Photochemistry and Photobiology

Cover image for Vol. 90 Issue 5

Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)

Edited By: Jean Cadet

Impact Factor: 2.684

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 36/74 (Biophysics); 161/291 (Biochemistry & Molecular Biology)

Online ISSN: 1751-1097

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  1. 1 - 28
  1. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Photo-Wolff Rearrangement of 2-Diazo-1,2-naphthoquinone: Stern–Volmer Analysis of the Stepwise Reaction Pathway

      Manfred Ladinig, Markus Ramseier and Jakob Wirz

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12341

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      A quantitative assessment of the stepwise versus concerted photodeazotization pathways of 2-diazo-1,2-naphthoquinone (1) forming ketene 3 is provided. Trapping of the carbene intermediate 2 by methanol yields 2-methoxy-1-naphthol (4) in up to 12% yield. [3+2]Cycloaddition of 2 and acetonitrile yielding 2-methylnaphth[2,1-d]oxazole (5) was also observed. The lifetime of the thermalized carbene 2 is at least 200 ps. A comparison of the yields of 5 formed upon photolysis and upon thermolysis of 1 in acetonitrile provides evidence that a substantial part of the hot nascent carbene 2 formed photolytically rearranges to the ketene 3 during its vibrational relaxation (hot ground-state reaction).

  2. Research Articles

    1. Photocatalysis of Chloroform Decomposition by Tetrachlorocuprate (II) on Dowex 2-X8

      Brent M. Harvey and Patrick E. Hoggard

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12336

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      In the presence of CuCl42- heterogenized on a Dowex anion exchange resin, chloroform is decomposed under irradiation at wavelengths above 345 nm.

    2. Photocatalytic Degradation of Glyphosate in Water by N-Doped SnO2/TiO2 Thin-Film-Coated Glass Fibers

      Peerawas Kongsong, Lek Sikong, Sutham Niyomwas and Vishnu Rachpech

      Article first published online: 25 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12338

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      The N-doped SnO2/TiO2 films were prepared via sol–gel method, and coated on E-glass fibers by dipping method. Nitrogen doping resulted in shifting the absorption wavelength and narrowing the band gap energy leads to enhancement of photocatalytic performance. The optimal 20N/SnO2/TiO2 composite thin film exhibits about four-folds of glyphosate degradation rates compared to TiO2 and undoped SnO2/TiO2 as the tests performed under solar light irradiation.

    3. Directed Improvement of Luciferin Regenerating Enzyme Binding Properties: Implication of Some Conserved Residues in Luciferin-Binding Domain

      Roohullah Hemmati, Reza H. Sajedi, Nuredin Bakhtiari and Saman Hosseinkhani

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12328

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      The addition of T-LRE single mutant T69R (LRE from Iranian firefly L. turkestanicus) to luciferin–luciferase reaction leads to decrease in bioluminescence decay over the time in comparison with wild-type T-LRE and control.

    4. Observation of In vivo Morphologic Changes after Carbon Dioxide Ablative Fractional Laser in a Mouse Model Using Noninvasive Imaging Modalities and Comparison with Histologic Examination

      Kwang Ho Yoo, Tae Rin Kwon, So Young Kim, Yi Seop Song, Young Sook Cheon, Yu Mi Kim, In Kwon Yeo, Eun Jung Ko, Kapsok Li, Myeung Nam Kim and Beom Joon Kim

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12313

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      The ability to observe skin changes in vivo is important when evaluating the efficacy of laser treatment. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of the CO2 ablative fractional laser through using noninvasive imaging modalities (Folliscope® and Visioscan 98®) and tissue analysis. Although numerous previous reports have described a similar function of this laser in in vivo skin specimens, in this study we analyzed treatment effectiveness by noninvasive imaging modalities. Based on our data, we suggest that these technologies may be useful alternative modalities for assessing laser ablation that are easier to perform and less invasive than skin biopsy.

