Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 92 Issue 2

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean Cadet

Impact Factor: 2.266

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 44/73 (Biophysics); 184/290 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1751-1097

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  1. 1 - 15
  1. Research Articles

    1. Photocatalytic Treatment of Desalination Concentrate Using Optical Fibers Coated With Nanostructured Thin Films: Impact of Water Chemistry and Seasonal Climate Variations

      Lu Lin, Huiyao Wang, Hongmei Luo and Pei Xu

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12589

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      High ionic strength and divalent electrolyte ions in desalination concentrate accelerated photocatalytic process, whereas the presence of carbonate species and organic matter hindered photodegradation of organic contaminants. Photodegradation efficiency increased with increasing solar irradiation intensity and temperature. Outdoor testing of immobilized continuous-flow photoreactors suggested that the catalyst-coated SOFs can utilize a wide spectrum of natural sunlight and achieved durable photocatalytic performance.

    2. An Understanding of the Photocatalytic Properties and Pollutant Degradation Mechanism of SrTiO3 Nanoparticles

      Luís F. da Silva, Osmando F. Lopes, Vagner R. de Mendonça, Kele T. G. Carvalho, Elson Longo, Caue Ribeiro and Valmor R. Mastelaro

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12586

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      Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) nanoparticles have attracted much attention due to their physical and chemical properties, especially as photocatalysts under UV irradiation. SrTiO3 nanospheres were obtained by polymeric precursor method and evaluated on the degradation of organic pollutants. All of the photocatalysts showed a good activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange dyes, driven by a nonselective process. The SrTiO3 sample with the largest particle size exhibited a higher photoactivity per unit area, independent of the molecule to be degraded. The photodegradation of MB dye catalyzed by SrTiO3 is caused by the action of valence band holes.

    3. The CO Photodissociation and Recombination Dynamics of the W172Y/F282T Ligand Channel Mutant of Rhodobacter sphaeroides aa3 Cytochrome c Oxidase

      Jennifer A. Cassano, Sylvia K. Choi, William McDonald, Istvan Szundi, Terra R. Villa Gawboy, Robert B. Gennis and Ólöf Einarsdóttir

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12587

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      We investigated the effect of mutating the tryptophan and phenylalanine residues that define the narrowing of the ligand channel in Rhodobacter sphaeroides aa3 to the less bulky tyrosine and threonine, respectively. Our time-resolved optical absorption results show that the major CO recombination process in the mutant (44 μs) is 500 times faster than in the wild type (~23 ms). Classical molecular dynamics simulations of the double mutant show significant changes at the active site that effectively close the ligand exit pathway from the binuclear center, providing a structural basis for the faster CO recombination in the double mutant.

    4. Caffeic Acid Inhibits Chronic UVB-Induced Cellular Proliferation Through JAK-STAT3 Signaling in Mouse Skin

      Balupillai Agilan, N. Rajendra Prasad, Govindasamy Kanimozhi, Ramasamy Karthikeyan, Muthusamy Ganesan, Shanmugam Mohana, Devadasan Velmurugan and Dhanapalan Ananthakrishnan

      Article first published online: 21 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12588

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      Caffeic acid (CA) inhibits chronic UVB-induced carcinogenesis in mouse skin through modulating JAK-STAT3 signaling. UVB-mediated inflammatory cytokines like IL-10 activate membrane receptors which activate JAK signaling. Activated JAK induces phosphorylation and dimerization of STAT3 which translocates to the nucleus for transcription. STAT3 activates the expression of inflammatory proteins (IL-6, IL-10), proliferative markers (Cyclin-D1, PCNA) and apoptotic markers (Bcl2, Bcl-xl) in mouse skin. CA inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation and dimerization by binding Leu706, thereby preventing STAT3-mediated carcinogenesis. Crosses indicate preventive role of CA. Green color sticky tool indicates inhibitory role of CA. Green arrow indicates downregulation of JAK by CA.

