Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research

Cover image for Vol. 22 Issue 1

Edited By: Terry Lee, OAM

Impact Factor: 1.816

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 5/33 (Horticulture); 42/123 (Food Science & Technology)

Online ISSN: 1755-0238

Author Guidelines


Thank you for your interest in Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including the section on copyright. To ensure fast peer review and publication, manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Note that submission implies: (i) that the manuscript is an original contribution and has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere in any language, except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium; and (ii) that the author(s) have personally undertaken the described research and that multi-author papers are submitted with the agreement of all authors.

Please also note that publication charges apply if the corresponding author is not a member of the Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology (details below).

Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at

For help with submissions, please contact:

We look forward to your submission.


Aims and scope
The Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research provides a forum for the exchange of information about new and significant research in viticulture, oenology and related fields, and aims to promote these disciplines throughout the world. The journal publishes results from original research in all areas of viticulture and oenology. This includes issues relating to wine, table and drying grape production; grapevine and rootstock biology, genetics, diseases and improvement; viticultural practices; juice and wine production technologies; vine and wine microbiology; effects of processing, packaging and inputs on wine composition (quality); wine chemistry; sensory science and consumer preferences; and environmental impacts of grape and wine production. Research related to other fermented or distilled beverages may also be considered. In addition to full-length research papers and review articles, short research papers presenting new and highly topical information derived from a complete study (i.e. not preliminary data) may also be published. Special features and supplementary issues comprising the proceedings of workshops and conferences will appear periodically.

Editorial Review and Acceptance
The acceptance criteria for all manuscripts are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Manuscripts will undergo an initial evaluation of their relevance, originality and quality and where they fail to meet journal standards, may be rejected without further review. Except where otherwise stated, all remaining manuscripts are peer reviewed by one or more anonymous reviewer/s, an Associate Editor and/or the Deputy Editor/Editor. Final acceptance or rejection rests with the Journal Advisory Subcommittee, which reserves the right to refuse any material for publication. Responsibility for manuscript content remains with the author(s).

Manuscripts should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify typescripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition, improve communication between author and reader and maintain Journal style.

Manuscripts must be written in English and, where the authors’ first language is not English, have been prepared with the assistance of an English-speaking expert. Papers which do not meet an acceptable standard of English may be rejected without review. Information on pre-acceptance English-language editing is available below.


Plagiarism Detection
The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Publication Ethics
The journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and subscribes to the principles set out by COPE. The journal also refers to Wiley’s Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics:


The journal publishes full-length research papers, review articles and short research papers. Special features and supplementary issues comprising the proceedings of workshops and conferences will appear periodically.

Short research papers will be up to four printed pages with a combined Results and Discussion section.

A review article will be a critical appraisal of the subject and make an original contribution, instead of simply being a collection of literature citations. Prearrangement with the Editor is advisable.


Pre-acceptance English-language editing
Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Optimising Your Article for Search Engines
Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.

Manuscript Format and Style
For the design of the diagrams, Preparing for Print by M. Sharkey and F. Spranger (CSIRO Advisory Service, Melbourne) is a helpful publication, with additional references.

Spelling.The journal uses Australian spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the Macquarie Dictionary, however, The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary is acceptable.

Units. All measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units.

Abbreviations. In general, terms should not be abbreviated or contracted unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation or contraction is helpful to the reader. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation or contraction in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation or contraction only. Avoid commencing a sentence with an abbreviation or a contraction.

Nomenclature and formulae. Authors should describe mathematical and chemical formulae, bioassays, electrophoresis patterns, chemical compounds and microbiological specimens in the form adopted by the journals published by CSIRO and The Australian Academy of Science, e.g. The Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, the Australian Journal of Plant Physiology and the Australian Journal of Chemistry. The Editor may also be consulted.

Registration of sequence data. If submitting a paper describing research where an original nucleotide or amino acid sequence has been employed, an EMBL Data Library accession number should be provided.

Parts of the Manuscript
The manuscript should be submitted in separate files: title page; main text file; figures.

Title page
The title page should contain:
(i) a short informative title that contains the major key words. The title should not contain abbreviations. Since each manuscript must be able to stand alone, numbered titles must not be used for a series of papers, whether submitted together or not.
(ii) the full names of the authors
(iii) the addresses of the author’s affiliated institutions at which the work was carried out
(iv) an authorship declaration
(v) the full postal and email address, plus telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent
(vi) acknowledgements
(vii) disclosure statement
The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.
A short running title (less than 50 characters) should also be provided.

Authorship declaration
This must acknowledge i) that all authors have contributed significantly, and ii) that all authors are in agreement with the manuscript.

