Huovinen and Iván Gómez

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12500

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      Allocation and proportions of the soluble and insoluble phlorotannins could be related with UV tolerance of two Antarctic brown algae. In highly UV tolerant (measured as chlorophyll fluorescence) Ascoseira mirabilis, the insoluble phlorotannins were more abundant, while in the more UV sensitive Cystosphaera jacquinotii, the soluble fraction dominated. In C. jacquinotii, the receptacles showed higher UV tolerance than the vegetative blades. The reproductive tissues of both species contained more soluble phlorotannins than the vegetative tissues. High allocation of phenolic compounds in both reproductive and vegetative tissues of C. jacquinotii was confirmed by microscopical blue autofluorescence images of tissue cross-sections.

    2. Photodynamic Diagnosis Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid in 41 Biopsies for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

      Tetsuya Yamamoto, Eiichi Ishikawa, Shunichiro Miki, Noriaki Sakamoto, Alexander Zaboronok, Masahide Matsuda, Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Kei Nakai, Wataro Tsuruta and Akira Matsumura

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12510

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      Positive fluorescence was observed in 34 of 41 biopsies (82.9%) obtained under 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) for primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) as final pathological diagnosis. In 21 of the 34 biopsies (61.8%), an intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOD) of suspected PCNSL was made. In the remaining 13 biopsies, however, the IOD was either incorrect (atypical cell, 4; high-grade glioma, 1; gliosis, 1; unremarkable, 2) or not performed (5). PDD of biopsy samples in patients with suspected PCNSL is a feasible way to obtain accurate samples and may lead to improved diagnostic yield in the biopsy of PCNSL.

    3. Selective Activation of C=C Bond in Sustainable Phenolic Compounds from Lignin via Photooxidation: Experiment and Density Functional Theory Calculations

      Morgan Zielinski (Goldberg), Luke A. Burke and Alexander Samokhvalov

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12509

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      We report a selective photochemical and photocatalytic oxidative activation of C=C bond in sustainable phenolic compound from lignin, isoeugenol vs its isomer eugenol, as found for the first time. Photooxidation of isoeugenol to lignan dehydrodiisoeugenol (DHDIE) in solution has the following advantages vs chemical oxidation: 1) reaction proceeds only via internal C=C bond in isoeugenol, but not via terminal C=C bond in isomeric eugenol and 2) photooxidation of isoeugenol leads to fewer molecular products. We also report, for the first time, the density functional theory calculations of the stage-wise mechanism of oxidative “dimerization” of isoeugenol to DHDIE.

    4. Synergistic Photobactericidal Activity Based on Ultraviolet-A Irradiation and Ferulic Acid Derivatives

      Akihiro Shirai, Masato Kajiura and Takeshi Omasa

      Article first published online: 15 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12507

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      This study describes the inactivation of Escherichia coli by combined treatment with trans-ferulic acid or its derivatives and UV-A LED light. In particular, a trans-ferulic acid derivative modified with l-tyrosine (FA-Tyr) as a cationic moiety significantly reduced E. coli viability during UV-A irradiation, compared with UV-A irradiation alone. The strong photobactericidal effect results from the generation of reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals within bacterial cells, suggesting that the cationic property of the trans-ferulic acid derivative is important in mediating interaction with the bacterial cell surface.

    5. Baicalin Protects Keratinocytes from Toll-like Receptor-4 Mediated DNA Damage and Inflammation Following Ultraviolet Irradiation

      Wei Min, Israr Ahmad, Michelle E. Chang, Erin M. Burns, Qihong Qian and Nabiha Yusuf

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12505

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      UVB radiation causes both direct and indirect damage to the skin including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation and immunosuppression, which ultimately contribute to photocarcinogenesis. A plant-derived flavonoid, baicalin, has been shown to be effective as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenger. Baicalin treatment before and after UV radiation protected PAM212 keratinocytes from UVB-induced damage by inhibiting Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and its downstream signaling molecules, MyD88, TRIF, TRAF6 and IRAK4. This inhibition resulted in NF-κB inactivation and downregulation of iNOS and COX-2. Intracellular ROS and markers of DNA damage, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and 8-Oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine, were significantly reduced.

