Polar Research

Cover image for Vol. 29 Issue 3

Edited By: Helle V. Goldman

Impact Factor: 0.909

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2009: 37/56 (Oceanography); 93/127 (Ecology); 108/153 (Geosciences Multidisciplinary)

Online ISSN: 1751-8369

Author Guidelines

Exclusive Licence Form

Authors are required to sign an Exclusive Licence Form before their papers can be published. Authors remain the copyright owners of their published articles and have the following rights to re-use them: print and electronic copies may be shared with colleagues; they may be used in published compilations of the authors’ own works; 24 months after publication, electronic versions may be posted on authors’ personal websites, employers’ websites and free public servers in the authors’ subject areas. For more details, please see the form, http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pdf/por_ELF.pdf

Do not submit the Exclusive Licence Form until after your paper has been accepted for publication.


There are no page charges, but authors are charged for the extra cost of colour illustrations: £150 for the first colour figure and £50 for each subsequent one. Authors of accepted manuscripts are required to complete and sign Blackwell’s Colour Work Agreement Form (available here). Charges will not be debited until the article is published.


OnlineOpen is a pay-to-publish service from Blackwell that offers authors whose papers are accepted for publication the opportunity to pay up-front for their manuscript to become open access (i.e. free for all to view and download) via the Blackwell Synergy website. Each OnlineOpen article will be subject to a one-off fee of £1300, excluding colour charges, to be met by or on behalf of the author in advance of publication. Upon online publication, the article (both full-text and PDF versions) will be available to all for viewing and downloading free of charge. The print version of the article will also be branded as OnlineOpen and will draw attention to the fact that the paper can be downloaded for free via the Wiley Online Library service.

Any authors wishing to make their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the combined payment and copyright licence form available from our website. (Please note this form is for use with OnlineOpen material ONLY.) A copy of the completed form will be requested when the manuscript is accepted.


Authors will be sent an e-mail alerting them that PDF proofs are available to download from our secure designated author website.  Corresponding authors should therefore be careful to supply correct e-mail addresses when submitting manuscripts. Corrected PDF proofs should be returned to the Production Editor within three days of receipt. Major alterations to the text and illustrations are only accepted when absolutely necessary; the additional costs may be charged to the author.


Paper offprints of the printed published article may be purchased if ordered via the method stipulated on the instructions that will accompany the proofs. Printed offprints are posted to the correspondence address given for the paper unless a different address is specified when ordering. Printed offprints may take up to eight weeks to arrive after publication of the journal. With order enquiries please e-mail: offprint@cosprinters.com

Manuscript submission

Submission of a manuscript implies that: the work has not been published before; it is not being considered for publication elsewhere; and its submission has been approved by all co-authors.

After carefully reviewing the style guidelines below, submit manuscripts online at Polar Research's Manuscript Central website: http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/por. Step-by-step instructions on how to submit your manuscript online are available during the submission process. Further information can be obtained online from the submission site via the 'Get Help Now' button. You can also e-mail for online submission support (support@ScholarOne.com) or contact the Editorial Office at goldman@npolar.no.

When submitting online, authors are given the option of suggesting referees. Author-suggested referees should not be affiliated with the same institution as any of the manuscript's authors; they should not have co-authored articles; and they should not have been in a supervisor-student relationship with the authors or have any other similarly close professional or personal relationship.

If you are unable to access Manuscript Central please e-mail the Chief Editor for help: goldman@npolar.no.


Manuscripts should be double-spaced.

The abstract, not to exceed 250 words, must be specific regarding aims, methods, results and conclusions. Common problems in abstracts include: too much introductory/background material; too little information about methods and actual results; and vague conclusions. Be concise and specific. To learn about optimizing abstracts for search engines, see http.//www.blackwellpublishing.com/bauthor/geo.asp .

Use no more than three grades of headings. Do not include foot- or endnotes.

Polar Research generally treats recent editions of the Concise Oxford Dictionary as its spelling authority. When there are alternatives, choose the spelling indicated by the COD as the preferred British spelling. Some examples: organize rather than organise; behaviour rather than behavior; centre rather than center; palaeo- rather than paleo-.

Use metric units. Abbreviate units like kilometre, metre and centimetre to km, m and cm. Use these abbreviations to refer to events that took place in the past: Kya (thousands of years ago) and Mya (millions of years ago). Use these abbreviations to refer to the age of geological material: Ky (thousands of years) and My (millions of years).

Scientific names are italicized and in parentheses following the first mention of the common name of the species. Except where this might cause confusion, abbreviate genus names to the first initial when these are repeated within a few paragraphs. Do not capitalize common names of species unless these are derived from personal or place names.

Dates should be given like this: 16 November 2006. In figures and tables, they may be abbreviated: 16/11/06. Use the 24 hour clock for times, e.g., 16:30.

Authors for whom English is a second language should consider having their manuscripts professionally edited before submission. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at www.blackwellpublishing.com/bauthor/english_language.asp. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.


Ensure that all entries in the reference list are cited in the manuscript and that all sources cited in the manuscript are listed in the references.

Citations are mentioned chronologically in the main body of the text, using this style:

…(Smith et al. 1968; Jones 1992a, 2001; Hansen & Smith 1999).

In the reference list sources are ordered alphabetically. Non-English letters (e.g., Ø, Å and ) are alphabetized like their nearest English equivalents (e.g., O, A and Ae).

Make each reference as complete as possible; superfluous information will be weeded out during copyediting.


Uchida M., Nakatsubo T., Kanda H. & Koizumi H. 2006. Estimation of the annual primary production of the lichen Cetrariella delisei in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. Polar Research 25, 39–49.

Give the full name of the journal. If a DOI is provided instead of a page span, place it where the page span would have been.


