Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research

Cover image for Vol. 27 Issue 4

Edited by: Marcus Bosenberg, Andrew E. Aplin and Heinz Arnheiter - Reviews Editor: Robert Kelsh

Impact Factor: 5.641

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 2/61 (Dermatology); 27/202 (Oncology); 43/185 (Cell Biology)

Online ISSN: 1755-148X



Author Guidelines


Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research publishes manuscripts on all aspects of pigment cells including development, cell and molecular biology, genetics, diseases of pigment cells including melanoma. Papers that provide insights into the causes and progression of melanoma including the process of metastasis and invasion, proliferation, senescence, apoptosis or gene regulation are especially welcome, as are papers that use the melanocyte system to answer questions of general biological relevance. Papers that are purely descriptive or make only minor advances to our knowledge of pigment cells or melanoma in particular are not suitable for this journal.
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research receives a large number of manuscripts describing allelic association studies of candidate genes and various common diseases. These manuscripts will undergo preliminary assessment by the Editorial Board, and may be returned without review if there are major statistical genetic deficiencies. Such deficiencies may include (but are not limited to): utilization of only simple case-control study design, utilization of study subjects substantially overlapping those used in a previous study of the same gene or variant, failure to utilize appropriate statistical correction for multiple-testing, utilization of inadequate or inappropriate statistical methodology, or failure to fully describe statistical methods used.


Authors submitting manuscripts to Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research do so on the understanding that the work has not been published previously, is not being considered for publication elsewhere, and has been read and approved by all authors. Further, submission of manuscripts means that authors automatically agree to sign a Copyright Transfer Agreement Form, if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication.

Closely related papers that are in press in other journals or that will be or have been submitted elsewhere must be included with the submitted manuscript.

Research Data
In order to ensure quality and robustness of studies published in PCMR authors require to address the following criteria, as applicable, in their results and methods sections.

  • Provide clear indication for the type and outcome of statistical analysis performed.
  • Provide data to support the validation of reagents used. For example, if antibodies used in immunohistochemistry, evidence for their specificity in immunohistochemistry needs to be shown. If siRNA or shRNA are used, more than one siRNA against the same target should be shown with evidence for selective knockdown and lack of off-target effect. If small molecule inhibitors are used, control experiments or literature citation should be presented that confirm the identity of a specific target.
  • Observations need to be confirmed in more than one cell line.
  • Authors are encouraged to perform double blind quantifications for any measurements that contain a subjective component. Examples include scoring of immunohistochemistry, cell counting, and tumor measurements.
  • Gene expression or large genomic/proteomics/transcriptomic datasets should be deposited in public domains and access number must be provided at time of submission
  • Experiments should show positive and negative results, These can frequently be submitted as supplementary data
  • Experiments should be repeated and the number of biological and technical repeats stated
  • Data selected for presentation should truly be representative data. If a single experiment is shown the authors should state how many experiments showed a similar result, and how many did not.


Availability of data and materials
It is understood that by publishing any work in PCMR, the authors agree to make freely available to other academic researchers any of the cells, clones of cells, DNA, antibodies, or other related material that were used in the research reported and that are not available from commercial suppliers.  Therefore, a condition of publication is that authors are required to make materials, data, and associated protocols available in a publicly accessible database. Where one does not exist, the information must be made available to referees upon submission and to readers promptly upon request. Any restrictions on materials availability or other relevant information must be disclosed in the manuscript’s Materials and Methods section and should include details of how materials and information may be obtained. 

Duplicate Publication and Scientific Fraud
In cases of suspected scientific misconduct (fabrication or falsification of data, double publication, or plagiarism), the Editor will attempt to clarify the matter with the authors. Should that fail to resolve the situation satisfactorily, the Editor will contact the institution and/or funding body of the corresponding author to request that they initiate a formal investigation into possible scientific misconduct. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research will not consider publication of any papers by the offending authors for a period of 5 years. PCMR employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to PCMR you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

HUMAN SUBJECTS
If the manuscript reports results of studies carried out using either human subjects or materials obtained from human subjects, it must be stated in the METHODS section that the study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee, which must be named, and that appropriate informed consent was obtained from all human subjects. 

Gene Array Data
Click here to see guidelines for preparation and analysis of gene array data.