The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

Disclosure statement
Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest by disclosing any financial arrangements they have with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company making a competing product, or any conflict relating to technology or methodology. The absence of any interest to disclose must also be stated.

Main text file
As papers are double-blind peer reviewed the main text file should not include any information that might identify the authors.

The main text file should be presented in the following order: (i) title, abstract and key words, (ii) text, (iii) references, (iv) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and (v) figure legends. Figures and supporting information should be supplied as separate files. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Abstract and key words
The abstract of research papers should be a brief summary of about 150–200 words giving the major findings of the investigation under the following headings: Background and Aims; Methods and Results; Conclusions; Significance of the Study. A 150-word limit applies to abstracts for short research papers. The abstract of review articles will not contain the above headings and instead will be prepared as a single block of text.

Five key words (for the purposes of indexing) should be supplied below the abstract in alphabetical order.

Research papers will be divided into the sections of Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions and References. Results and Discussion may be joined in shorter papers.

The Harvard (author, date) system of referencing is followed (examples are given below). Authors must always check to see that all references cited in the text appear in the References List at the end of the article.

Reference list at the end of an article
• List all authors of each article.
• Arrange the articles in alphabetical order of author names.
• Where several papers by the same first author are cited, list according to increasing number of authors, the year of publication and then alphabetical order by author names and paper title.
• If there are two or more references by the same single or duplicate author(s) in the same year, identify these with letters, i.e.
      o Smith, E. (1986a)
      o Smith, E. (1986b)
• Do not include unpublished work in the reference list or work that has been submitted but not accepted for publication.
• Reference to unpublished data and personal communications should not appear in the References list but should be cited in the text only (e.g. Dr Andrew Smith, unpubl. data, 2000).
• The titles of all papers must be copied in the form of the original publications. Journal names must be shown in full, without abbreviations.
• Punctuation marks and spaces between words should be as indicated in the examples.
• Do not use ibid. or op cit.
• All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list.
• Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.

Journal article
Fennell, A. and Hoover, E. (1999) Photoperiod influences growth, bud dormancy and cold acclimation in Vitis labruscana and Vitis riparia. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 116, 270–273.

Robinson, J., Harding, J. and Vouillamoz, J. (2012) Wine grapes. A complete guide to 1,368 vine varieties, including their origins and flavours (HarperCollins Publishers: New York, NY, USA).

Chapter in a book
Pearce, I. and Coombe, B.G. (2004) Grapevine phenology. Dry, P.R. and Coombe, B.G., eds. Viticulture. Volume 1 – Resources. 2d ed (Winetitles: Adelaide, SA, Australia) pp. 150–166.

Conference proceedings
Adams, D.O. and Scholz, R.C. (2008) Tannins – the problem of extraction. Blair, R.J., Williams, P.J. and Pretorius, I.S., eds. Proceedings of the thirteenth Australian wine industry technical conference; 28 July-2 August 2007; Adelaide, SA, Australia (Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference: Urrbrae, SA, Australia) pp. 160–164.

Webb, L. (2006) The impact of greenhouse gas-induced climate change on the Australian wine industry. PhD Thesis, School of Agriculture and Food Systems, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 277 pp.

Online article not yet published in an issue
An online article that has not yet been published in an issue (therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers) can be cited by its Digital Object Identifier (DOI). The DOI will remain valid and allow an article to be tracked even after its allocation to an issue.
Hall, A. and Jones, G.V. (2008) Effect of potential atmospheric warming on temperature-based indices describing Australian winegrape growing conditions. The Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research doi: 10.1111/ajgw.12000

Web-based information
Bureau of Meteorology (2007) Bureau of Meteorology website. (Australian Government) [accessed 29/10/07]. Note that the ‘accessed date’ may be omitted for sites that typically do not change frequently.

Citing of references within the text
There are some simple rules for citing references within the text of a manuscript.
• Always cite one or two authors.
• In the text give the author’s name followed by the year in parentheses: Smith (2000).
• If there are two authors use ‘and': Smith and Jones (2001).
• When reference is made to a work by three or more authors, the first name followed by et al. should be used: MacDonald et al. (2002).
• Within the text cite authors in two ways:
‘…as indicated by Coombe and Iland (1999).’
‘QTLs have been detected for numerous traits (Martinez-Zapater et al.2010)…’
• Multiple references cited in the one place should be in chronological order, i.e. (Schultz and Mathews 1988, Cramer et al. 2007, Lovisolo et al. 2010)
• Where two or more articles by an author/s are cited in the text in one place, do not repeat the author/s, i.e. Smith, E. (1986, 2007)
• Where two or more articles by an author or more than one author published in the one year are cited use letters to distinguish the articles, i.e. Smith (1986a,b)

A table is an important feature of a manuscript that shows data and text in columns and rows that are generally too complex to present in text form. Tables should be self-contained, that is they must be understandable without reference to the text. They should complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. They should be clear and concise. Please do not use colour, shading or graphics in tables.