    6. Biochemical Characterization of the DASH-Type Cryptochrome CryD From Fusarium fujikuroi

      Marta Castrillo, Adrian Bernhardt, Javier Ávalos, Alfred Batschauer and Richard Pokorny

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12501

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      The study biochemically characterizes the heterologously expressed and purified DASH-type cryptochrome CryD that plays regulatory roles in Fusarium fujikuroi. As an example, CryD inhibits the light-induced accumulation of a red polyketide pigment bikaverin in F. fujikuroi mycelia. Colonies of F. fujikuroi wild-type strain (Wild type) and of a representative CryD null-mutant strain (ΔcryD) grown for 7 days at 30°C on a minimal medium with low nitrogen content in white light (Light) are colored differently whereas colonies of the two strains grown in darkness (Dark) show the same color.

    7. Photoisomerization of Trans Ortho-, Meta-, Para-Nitro Diarylbutadienes: A Case of Regioselectivity

      Harsha Agnihotri, Mahalingavelar Paramasivam, Veerabhadraiah Palakollu and Sriram Kanvah

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12504

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      Regioselective isomerization of o-nitrobutadiene derivatives.

    8. Preparation of Silver Carbonate and its Application as Visible Light-driven Photocatalyst Without Sacrificial Reagent

      Wei Jiang, Ya Zeng, Xiaoyan Wang, Xiaoning Yue, Shaojun Yuan, Houfang Lu and Bin Liang

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12495

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      As-prepared Ag2CO3 possessed high photocatalytic performance which can quickly decompose methyl orange and rhodamine B in less than 15 min under visible light irradiation. The calculated band gap of Ag2CO3 was 2.312 eV with VB edge potential of 2.685 eV and CB 0.373 eV. Photogenerated ozone anion radicals and holes are determined as the major active species in the oxidation–reduction degradation of dye with Ag2CO3. The generation of metallic silver resulted from photocorrosion slightly decayed the performance of Ag2CO3 after recycling. The simple preparation method and high photocatalytic performance of Ag2CO3 increases its prospect of application in future.

    9. Modulation of Melanogenesis and Antioxidant Status of Melanocytes in Response to Phototoxic Action of Doxycycline

      Jakub Rok, Ewa Buszman, Artur Beberok, Marcin Delijewski, Michał Otręba and Dorota Wrześniok

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12497

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      Doxycycline enhances an UVA-mediated phototoxicity in normal human melanocytes.

    10. Model for Optimization of the UV-A/Riboflavin Strengthening (cross-linking) of the Cornea: Percolation Threshold

      Anton Semchishen, Michael Mrochen and Vladimir Semchishen

      Article first published online: 11 AUG 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12498

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      To achieve the maximum level of collagen strengthening within the shortest treatment time possible, we have developed a mathematical model which is used to optimize the process of corneal cross-linking. This model is able to predict the temporal and spatial distribution of generated cross-links within the corneal stroma and hence the increase in the elasticity modulus. Theory predicts corneal strengthening at low radiation intensities and the absence of the strengthening effect at radiation intensities above the threshold level, which agrees with the experimental results. The model accounts for the initial riboflavin concentration and bleaching, light intensity and time of illumination.

    11. The Synthesis and Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Array by Starch-Modified Anodic Oxidation

      Fengjun Zhang, Zijian Liu, Wei Lu, Cong Lyu, Chuan Lyu and Xiansheng Wang

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12471

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      The TiO2 nanotube arrays were prepared by anodization process with starch addition. With the starch addition, the viscosity of the electrolyte was controlled, which modified the prepared nanotubes grew completely. The as-prepared nanotubes possessed well uniformed and higher photodegradation responsive than the pure TiO2, and consequently enhancing the photochromic properties.


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