Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology

Cover image for Vol. 59 Issue 5

Edited By: David Ball

Impact Factor: 1.109

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 98/125 (Radiology Nuclear Medicine & Medical Imaging)

Online ISSN: 1754-9485

Author Guidelines

Thank you for your interest in Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology. Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including the section on copyright. To ensure fast peer review and publication, manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium.

Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email.

We look forward to your submission.


Aims and scope
Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology (formerly Australasian Radiology) is the official journal of The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, publishing articles of scientific excellence in medical imaging and radiation oncology. Manuscripts are judged on the basis of their contribution of original data and ideas or interpretation. All articles are peer reviewed.

Frequency: 6 times per year

Editorial Review and Acceptance
Submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our reader¬ship. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Associate Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Editorial Board, who reserves the right to refuse any material for publication and whose decision is final.

Manuscripts should be in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader.


The journal is committed to integrity in scientific research and recognizes the importance of maintaining the highest ethical standards.

Plagiarism Detection. The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Reproduction of Copyright Material. If excerpts from copyrighted works owned by third parties are included, credit must be shown in the contribution. It is the author’s responsibility to obtain written permission for reproduction from the copyright owners, and in signing the journal’s copyright form authors confirm that this permission has been granted. Documentation should be kept in the authors records and does not need to be provided with the submission. For more information visit Wiley’s Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQ.

Committee on Publication Ethics. The journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Conflict of Interest Declaration. Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest by disclosing in the cover letter any financial arrangements they have with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company making a competing product. Such information will be held in confidence while the paper is under review and will not influence the editorial decision. If the article is accepted for publication, the editor will usually discuss with the authors the manner in which such information is to be communicated to the reader.

Authorship and Acknowledgements. The journal adheres to the definition of authorship set up by The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following 4 criteria: i) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; ii) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; iii) Final approval of the version to be published; and i) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. Contributors who do not qualify as authors should be mentioned under ‘Acknowledgements’.

Principles for Publication of Research Involving Human Subjects. Manuscripts must contain a statement to the effect that all human studies have been reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in an appropriate version of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Brazil 2013), available at It should also state clearly in the text that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. Details that might disclose the identity of the subjects under the study should be omitted. In general, submission of a case report should be accompanied by the written consent of the subject (or parent/guardian) before publication; this is particularly important where photographs are to be used or in cases where the unique nature of the incident reported makes it possible for the patient to be identified. While the Editors recognize that it might not always be possible or appropriate to seek such consent, the onus will be on the authors to demonstrate that this exception applies in their case.

Use of Animals in Research. Reports of animal experiments must state that the ‘Principles of Laboratory Animal Care’ (NIH Publication Vol 25, No. 28 revised 1996; were followed, as well as specific national laws (e.g. the current version of the German Law on the Protection of Animals) where applicable.

Clinical Trial Registration. The journal requires that the clinical trials submitted for its consideration are registered in a publicly accessible database. Authors should include the name of the trial register and their clinical trial registration number in the ‘Acknowledgements’ section of their manuscript. If you wish the editor[s] to consider an unregistered trial, please explain briefly why the trial has not been registered.

Randomized Controlled Trials. Reporting of randomized controlled trials should follow the guidelines of ‘The CONSORT Statement’.

Reviews. The PRISMA Statement encourages transparent reporting of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. The PRISMA checklist and flow diagram should be included. To view the PRISMA Statement and Guidelines click here.

Case-Controlled, Cohort, Cross-Sectional Studies. Refer to the STROBE Statement and checklist for reporting.

Diagnostic Accuracy. Refer to the standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) statement.


Contributions may take the form of Original Articles, Review Articles, Pictorial Essays, Technical Articles and Case Reports in the following categories: Radiology or Radiation Oncology.

The journal has now included separate categories for papers that have relevance to both medical imaging and radiation oncology readers, entitled ‘Medical Imaging-Radiation Oncology’. These papers will be published in a separate category in the journal, and authors are encouraged to submit under the new categories if they feel their submission would have a wider appeal. The Editors reserve the right to change submission categories as they see fit.

Case Reports will only be considered if they are of exceptional scientific or educational interest.

i. Original Articles
Word limit: 3,500 words maximum including abstract
Abstract: 250 words maximum and must include subheadings (Introduction, Method, Results, Conclusion)
References: In general, less than 30 (not included in word count)
Figures/Tables: Total of no more than 7 figures (15 images in total)
Description: Full-length reports of current research in either basic or clinical science.

ii. Review Articles
Word limit: 5,000 words maximum including abstract
Abstract: 250 words maximum, unstructured
References: no limit (not included in word count)
Figures/Tables: Total of no more than 7 figures (15 images in total)
Description: Reviews are comprehensive analyses of specific topics. They are usually submitted upon invitation by the Editors. Both solicited and unsolicited review articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

iii. Technical Articles
Word limit: 2,500 words maximum including abstract and references
Abstract: 250 words maximum, unstructured
References: In general, less than 30
Figures/Tables: Total of no more than 7 figures (15 images in total)
Description: A new technique in medical imaging or radiation oncology.