    5. Accelerated Regeneration of ATP Level after Irradiation in Human Skin Fibroblasts by Coenzyme Q10

      Daniel Schniertshauer, Sonja Müller, Tobias Mayr, Tanja Sonntag, Daniel Gebhard and Jörg Bergemann

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12583

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      Being the main site of ROS generation in the cell, mitochondria are particularly affected by photostress. The resulting mitochondrial dysfunction may have negative effects on many essential cellular processes. To counteract these effects, CoQ10 is used as a therapeutic in a number of diseases. We observed that CoQ10 is able to preserve the mitochondrial membrane potential after SSL-UVA irradiation (d, e), decrease the level of mitochondrial dysfunction (a, b) and lead therefore to a more rapid regeneration of the cellular ATP levels in human fibroblasts (c). We conclude that the protective effect of CoQ10 is primarily mediated via its antioxidative function.

    6. Hydrothermal Preparation and Characterization of TiO2/BiVO4 Composite Catalyst and its Photolysis of Water to Produce Hydrogen

      Zicong Jian, Shaobin Huang, Yaya Cao and Yongqing Zhang

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12575

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      TiO2/BiVO4 composite catalyst was synthesized using a reverse microemulsion method. Hydrothermal aging treatment was carried out on the as-made mixture to produce BVO composite catalyst. The formed samples were chunky grains of irregular crystals 30–70 nm in diameter, with specific surface areas of up to 112 m2 g−1, and wide light response ranges to the visible region. For water photolysis, the prepared bismuth vanadate was incapable of producing hydrogen under any light source, but the composite catalyst had good hydrogen production capability. After 120 min ultraviolet light irradiation, 1 mL of hydrogen was produced.

    7. Electric Field-Assisted Photochemical Water Splitting Should Operate with 287 nm Light

      Vinzenz Bachler and Wolfgang Gärtner

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12578

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      MOs characterizing the electronic structure of the Frank-Condon 11B1 and 11A2 states of water influenced by an external electric field. The field impact should induce homolytic water splitting.

    8. Functional and Photochemical Characterization of a Light-Driven Proton Pump from the Gammaproteobacterium Pantoea vagans

      Yuki Sudo and Susumu Yoshizawa

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12585

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      Photoactive retinal proteins are widely distributed throughout the domains of the microbial world. Here we describe new retinal proteins belonging to a phylogenetic clade with a unique DTG motif. They function as light-driven outward electrogenic proton pumps. We further characterized one of these proteins, Pantoea vagans rhodopsin (PvR), spectroscopically. On the basis of the results, we propose a putative model for the photoreaction of PvR.

    9. High Temperature Affects Photosynthetic and Molecular Processes in Field-Cultivated Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis labrusca L.

      Qian Zha, Xiaojun Xi, Aili Jiang and Yihua Tian

      Article first published online: 29 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12584

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      Protective mechanisms of PS II, which included the changes in PS II activity and the expression levels of heat-response genes and HSP21, rapidly responded to heat stress at a critical high temperature (above 40°C) under field or controlled condition. Finally, the recovery of changes at 6 day suggested that grapes enhanced thermotolerance under heat stress by photosynthetic processes.

    10. Self-Reported Changes in Sun-Protection Behaviors at Different Latitudes in Australia

      Ngadiman Djaja, Monika Janda, Robyn M. Lucas, Simone L. Harrison, Ingrid van der Mei, Peter R. Ebeling, Rachel E. Neale, David C. Whiteman, Madeleine Nowak and Michael G. Kimlin

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12582

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      Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun is the most important source of vitamin D, but is also a risk factor for skin cancer. People who worried about their vitamin D status were more likely to have altered their sun protection behaviors and spent more time in the sun than those not worried about vitamin D. Use of novel item response theory analysis highlighted the potential impact of such behavior change on skin cancer predisposition. The strongest determinants of self-reported sun protection behavior changes due to vitamin D concerns were attitudes and location, with people at higher latitudes worrying more.