Number tables consecutively in the text in Roman numerals and type tables on a separate page with the title above. The journal has adopted a style which is explained below and an example can be found here.
• A table consists of four elements:
      o a title with the table number in bold followed by a full stop;
      o a table head in bold which sets out the column headings;
      o the body of the table containing the data or text in columns or rows; and
      o footnotes
• The title should be concise but comprehensive. If possible, the title should be one, short-to medium-length explanatory sentence and should not contain acronyms, abbreviations, contractions, symbols and units of measurement.
• Table heads or column headings are in bold and must be centred. Column headings should align at the top of the table head. Units of measurement should not be repeated after entries in the body of the table but should be placed in parentheses after the column or row heading, e.g. Anthocyanins (mg/L).
• The body of the table contains the numerical data and text in columns and rows:
      o numerical data should be aligned on either the decimal point, ± or (in a range) en-rule (see example here);
      o text entries should have an initial capital letter;
      o columns should not have blank spaces. Use 0 (zero value), — em-dash, ND (no data or not detected), NA (not applicable);
      o differences between data in rows or columns should be indicated with lower case letters (see example here);
      o further row(s) or column(s) are permitted in the table to enable results of main effects and interactions between treatments to be reported separately.
• Footnotes provide explanatory details that are not presented in the title, column or row headings and in the body of the table. The order of the footnotes is:
      o P values, i.e. * and ** denote a significant difference between treatments at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. Reserve asterisks for P values; this footnote should also include an indication of the number of samples measured/analysed and the statistical technique to determine significance, i.e. Tukey’s test.
      o explanation of scientific or other terms using the symbols †, ‡, §, ¶, ††, ‡‡, §§, ¶¶ in that order, i.e. †Estimated from leaf area per shoot, shoots per vine and average canopy width. After exhausting the above symbols use lower case letters.
      o explanation of acronyms, abbreviations or contractions, i.e. GSH, glutathione.

All illustrations are classified as figures (line diagrams and photographs) and are important features of manuscripts. Authors must decide whether to display data in a figure or in a table. Often data can be presented in a more ‘space efficient’ table compared to a figure without diminishing the impact of the data, particularly when a graph contains relatively few data points. Likewise photos or diagrams need to be essential to the clarity of the manuscript in order to be included.

General considerations
• Figures must (including legends) be unambiguous and as conceptual as possible and should provide enough information so that the reader can understand them without significant reference to the text.
• Cite figures in consecutive order in the text and submit each figure on a separate page.
• Use consistent formatting (layout, line weighting, label orientation etc.) and symbols throughout the manuscript.
• Type figure legends on a separate page at the end of the manuscript text file, in addition to within the figure file below the figure. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement in the legend. Define any error bars in the legend, along with sample sizes.
• Do not define symbols and abbreviations within the figure itself.
• Designate figures with two- or multi- panels with lower case letters in brackets and refer to each panel with specific subtitles in the legend. Use consistent scaling on multi-panel figures where possible.
• Graphs of rainfall or temperature recorded during the field experiments are preferably presented in tables or even as Supporting Information.
• Generally size figures to fit within a single column (85 mm width), however, up to the full width of two columns (175 mm width) may be used in exceptional circumstances. Indicate magnifications with a scale bar on the figure.
• Figures need to be formatted to the single column width at submission so the editors and reviewers can confirm they will be legible as part of the reviewing process.
• Manuscripts containing figure files without legends will be returned to the author without review.

Specific considerations
• Figures that are graphs or diagrams should be sharp, black and white, and drawn professionally or with a computer graphics package.
• Letters and numbers in the axes or within the figure should be sized to be no larger than the journal text when printed. Lines should be approximately 0.5 pt (0.2 mm) in thickness. Label axes in lower case with only the first letter of the first word in upper case.
• Use sans serif fonts, i.e. Helvetica, Arial, for letters and numbers to label the axes and within a figure
• Plots must be prepared using simple symbols (i.e. open and filled circles, squares, triangles, ○ ● □ ■ △▲) of black, white or colour rather than more complicated shapes or symbols. Shading or 3-dimensional effects must not be used unless essential for improving interpretation of the plot.
• Avoid extraneous markings such as gridlines within the figure.
• Box all figures with the axes being part or all of the box. Place the scales or index marks on the inside of axes, and use the same weighting as for the axis lines.
• For a two- or multi-panel figure, identify each panel with (a), (b) in the upper left or right corner of the panels. (All panels should be included in the same file.).
• Use solid grey shades or colour in bar charts (not patterns); differentiate among the gray levels by at least 20%. Finally, include error bars where appropriate.
• Use colour for clearer interpretation of figures. Colour is provided at no extra cost.