iv. Pictorial Essays
Word limit: 1,500 words maximum including abstract and references
Abstract: 250 words maximum, unstructured
References: In general, less than 15
Figures/Tables: Total of no more than 15 figures (30 images in total)
Description: Pictorial Essays should contain an introduction that serves as a background to the article, the bulk of which should consist of illustrations and their legends. The illustrations should convey the message and each should illustrate a particular point. A maximum of 30 illustrations will be allowed.

v. Case Reports
Word limit: 500 words maximum
References: 5 maximum
References: In general, less than 15
Figures/Tables: 5 figures maximum (10 images in total)
Description: Case Reports will only be considered if they adhere to submission guidelines and are of exceptional scientific or educational interest.

vi. Letters to the Editor
Word limit: 500 words maximum
Abstract: not required
References: 5 maximum
Figures/Tables: 1 maximum
Description: Letters must offer perspective to content published in the Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology or information critical to a certain area. Letters should be given a short and pertinent title. Surname(s) and initials of the author(s) should be given at the end of the letter. A Letter must reference the original source, and a Response to a Letter must reference the Letter in the first few paragraphs. Letters can use an arbitrary title, but a Response must cite the title of the Letter: e.g. Response to [title of Letter]. This ensures that readers can track the line of discussion.

vii. Editorials
Word limit: 800–1,500 words
Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type
References: 5 maximum
Description: Usually an invited commentary on an article to accompany its publication. Unsolicited proposals for Editorials may be submitted; however, in this case authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration.

viii. Point of View
Word limit: 800–1,500 words
Abstract: no abstract required for this manuscript type
References: 5 maximum
Description: An opinion piece on a matter of controversy, usually with a suggestion for further research.

ix. Radiology/Radiation Oncology Guidelines
Word limit: 5000 words
Abstract: No abstract required
References: Unlimited
Figures/Tables: Unlimited
Description: Comprehensive consensus documents based on best available evidence; similar to a Review article.


Wiley’s Author Services
Prior to submission, we encourage you to browse the ‘Author Resources’ section of the Wiley ‘Author Services’ website. This site includes useful information covering such topics as copyright matters, ethics and electronic artwork guidelines.

Pre-acceptance English-language Editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Optimising Your Article for Search Engines
Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

Manuscript Format and Style

General Format
Manuscripts should follow the style of the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as presented at

  • Line Numbering: All submissions must now include line numbering to aid in the peer review process. The main document should contain continuous line numbering.
  • Spelling: The journal publishes in British English. For word usage and word division, please refer to the Oxford Concise English Dictionary.
  • Abbreviations: In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.
  • Special Characters: Use the correct characters in your character set for Greek letters and for mathematical and other symbols. The Symbol font includes Greek and some mathematical characters and other symbols.
  • Units of Measurement: All measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units. Please go to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website for more information about SI units.
  • Trade Names: Chemical substances should be referred to by the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. Drugs should be referred to by their generic names. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name, and the name and location of the manufacturer, in parentheses.
  • Genetic Nomenclature: Standard genetic nomenclature should be used. For further information, including relevant websites, authors should refer to the genetic nomenclature guide in Trends in Genetics (Elsevier Science 1998).
  • Nucleotide Sequence Data: Nucleotide sequence data can be submitted in electronic form to any of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL or GenBank. It is only necessary to submit to one database as data are exchanged between DDBJ, EMBL and GenBank on a daily basis. The suggested wording for referring to accession-number information is: ‘These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345’. Addresses are as follows:

    DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ)
    EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Submissions

Parts of the Manuscript
Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and key words, (iii) main text, (iv) acknowledgments, (v) references, (vi) supplementary material, (vii) figure legends, (viii) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and (ix) figures. The title page and figures (if consisting of images) should be uploaded as separate files.

Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

The length of papers should adhere to the guidelines outlined for each manuscript type in the ‘Manuscript Categories and Length’ section.

Title Page
The title page should contain (i) the title of the paper, (ii) the full names of the authors and (iii) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with (iv) the full postal and email address, plus facsimile and telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 40 characters) should also be provided.

Abstract and Keywords
All articles should have an abstract not exceeding 250 words. In the case of original research articles the abstract must be structured using the following headings: Introduction (including purpose of the study):, Methods; Results; and Conclusions. The abstract should not contain references.

Five key words, for the purposes of indexing, should be supplied below the abstract, in alphabetical order, and should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine’s Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list at

For details on manuscript types that require abstracts and/or keywords and how to prepare these, please refer to the ‘Manuscript Categories and Criteria’ section.

The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

References follow the Vancouver style, i.e. numbered sequentially as they occur in the text and ordered numerically in the reference list. Please note that a DOI should be provided for all references where available.