    11. Stress Tolerance of the Endemic Antarctic Brown Alga Desmarestia anceps to UV Radiation and Temperature is Mediated by High Concentrations of Phlorotannins

      María Rosa Flores-Molina, Ralf Rautenberger, Pamela Muñoz, Pirjo Huovinen and Iván Gómez

      Article first published online: 20 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12580

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      In this study, we examine whether the different physiological abilities allowing D. anceps to grow across a wide depth range is determined by high levels of phlorotannins (UV-protective compounds). Photosynthesis, soluble phlorotannins content and antioxidant capacities were analyzed in response to different radiation (PAR and PAR+UV) and temperature (2, 7 and 12°C) conditions. High levels of soluble phlorotannins were detected and positively correlated with ROS scavenging capacity. In general, highest contents of phlorotannins were correlated with the lowest inhibition of Fv/Fm in all experimental treatments, highlighting the UV-protective role of these compounds in D. anceps.

    12. Effects of Narrow-band IR-A and of Water-Filtered Infrared A on Fibroblasts

      Lilla Knels, Monika Valtink, Helmut Piazena, Jamlec de la Vega Marin, Kerstin Gommel, Amelie Lupp, Cora Roehlecke, Mirko Mehner and Richard H. W. Funk

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12579

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      Irradiating the skin with electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths between 670 nm and 1400 nm is often used to improve wound healing and reduce pain. We investigated the effects of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) and of light-emitting diode (LED)-emitted narrow-band IR-A (LED-IR-A) on 3T3 fibroblast cultures. Glyoxal was added to mimic a diabetic metabolic state. We observed that IR-A treatment enhanced the vital status of the cells, especially the oxidative status. The immediate positive effects of wIRA and LED-IR-A observed in living cells, particularly on their mitochondria, reflect the therapeutic benefits of wIRA and LED-IR-A.

    13. The Lack of Lutein Accelerates the Extent of Light-induced Bleaching of Photosynthetic Pigments in Thylakoid Membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana

      Konstantin Dobrev, Daniela Stanoeva, Maya Velitchkova and Antoaneta V. Popova

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12576

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      The lack of lutein accelerates the process of high light-induced bleaching of photosynthetic pigments and protein degradation in isolated thylakoid membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana. The most intensive bleaching is observed for chlorophyll a followed by that of carotenoids. High-light treatment leads to intensive degradation of the (light-harvesting complex) LHCI proteins and of PsbS and to a less extent of LHCII proteins. The lack of lutein affects to some extent the light-induced reorganization of pigment–protein complexes in thylakoid membranes as revealed by 77 K fluorescence.

  2. Research Notes

    1. UVB Generates Microvesicle Particle Release in Part Due to Platelet-activating Factor Signaling

      Ji C. Bihl, Christine M. Rapp, Yanfang Chen and Jeffrey B. Travers

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12577

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      In this study, we demonstrated that ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation generates microvesicle particles (MVP) release from epithelial cells. We have discovered that activation of the keratinocyte platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R) results in MVP release, and using an epithelial cell line with/without PAF-Rs, we demonstrate that UVB generates MVP via PAF-R signaling. Importantly, UVB-generated PAF agonist formation and MVP release are blocked by antioxidants. Yet, antioxidants do not affect MVP release in response to a PAF agonist. This study suggests that UVB generates MVP release from epithelial cells, which could provide a potential mechanism for UVB-mediated systemic signaling.

  3. Research Articles

    1. New Insight into the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein from Lepidium virginicum

      Adam Kell, Dominika Bednarczyk, Khem Acharya, Jinhai Chen, Dror Noy and Ryszard Jankowiak

      Article first published online: 14 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12581

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      The water-soluble chlorophyll protein from Lepidium virginicum binds four chlorophyll pigments per protein tetramer. The presence of uncorrelated energy transfer between dimers is demonstrated, which explains the red shifted fluorescence origin band. Experimental evidence is provided that electron exchange between lowest energy chlorophylls and the protein may occur, i.e. electrons can be trapped at low temperature by nearby tryptophan residues. The latter explains the shape of nonresonant hole-burned spectra, demonstrating that the hole-burning process in this pigment-protein complex is largely photochemical in nature.

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