Rapley C. 1999. Global change and the polar regions. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Polar Aspects of Climate Change. Tromsø, Norway, 24-28 August 1998. Polar Research 18, 117–118.


Blom H., Clack J.A. & Ahlberg P.E. 2005. Localities, distribution and stratigraphical context of the Late Devonian tetrapods of East Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland Geoscience 43. Copenhagan: Danish Polar Center.

Do not include page spans for whole reports. If the report was edited, format it like this:

Gerland S. & Njåstad B. (eds.) 2004. Arctic climate feedback mechanisms: proceedings of a workshop at the Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsø, Norway, 17-19 November 2003. Norsk Polarinstitutt Rapportserien 124. Tromsø, Norway: Norwegian Polar Institute.

               Revkin A.C. 2006. The North Pole was here. Boston: Kingfisher.

               Do not include the page lengths of books.


Pugnaire F.I. & Valladares F. (eds.) 1999. Handbook of functional plant ecology. New York: Marcel Dekker.


Green T.G.A, Schroeter B. & Sancho L.G. 1999: Plant life in Antarctica. In F.I. Pugnaire & F. Valladares (eds.): Handbook of functional plant ecology. Pp. 495-543. New York: Marcel Dekker.

                Name X. In press. Title of article. Journal Title.

'In press' refers to a paper that has been accepted for publication by the journal named. No year is given until the paper is actually published.

An unpublished paper which has not yet been accepted for publication is referred to as '(unpubl. ms.)' in the text. It is not listed in the references.


Papers presented at conferences and other kinds of meetings (but not published in proceedings volumes) are formatted like this:

Name X. 2006. Title of paper (or poster). Paper (or poster) presented at the XYZ Symposium. 20–23 January, Tromsø, Norway.

Include the full name of the conference (beginning with capital letters) as well as the date(s) and place, as shown above. There are no italics.

If the paper appeared in a published proceedings volume, format the reference as for a book, a report in a series or a special journal issue, as the case may be.

               Prestrud P. 1992. Arctic foxes in Svalbard: population ecology and rabies. PhD thesis, Norwegian Polar Institute.


Name X. 2006. Name of item. Accessed on the internet at http//www.xyz on 16 November 2006.

If the item can be cited as a printed document instead of an internet source this is preferred. Institutions may make their reports and books available on the web, but they are normally also available in print and include relevant publishing details such as the name of the series, the publisher and the place of publication.


Non-English titles of articles, chapters, books and reports are followed by the English translation in parentheses. Translations are not included for non-English serial (journal) titles. Examples:

Salomonsen F. (ed.) 1990. Grønlands fauna. (Greenland’s fauna.) Copenhagen: Gyldendal.


Magnus M. H. 1983. Norge og den sovjetiske polarforskning i nord og sør. (Norway and Soviet polar research in the north and in the south.) Farmand 6, 84–87.


Korčinskaja M.V. 1980. Rannenoriskaja fauna Arhipelaga Svalbard. (Early Norian fauna of the Svalbard Archipelago.) In D.V. Semevskij (ed.): Geologija osadnocnogo cehla Arhipelaga Svalbard. (Geology of the platform cover of the Svalbard Archipelago.) Pp. 30–43. Leningrad: Scientific Research Institute of Arctic Geology (Nauèno-issledovatelskij Institut Geologii Arktiki).


For publications that were published in the Cyrillic alphabet, titles and authors’ and editors’ names should be transcribed into the Latin alphabet using the International Standard Organization (ISO) transliteration system. Consult  Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters-- Slavic and non-Slavic languages (ISO 9: 1995). See the example of Korčinskaja 1980, above.

Figures and tables

In the manuscript, figures and tables should be referred to in the order in which they are numbered.

Because figures may be reduced in size for printing, avoid the use of very small letters, numbers and other symbols. Labels on maps, other figures and tables should not consist entirely of upper case letters; use capital letters sparingly, e.g., 'Annual primary production' rather than 'Annual Primary Production' or 'ANNUAL PRIMARY PRODUCTION'. Fonts like Helvetica and Arial are preferred in figures. Label parts of composite figures (a), (b) and (c), preferably in an upper corner.

Figures should be submitted in colour or greyscale depending on how authors would like them to appear in the final print version. For an overview of the cost of printing colour images, see http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/pdf/SN_Sub2000_F_CoW.pdf. In the event that authors decline to pay for their figures submitted in colour to be printed in colour, the acceptibility of the paper will be re-assessed by the editors and reviewers. For pre-submission advice about converting colour figures to greyscale without the loss of information, please send an e-mail to the Chief Editor, who will be happy to assist.

Illustrations can be submitted in the following digital formats: ai, eps, ps, tif and jpg. Tif and jpg images should be at a high enough resolution for good-quality printing: 300 dots per inch (dpi) at whatever dimensions the figure will be printed, minimally 8 cm wide. Very large files may prove difficult to upload to the journal’s submission website. It is not recommended to upload files larger than 6 MB each.

For more guidelines regarding the acceptable digital formats in which figures can be delivered, consult http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/bauthor/illustration.asp. See especially the section called 'Submission Guides'.

Inform the editor if illustrations have been borrowed (and modified) from other works, whether authored by the contributor or someone else.

Paper copies of figures will not be returned to authors.

Archiving Data

Data that are integral to the published article must be made available in such a way as to enable readers to replicate, verify and build upon the conclusions published in the paper. Restrictions on the availability of this data must be disclosed at the time of submission.

We recommend that data for which public repositories are widely used, and are accessible to all, should be deposited in such a repository prior to publication. The appropriate linking details and identifier(s) should then be included in the publication and, where possible, in the repository, to facilitate linking between the journal article and the data. If such a repository does not exist, data should be included as supporting information to the published paper or authors should agree to make their data available upon reasonable request.