  • All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list.
  • In the text, references should be cited using superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear.
  • If cited in tables or figure legends, number according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text.
  • In the reference list, cite the names of all authors when there are six or fewer; when seven or more, list the first three followed by et al.
  • Do not use ibid. or op cit.
  • Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Smith A, 2000, unpublished data).
  • Names of journals should be abbreviated in the style used in Index Medicus.
  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.

Authors can read more about the Vancouver reference style at:

Journal article
1. Soter NA, Wasserman SI, Austen KF. Cold urticaria: Release into the circulation of histamine and eosinophil che¬motactic factor of anaphylaxis during cold challenge. N Engl J Med 1976; 294: 687-90. doi: 10.1056/nemj197603252941302

2. Kaufmann HE, Baron BA, McDonald MB, Wlatman SR (eds). The Cornea, 2nd edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998. doi: 10.1010/book00000000000

Chapter in a Book
3. McEwen WK, Goodner IK. Secretion of tears and blinking. In: Davidson H (ed). The Eye, Vol 3, 2nd edn. New York: Academic Press, 1969; 34–78. doi: 10.1002/0470841559.ch1

Electronic Material
4. [homepage on the internet]. New York: Association of Cancer Online Resources, Inc.; c2000–01 [updated 2002 Maylb; cited 2000 Jul 9]. Available from:

Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measure¬ment in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P- values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

Figure Legends
Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals, and cited in consecutive order in the text. Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication. Although low quality images are adequate for review purposes, print publication requires high quality images to prevent the final product being blurred or fuzzy. Submit EPS (line art) or TIFF (halftone/photographs) files only. MS PowerPoint and Word Graphics are unsuitable for printed pictures. Do not use pixel-oriented programmes. Scans (TIFF only) should have a resolution of 300 dpi (halftone) or 600 to 1200 dpi (line drawings) in relation to the reproduction size (see below). EPS files should be saved with fonts embedded (and with a TIFF preview if possible).

For scanned images, the scanning resolution (at final image size) should be as follows to ensure good reproduction: line art: >600 dpi; half-tones (including gel photographs): >300 dpi; figures containing both halftone and line images: >600 dpi.

Further information can be obtained at Wiley’s guidelines for figures. Check your electronic artwork before submitting it.

The Editors reserve the right to refuse publication of a manuscript if high-quality, high-resolution images cannot be supplied.

These should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.

Video material may also be able to be incorporated with the paper as Supporting Information when it is published online. For further details, refer to the Supporting Information section below.

Supporting Information
Supporting information is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background and may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. This material can be submitted with your manuscript, and will appear online, without editing or typesetting. Guidelines on how to prepare this material and which formats and files sizes are acceptable can be found at:

Please note that the provision of supporting information is not encouraged as a general rule. It will be assessed critically by reviewers and editors and will only be accepted if it is essential.


Cover letter. Each submission must include a cover letter in the ‘Cover Letter Field’ of the ScholarOne system. The text can be entered directly into the field or uploaded as a file. The covering letter must contain:

  • An acknowledgment that all authors have contributed significantly
  • A statement that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
  • Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest in the cover letter (see Section on ‘Conflict of Interest’ above).
  • Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest in the ‘Conflict of Interest’ field in the ScholarOne System or provided cover letter (see Section on ‘Conflict of Interest’ above).

Manuscript files for submission. The following files need to be included upon submission: A title page file; a main text file that includes all parts of the text in the sequence indicated in the section 'Parts of the manuscript'; figure files, each uploaded as separate files.

  • The main text file should be prepared using Microsoft Word, doubled-spaced, on one side only of A4 paper. The top, bottom and side margins should be 30 mm. All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the first page of the main text file.
  • Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 dpi) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. More details on the Author Services and copyright and licencing options for the journal appear below.

Wiley’s Author Services: Tracking your paper’s progress
Author Services also enables authors to track their article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

The corresponding author will receive an email with details on how to provide proof corrections. It is therefore essential that a working email address be providing for the corresponding author.

Early View
The journal offers rapid speed to publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before allocation to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

A PDF reprint of the article will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional printed offprints may be ordered online for a fee. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please email:


Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or under open access terms made available via Wiley OnlineOpen.

Standard Copyright Transfer Agreement:FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard CTA in place for the journal, including standard terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs. Note that in signing the journal’s licence agreement authors agree that consent to reproduce figures from another source has been obtained

OnlineOpen – Wiley’s Open Access Option: OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access. Authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on their personal website, and in an institutional repository or other free public server immediately after publication. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

OnlineOpen licenses: Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Funder Open Access and Self-Archiving Compliance: Please click here for more information on Wiley’s compliance with specific Funder Open Access and Self Archiving Policies, and click here for more detailed information specifically about Self-Archiving definitions and policies.


For further information or advice please contact:

Editorial Office, Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
155 Cremorne Street
Richmond, Victoria 3121

Tel: +61 3 9274 3167
Fax: +61 3 9274 3390

Updated: 24 June 2015