    5. Photodynamic Inactivation of Bacterial and Yeast Biofilms With a Cationic Porphyrin

      Sandra Beirão, Sara Fernandes, Joel Coelho, Maria A. F. Faustino, João P. C. Tomé, Maria G. P. M. S. Neves, Augusto C. Tomé, Adelaide Almeida and Angela Cunha

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12331

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      Irradiation with white light up to an energy dose of 64.8 J cm−2 in the presence of 20 µm of the cationic porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin tetra-iodide caused a reduction of 3–6 log in the concentration of viable cells in biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and a 81% decrease in the concentration of polysaccharides in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms. The results indicate that the biofilm matrix may be a primary target of photodynamic damage.

    6. What Caused the Formation of the Absorption Maximum at 421 nm in vivo Spectra of Rhodopseudomonas palustris

      Chungui Zhao, Huiying Yue, Qianru Cheng, Shicheng Chen and Suping Yang

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12334

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      The 421 nm peak is frequently observed in various absorption spectra. However, less attention is attracted to examine its spectral origin. This study explored the formation origin of the absorption maximum at 421 nm in vivo with Rhodopseudomonas palustris for the first time. Our results ascertain that the 421 nm peak was a consequence of incorporation of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MPE), its accumulation inside cells could result in the formation of 421 nm peak. In addition, a simple, rapid, minimum interference and selective extraction strategy for MPE was developed. This work will helpful to characterize rationally the absorption spectra.

    7. Hypericin Damages the Ectatic Capillaries in a Roman Cockscomb Model and Inhibits the Growth of Human Endothelial Cells More Potently Than Hematoporphyrin Does through Induction of Apoptosis

      Zhuo-heng Li, De-sheng Meng, Yuan-yuan Li, Lai-chun Lu, Cai-ping Yu, Qian Zhang, Hai-yan Guan, Chen-wen Li, Xue Yang and Ruo-qiu Fu

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12323

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      Hypericin possesses more potent effects than hematoporphyrin in inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in a Roman Cockscomb Model and HUVECs.

    8. UVB Irradiation Enhances TiO2 Nanoparticle-induced Disruption of Calcium Homeostasis in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

      Qiuxin Wu, Dadong Guo, Yuxiang Du, Dongmei Liu, Daoguang Wang and Hongsheng Bi

      Article first published online: 9 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12322

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      The scheme illustrates the possible pathway of intracellular Ca2+ elevation mediated by plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA). Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated after HLE B-3 cells exposure to TiO2 NPs in the presence of UVB irradiation and the level of intracellular calcium ions was further elevated. The excessive ROS and the elevated intracellular Ca2+ level are both harmful to HLE B-3 cells via decreasing the expression of PMCA1 at gene and protein levels and inhibiting the Ca2+-ATPase activity, and further aggravate the disrupted intracellular calcium homeostasis, initiate Ca2+-dependent cellular apoptosis/necrosis signaling pathway and finally cause cell death.

  3. Invited Reviews

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      Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Inhibit UV–Radiation-Induced Immune Suppression in Mice: Detection and Analysis of Molecular and Cellular Targets

      Santosh K. Katiyar

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12330

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      Prevention of UV–radiation-induced immunosuppression by dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins is mediated through: (i) alterations in immunoregulatory cytokines, such as, IL-10 and IL-12, (ii) stimulation of DNA repair and (iii) DNA repair-dependent functional activation of dendritic cells in mice.

  4. Research Articles

    1. The Effects of UV-B Radiation Intensity on Biochemical Parameters and Active Ingredients in Flowers of Qi Chrysanthemum and Huai Chrysanthemum

      Xiao-Qin Yao, Jian-Zhou Chu, Xue-Li He and Chao Si

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12329

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      The article mainly studied UV-B effects on active ingredients in flowers of two chrysanthemum varieties during the bud stage. The experiment included four UV-B radiation levels (CK, ambient UV-B; T1, T2 and T3 indicated a 5%, 10% and 15% increase in ambient UV-BBE, respectively). The results indicated that appropriate UV-B radiation intensity did not result in the decrease in flower yield, and could increase chlorogenic acid and flavone content in flowers of two varieties.