Preparation of Electronic Figures for Publication
The most convenient formats for typesetting are EPS, TIFF, JPG, PDF, AI and PSD. The formats DOC, XLS, PPT, CDR, CDX are also acceptable. DWG files created by autoCAD are, however, not encouraged.
• Check that your artwork conforms to the style and layout required by the Journal.
• Save line art, such as charts, graphs and illustrations, in EPS or PDF format. Most programs have a ‘Save as...’, ‘Export...’ or ‘Print to…’ feature to allow you to do this.
• Save photographic images in TIFF format. These should be at a resolution of at least 300 dpi at final size (i.e. at least 1000 pixels across for an image to full a standard 85 mm column).
• Save figures containing a combination of photographic images and text (e.g. annotated photographic images with text labels) as EPS or PDF. Any photographic images embedded within these should be at least 300 dpi at final size.
• Perform a visual check of the quality of the generated image. You should be able to zoom in to about 300% without the image becoming noticeably blurred or pixelated. If the image does appear pixelated at this zoom, then try going back to the original image and checking that it complies with the recommended format and settings.
• If the file size of the generated images is very large then try saving them in a .zip archive (or other compressed format such as .rar) to reduce the file size. Alternatively, you can send large files to the publisher by FTP transfer.
• Maps should contain a scale bar and a north arrow.
Examples of the style requirements for different types of figures are here. If you find that you are unable to produce electronic artwork in these formats or resolutions then you can read further information here:

Equations should be numbered sequentially with Arabic numerals; these should be ranged right in parentheses. All variables should appear in italics. Use the simplest possible form for all mathematical symbols.

Supporting Information
Supporting information is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background and may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. This material can be submitted with your manuscript, and will appear online, without editing or typesetting. Guidelines on how to prepare this material and which formats and files sizes are acceptable can be found at:

Please note that the provision of supporting information is not encouraged as a general rule. It will be assessed critically by reviewers and editors and will only be accepted if it is essential.


The Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology is the owner of the Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research and relies on the support of its members to cover the costs of producing the Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. In order to partly defray the costs of production, where the corresponding author is not a member of the Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology, a charge of $A400 per article will be made prior to publication. Authors are encouraged to become members of the ASVO by visiting


Manuscripts should be submitted online at

• An optional cover letter may be included in the ‘Cover Letter Field’ of the ScholarOne system. The text can be entered directly into the field or uploaded as a file.
• Authors will also be asked to provide the names of preferred and, if deemed necessary, non-preferred reviewers. The former must not be from the authors’ institution or a collaborator, past or present.
• Two Word-files need to be included upon submission: A title page file and a main text file that includes all parts of the text in the sequence indicated in the section 'Parts of the manuscript', including tables and figure legends but excluding figures which should be supplied separately.
• The main text file should be prepared using Microsoft Word, doubled-spaced. The top, bottom and side margins should be 30 mm.
• Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files will be required.

Associate your ScholarOne account with your ORCID iD
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Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. More details on the copyright and licencing options for the journal appear below.

Wiley’s Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article throughout the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Once the paper has been typeset the corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing instructions on how to provide proof corrections to the article. It is therefore essential that a working e-mail address is provided for the corresponding author. Proofs should be corrected carefully; responsibility for detecting errors lies with the author.

Early View
The journal offers rapid speed to publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before allocation to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. More information about DOIs can be found at

A PDF reprint of the article will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional printed offprints may be ordered online for a fee. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please e-mail:

Author Marketing Toolkit
The Wiley Author Marketing Toolkit provides authors with support on how to use social media, publicity, conferences, multimedia, email and the web to promote their article.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

Authors may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright transfer agreement (CTA), or under open access terms made available via Wiley OnlineOpen.

Standard Copyright Transfer Agreement: FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard CTA in place for the journal, including standard terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Note that in signing the journal’s licence agreement authors agree that consent to reproduce figures from another source has been obtained.

OnlineOpen – Wiley’s Open Access Option: OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons license. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access. Authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on their personal website, and in an institutional repository or other free public server immediately after publication. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

OnlineOpen licenses. Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND). To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

Funder Open Access and Self-Archiving Compliance: Please click here for more information on Wiley’s compliance with specific Funder Open Access and Self Archiving Policies, and click here for more detailed information specifically about Self-Archiving definitions and policies.


Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research
Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology
National Wine Centre, Cnr Botanic and Hackney
Tel: +61488 488 416 ; email:; www:

Author Guidelines updated 3 December 2015