PRODUCTION

Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley Author Services.
Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit this page for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Accepted Articles
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research now offers Accepted Articles for all full articles. 'Accepted Articles' have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only (without the accompanying full-text HTML) and are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked. The DOI remains unique to a given article in perpetuity. More information about DOIs can be found online at http://www.doi.org/faq.html. Given that Accepted Articles are not considered to be final, please note that changes will be made to an article after Accepted Article online publication, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record.

The Accepted Articles service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance. Given that copyright licensing is a condition of publication, a completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

Accepted articles will be indexed by PubMed; therefore the submitting author must carefully check the names and affiliations of all authors provided in the cover page of the manuscript, as it will not be possible to alter these once a paper is made available online in Accepted Article format. Subsequently the final copyedited and proofed articles will appear either as Early View articles in a matter of weeks or in an issue on Wiley Online Library; the link to the article in PubMed will automatically be updated.

Cover Art
Authors are invited to send in suggestions for colour images to be used as cover art for Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. The images should be visually exciting and should be relevant to any aspect of pigment cell biology including for example, pigmentation phenotypes or patterns, images from cell or developmental biology or related to melanoma.  Images should be uploaded in TIFF or EPS format at the highest possible resolution together with a brief description of the image provided. From those images selected for PCMR covers one will be chosen by the editorial board to be the ‘cover of the year’ and the individual submitting that image will be entitled to a year’s free online subscription to the journal.

Early View
Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research is covered by Wiley's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. More information about DOIs can be found at: http://www.doi.org/faq.html.

Pre-submission English-language editing
We recommend that for authors for whom English is a second language, the option to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English is followed. A list of independent suppliers of editing services can be found at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/english_language.asp. Japanese authors can also find a list of local English improvement services at http://www.wiley.co.jp/journals/editcontribute.html. All services are paid for and arranged by the author, and use of one of these services does not guarantee acceptance or preference for publication.

Manuscript submission
Manuscripts should be submitted using the online system, ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central) (http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/pcmr). All communications will be made through the online system platform. Assistance is available from the PCMR Editorial Assistant at PCMReditorial@wiley.com. Please see Instructions to Authors at the above webpage for more information.

Copyright
If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the Copyright Transfer Agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author wlll have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

For RCUK and Wellcome Trust authors click on the link below to preview the terms and conditions of this license: Creative Commons Attribution License OOA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/faqs_copyright.asp and visit http://www.wileyopenaccess.com/details/content/12f25db4c87/Copyright--License.html.

RCUK and Wellcome Trust Funded Authors publishing in Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit: http://www.wiley.com/go/funderstatement.

NIH-funded Authors publishing in Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
From April 2008, the NIH is mandating grant-holders to deposit their published papers in PubMed Central within 12 months of publication. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research  complies with the NIH mandate in allowing authors to post the accepted version of their article i.e. the version incorporating any amendments made during peer review, 12 months after publication. In doing so authors will be meeting the terms of their grant (http://publicaccess.nih.gov/FAQ.htm#general).
 
As an alternative, NIH-funded authors may use the Online Open service (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms). This service grants free and immediate availability of the article on publication, and deposition of the final pdf version with PubMed Central. 

TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS CONSIDERED
Original Research Articles - Research papers consisting of: Summary, Significance, Introduction, Results, Discussion and Materials and Methods sections are required (Results and Discussion may be combined if the author wishes). Literature cited should be succinct and preferably limited to seven journal printed pages (about 55 000 characters including data, and 50 references).
Short Article (Communications) - report data on research projects that have progressed to a point where important preliminary observations should be disseminated; a Summary and Significance are required but Short Articles should not be organised into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. Communications will be published as quickly as possible within journal production schedules. Limit to three printed pages (the MS should be around 2000 words with max. three display items).
Concept – focused discussion of a specific question, emerging problem, or a controversial topic. Concept is expected to provide a data-based view and is often solicited from few contributors to allow coverage from different expertise.
Hypothesis – short write-ups that offer a novel hypothesis that may offer new concept and direction in solving existing problem. These need not always be based on existing data.
Resources and Technologies
They describe new protocols, reagents (antibodies, cell lines, animal models, etc.) as well as databases and innovative technology approaches relevant to the pigment cell and melanoma research communities. They have not been published before, and reflect updated or new information that is not available elsewhere. The Resources and Technologies are peer reviewed as any other manuscripts and subject to revisions before acceptance for publication. They will not exceed 3 printed pages, do not have an abstract and will have a maximum of 6 references. Data will be presented in figures and/or tables as applicable and in supplementary figures and/or tables. In exceptional cases, Resources and Technologies papers can be longer, but please consult with the editorial office in such cases.
Letters to the Editor
- Letters to the Editor will be considered for publication if they address important, topical issues such as an unexpected and novel research finding, or are a response to, or a comment on, a previous publication. Limit to about two pages and 12 references. Exceptions are made based on Editorial decisions.