  5. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. A New Series of Fluorescent Indicators for Super Acids

      I-Chih Shih, Yu-Shan Yeh, I-Che Wu, You-Hua Chen, Jiun-Yi Shen, Yi-An Chen, Mei-Lin Ho and Pi-Tai Chou

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12326

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      A new series of fluorescent indicators are developed for sensing super acids. The fluorescence intensity switches from the nonemissive state (the diprotonated form) to the intense emissive state (the triprotonated form) with pKa as low as −3.16. This super acid indicator with the highly emissive intensity, great chemical stability and excitation/emission wavelengths in the visible region may find potential applications in industry.

  6. Research Articles

    1. Rapid Sonosynthesis of N-Doped Nano TiO2 on Wool Fabric at Low Temperature: Introducing Self-cleaning, Hydrophilicity, Antibacterial/Antifungal Properties with low Alkali Solubility, Yellowness and Cytotoxicity

      Amir Behzadnia, Majid Montazer, Abousaeid Rashidi and Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12324

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      A novel simple short time in situ sonosynthesis method for simultaneous synthesis of N-doped TiO2 on wool is introduced. This is provided through treatment of wool fabric in ultrasound bath including TTIP in water/ethanol at pH = 7.5 (using ammonia) and 80°C for 1 h. This produces wool fabric with self-cleaning, antibacterial/antifungal and hydrophilicity properties with lower yellowness and alkali solubility at higher tensile strength along with no cytotoxicity. All of these confirmed through different analysis techniques and optimized through RSM.

  7. Research Notes

    1. Hydroxyl Radical as an Unlikely Key Intermediate in the Photodegradation of Emerging Pollutants

      Gemma M. Rodriguez-Muñiz, Juan Gomis, Antonio Arques, Ana M. Amat, M. Luisa Marin and Miguel A. Miranda

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12325

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      In the real (diluted) emerging pollutants (EPs)-containing waters, quenching of the short-lived ·OH must be very inefficient. In other words, EPs photodegradation cannot purely rely on the generation and reaction of ·OH. Hence, alternative pathways have to be considered to explain the oxidative photodegradation of EPs actually achieved under AOPs conditions.

  8. Research Articles

    1. Enhanced Light-Harvesting Capacity by Micellar Assembly of Free Accessory Chromophores and LH1-like Antennas

      Michelle A. Harris, Tuba Sahin, Jianbing Jiang, Pothiappan Vairaprakash, Pamela S. Parkes-Loach, Dariusz M. Niedzwiedzki, Christine Kirmaier, Paul A. Loach, David F. Bocian, Dewey Holten and Jonathan S. Lindsey

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12319

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      Biohybrid light-harvesting antennas have been created that comprise LH1-like biohybrid architectures (with or without an attached synthetic bacteriochlorin) and free synthetic chromophores (hydrophobic boron-dipyrrin dye or an amphiphilic bacteriochlorin) in detergent micelles. The synthetic chromophores transfer energy directly or via relay processes to the bacteriochlorophyll acceptor array (B875) of the LH1-like cyclic oligomers.

    2. Self-aggregation of Synthetic Zinc Chlorophyll Derivatives Possessing 31-Hydroxy or Methoxy Group and 131-Mono- or Dicyanomethylene Moiety in Nonpolar Organic Solvents as Models of Chlorosomal Bacteriochlorophyll-d Aggregates

      Hitoshi Tamiaki, Masaki Kuno and Masaki Ohata

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12327

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      A synthetic zinc chlorophyll-a derivative possessing the 31-hydroxy and 131-dicyanomethylene groups self-aggregated in 1% THF–hexane despite lacking the 131-oxo moiety as a hydrogen-bonding acceptor to give chlorosome-like large oligomers with its Qy band at a near-infrared region.

    3. Validation and Application of a Model of Oxygen Consumption and Diffusion During Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro

      Mark A. Weston and Michael S. Patterson

      Article first published online: 1 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12320

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      Previously acquired phosphorescence signals generated during Pd(II) meso-Tetra(4-carboxyphenyl) porphine-PDT of cells in monolayers and suspensions are shown to be well described by PDT oxygen diffusion models. The diffusion models are used to determine the photodynamic oxygen consumption rates and in essence the treatment fluence rates, that maximize PDT dose in each of the treatment geometries. The cell suspension diffusion model was extended to describe multicell tumor spheroids. Due to large anoxic cores that develop during PDT, much less PDT dose is delivered to spheroids in comparison with similar treatments in cell suspensions and cell monolayers.

    4. Simultaneous Irradiation with Different Wavelengths of Ultraviolet Light has Synergistic Bactericidal Effect on Vibrio parahaemolyticus

      Mutsumi Nakahashi, Kazuaki Mawatari, Akiko Hirata, Miki Maetani, Takaaki Shimohata, Takashi Uebanso, Yasuhiro Hamada, Masatake Akutagawa, Yousuke Kinouchi and Akira Takahashi

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12309

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      Bactericidal damages induced by UVA (320–400 nm) and UVC (<280 nm) are different. In this study, we revealed that simultaneous irradiation with UVA-LED (365 nm) and UVC (254 nm) induced bactericidal synergistic effects and suppressed the recovery of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). The synergistic effect was absent in SOS response-deficient strains, such as the recA and lexA mutants. Because recA- and lexA- mediated SOS responses have crucial roles in DNA repair pathway, the synergistic bactericidal effect produced by the simultaneous irradiation could depend on suppression of the CPDs repair. This simultaneous irradiation is a candidate new procedure for effective water disinfection.

    5. In Vitro Investigations on the Effect of Dermal Fibroblasts on Keratinocyte Responses to Ultraviolet B Radiation

      Tara L. Fernandez, Derek R. Van Lonkhuyzen, Rebecca A. Dawson, Michael G. Kimlin and Zee Upton

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12317

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      Cellular cross-talk between dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes is critical for orchestrating cutaneous repair and regeneration. Herein, we describe the influence of keratinocyte–fibroblast interactions on key processes in the ultraviolet B photoresponse. Importantly, fibroblast-produced factors were observed to enhance keratinocyte survival and DNA repair by regulating the expression of specific apoptotic and cell cycle regulation proteins.

    6. Red Light Interferes in UVA-Induced Photoaging of Human Skin Fibroblast Cells

      Tianhui Niu, Yan Tian, Qu Ren, Lizhao Wei, Xiaoxin Li and Qing Cai

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12316

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      This study demonstrated the use of LED red light with a wavelength of 633 nm leads to an attenuation of subtoxic UVA irradiation-induced skin photoaging. Red light intervention decreased the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, upregulated SIRT1 expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase MMP-1 and the acetylation of p53 expression. Our results suggest that red light plays a key role in the antiphotoaging of human skin fibroblasts by acting on different signaling transduction pathways.

    7. Photooxidation of Tryptophan Leading to 2-Aminoacetophenone – A Possible Reason for the Untypical Aging Off-flavor in Wine

      Nora Horlacher and Wolfgang Schwack

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12321

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      2-Aminoacetophenone (AAP) is known as the key compound for the so-called untypical aging off-flavor (UTA) in Vitis vinifera wines. In the present work we show that photooxidation of tryptophan (free and bound) in combination with a subsequent storage in model wine leads to the formation of AAP. Furthermore, we could show that the AAP formation mechanism proceeds via N-formyl-2-aminoacetophenone (FAP), but not exclusively. Both time of irradiation and time of storage in model wines greatly favored the formation of AAP.

    8. Sun protection Provided by Regulation School Uniforms in Australian Schools: An Opportunity to Improve Personal Sun protection During Childhood

      Denise Turner and Simone L. Harrison

      Article first published online: 18 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12312

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      Ultra violet exposure during the childhood years is linked to the development of melanocytic nevi (moles) which are a risk factor for the development cutaneous melanoma. Sun-protective clothing protects the skin from ultra violet radiation, reducing the development of melanocytic nevi and skin cancer risk. Simple alterations to school uniforms (such as slightly longer sleeves and hems) would increase body surface area covered without causing heat stress. Sensibly designed school uniforms/clothing would be a practical way to protect school children from ultra violet radiation. Body surface area covered needs to be added to clothing standards.

  9. Special Issue Research Articles

    1. Effect of Immunosuppressants Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil on the Keratinocyte UVB Response

      Mei Ming, Baozhong Zhao, Lei Qiang and Yu-Ying He

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12318

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      This study investigated the effects of the newer generation of immunosuppressants including tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on keratinocyte UVB response. Tacrolimus and MMF impairs UVB-induced DNA repair and apoptosis in human keratinocytes. In addition, tacrolimus inhibits UVB-induced checkpoint signaling, while MMF had no effect. Our findings have demonstrated that tacrolimus and MMF compromises proper keratinocyte UVB response, suggesting an immunosuppression-independent mechanism in the tumor-promoting action of these immunosuppressants.

  10. Research Articles

    1. Study of the Photodegradation Kinetics and Pathways of Hexaflumuron in Liquid Media

      Chengying Lu, Xing Yin, Xiaofeng Liu and Minghua Wang

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12314

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      1. The photodegradation kinetics of hexaflumuron under irradiation were investigated.
      2. Effects of light sources, pH values, organic solvents and water substances on hexaflumuron photodegradation were analyzed.
      3. Three photodegradation products were identified by GC-MS and the presumed photodegradation pathways of hexaflumuron in methanol were proposed.
    2. The Injury and Cumulative Effects on Human Skin by UV Exposure from Artificial Fluorescence Emission

      Yan Tian, Wei Liu, TianHui Niu, CaiHong Dai, Xiaoxin Li, Caijuan Cui, Xinyan Zhao, Yaping E and Hui Lu

      Article first published online: 4 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12315

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      The injury and cumulative effects of UV emission from compact fluorescence lamp (CFL) were studied on human skin. (A) HE staining. The thickness of the cuticle and epidermis increased. Dermal collagen fibers were clumped and aggregated with light color and unclear staining; (B) Elastic fiber staining. Fragmentation of the elastic fibers and intermittent zonal distribution was observed; (C) MMP-1 expression. The staining intensity of MMP-1 increased; (D) SIRT1 expression. Both staining intensity and area of SIRT1 increased; (E) p53 expression. The staining intensity of p53 expression increased.

  11. Research Notes

    1. Photoactive Hybrid Materials of Lanthanide (Eu3+, Tb3+, Sm3+) Beta-Diketonates and Polymer Resin Through Ionic Liquid Bridge

      Ying Mei and Bing Yan

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12307

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      A special multifunctional ionic liquid compound (1-methyl-3-(2-(thiocarboxyoxy)-ethyl)-2H-imidazole-1,3-diium bromide (SHIL)) is engaged as the chemical bridge to link lanthanide beta-diketonates and polymer sphere-like resin to construct the hybrid materials Ln(L)4-SHIL-WR/MR. The results provide a novel path to construct photofunctional hybrids for further device application.

  12. Research Articles

    1. ROS and p53 in Regulation of UVB-induced HDM2 Alternative Splicing

      Lingying Tong and Shiyong Wu

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12306

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      Hdm2, the human homologue of mdm2 (murine double minute oncogene 2), is an oncogene for its role in suppression of p53. Hdm2 alternative splicing, occurs in both tumor and normal tissues, is suggested to be a response of cells for cellular stress, and thus modulate p53 activity. In this study, we demonstrated that UVB is weaker inducer of alternative splicing than UVC is. We also provided evidences that the UV-induced alternative splicing is promoted by DNA-damage, but suppressed by ROS formation and p53 activity of the irradiated cells.

  13. Research Notes

    1. Xeroderma Pigmentosum in the United Kingdom

      Alan R. Lehmann

      Article first published online: 14 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/php.12301

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      Early diagnosis and rigorous protection from daylight can completely prevent the skin problems in XP. Patient XP59BR (left) has had poor protection from daylight and has developed many skin cancers. In contrast, patient XPJCLO was diagnosed in his first year of life, has been rigorously protected from sunlight and has not developed any significant skin lesions. Curiously, despite having similar mutations in the XPD gene, XP59BR has no severe neurological problems, whereas XPJCLO has shown features of neurological degeneration since the age of 2. Photographs published with consent of patient or their family.

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