The following types of articles are usually invited but authors wishing to contribute such manuscripts should contact the Executive Editors or Editor in Chief in advance to see if the proposed article would be considered by the Editorial Board.
Review Articles - in which a specific field is reviewed through an exhaustive literature survey; an Abstract is required. Reviews may be as long as 12 journal pages with no more than 200 references.
News & Views - News and Views articles are written by invitation only. These articles are short (maximum of 2 printed pages) and with a maximum of 5 references. They are intended to bring to the attention of the readership of Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research papers with a pigment cell-related theme irrespective of the journal of publication. Given the nature of these papers, no acknowledgement paragraph should be included and the paper(s) being commented on should be listed as 'coverage of' and should not appear in the references.

Meeting Report - occasionally PCMR publishes Meeting Reports from meetings of key relevance for the core-audience of the journal. Please notice that a stringent format applies to meeting reports to keep them short and precise: no keywords, no abstract, no acknowledgement and no references. A short introduction can replace the abstract.

To summarize the page charges for the above mentioned article types :

 

Basic length  (printed pages)*

Any additional  pages will be charged the following per extra page

Original Research articles

7

100 GBP

Short Communications

3

100 GBP

Letter to the Editor

2

100 GBP

Hypothesis

7

100 GBP

*Each typeset page can be roughly estimated to contain 800 words or 2 to 3 figures or tables or 50 references.

Page Limits
Articles longer than the guidelines given above will be subject to a page charge for excess journal pages above those limits, at GBP100 per page. One journal page will generally contain 2.5 - 3 pages of double-spaced text (approximately 800 words), 2 or 3 Figures or Tables, or 50 references.


Author Material Archive Policy
Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not yet done so.

General Instructions
Manuscripts must be submitted in clear, concise English. They should have 1.5 line spacing throughout. Text should be typed in Times New Roman, 11 point. All manuscript pages should be numbered consecutively at the top right, beginning with the title page as #1. Manuscripts should have a uniform style and should be submitted in accordance with these instructions. Subdivisions should be provided as appropriate in the following sequence: (1) Title page (2) Summary (3) Text (4) Acknowledgments (5) References (6) Tables (7) Figure legends, and (8) Figures. More detailed instructions for manuscript preparation can be found in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biochemical Journals.

Layout
1) Title Page - The first page of the manuscript should include, in the following order: (a) Title of paper, (b) Full Name of author(s), (c) Institutional Affiliation with complete mailing address, (d) a specific mailing address, telephone number, fax number and Email address to whom correspondence concerning the manuscript should be sent and (e) total word count of manuscript, including abstract, text, references and figure legends.
2) Summary - The summary must be less than 150 words, and must be written in complete sentences to succinctly state the objectives and experimental design of the paper, principal observations and conclusions. The summary should be intelligible without reference to the rest of the paper, and nonstandard abbreviations should not be used (cf List of Abbreviations that follows).
3) Significance - The Significance paragraph consists of a single paragraph of no more than 100 words. The main goal of the Significance paragraph is to explain the significance of the finding and the relevance of the work in the context of the wider melanoma and pigment cell biology field to a broad readership, from basic to clinical research scientists. No references should be included. Please note that a paragraph on significance is not required for review articles.
4) Keywords - list 5 to 7 KeyWords including those in the Title.
5) Running Title - provide a running title of up to 50 characters.
6) Text - The text should be organized in Sections in the following order: (a) INTRODUCTION, (b) RESULTS, (c) DISCUSSION and (d) METHODS (the Results and Discussion sections can be combined into a single section at the authors discretion). Section headings should be bolded and aligned on the left margin. Subheadings should be used where appropriate and should be in Sentence Case and bolded, and also aligned on the left margin. Italics other than that should be used only for gene names, in upper case for human genes (e.g. TYR), and in lower case except initial capital for all other species (e.g. Tyr). Current nomenclature for genes (and gene products) can be found at the Jackson Laboratory Mouse Genome Informatics site (For color loci, Choose: Genetic and Phenotypic Data, Go to: Genes, Markers and Phenotypes, Search for: Physiological: Color and White Spotting, then Retrieve), the NIHs Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man site, or the Coat Color Gene Table at the IFPCS InterPig Database. Suppliers of materials should be named and their location (town, state/county, country) included.
5) Acknowledgements - should be listed for sources of research reagents used; support by grants and Institutions may also be listed.
6) References - should follow the Harvard style of references, outlined below, and should be cited in the text as: 'White (2001) has shown...' or '...as shown earlier (Blanc and White, 1999; Weiss et al., 2000)'. When different groups of authors with the same first author and year of publication occur, they should be cited thus, Weiss et al. (2000a,b), to differentiate clearly between them. Multiple citations should be listed alphabetically by author surname. References should be listed at the end of the manuscript in alphabetical order according to the name of the first author and chronologically where several papers by the same author are listed. The list of references should include only articles that have been published or are currently in press and should be cited in the text in author-date format (eg. Barral  and Seabra, 2004; Cowan et al., 1997) and listed in alphabetical order in the reference section. Unpublished data, submitted manuscripts, abstracts and personal communications should be cited within the text only. Personal communication should be documented by a letter of permission. If there are more than 10 authors, 'et al.' should be used and journal titles should be abbreviated following Index Medicus. Please use the following style for references in the reference list:

Article in a periodical:  Javelaud, D., Alexaki, V.I., and Mauviel, A. (2008). Transforming growth factor-beta in cutaneous melanoma. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21, 123–132

Article in a book: Sorenson, P.W., and Caprio, J.C. (1998). Chemoreception. In The Physiology of Fishes, D.H. Evans, ed. (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press), pp. 375-405.

An entire book: Cowan, W.M., Jessell, T.M., and Zipursky, S.L. (1997). Molecular and Cellular Approaches to Neural Development (New York: Oxford University Press).

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. The EndNote reference style for Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research can be obtained from this site. Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:
http://www.refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp

6) Tables - Each Table must be cited in the text and must have brief but descriptive title. Information other than that defining the data should be presented as a footnote. Tabular material should be simple and uncomplicated, with as few vertical and horizontal rules as possible. Footnotes in Tables must be typed directly beneath the table and numbered 1, 2, 3, etc, i.e. they are not numbered in sequence with text footnotes.
7) Figure Legends - Figures in the text should be numbered using sequential Arabic numerals, and each should be cited in the text.
8) Figures - To maintain consistency within the journal, figures should be prepared using Helvetica or Arial font and should be largely understandable without reference to the figure legend. Illustrations should be no larger than 203 x 254 mm (8 x 10 inches). Figures should preferably fill a single column (width = 82 mm), but if necessary for clarity and detail, they may span a full page (width = 171 mm). Figures should ideally be submitted in electronic format (see below) but if sufficient resolution is not achieved, original drawings or high-quality photographs may be supplied. The editor recommends using the guidelines below.

  • Resolution of halftone figures must be at least 600 dpi and line figures 800 dpi.
  • After reduction symbols should be at least 2–3 mm high (10 point).
  • All figures should be submitted at final reproduction size.
  • Figures made in PowerPoint are not suitable for reproduction.

Note that for all figures, the original  digital images must be acquired at a minimum 300dpi and the labelling applied at this high resolution. Images acquired at lower resolution, labelled and then subject to a digital resolution increase are not acceptable. This is especially a problem with figures made in PowerPoint which cannot be subsequently processed to yield sufficient resolution. To check the resolution of your image just zoom in 400% and examine whether the text and other components of the image are pixelated. If so it is unlikely the image will be acceptable. Images supplied at the wrong resolution can mean severe delays in publication of the accepted manuscript.

Image manipulation - Digital figures adjusted with computer software are acceptable. However, the final image must remain representative of the original data and cannot be enhanced, obscured or rearranged.  Unacceptable modifications include the addition, alteration or removal of a particular feature of an image. All digital images in manuscripts accepted for publication will be examined for any improper modification and if evidence of such inappropriate modification is detected, the Editor of the journal will request the original data to be supplied for comparison to the prepared figures and if necessary revoke acceptance of the article. Cases of deliberate misrepresentation of data will result in revocation of acceptance, and will be reported to the corresponding author's home institution or funding agency.

Guidelines on the submission of electronic artwork are available on-line here.

Color Figures - It is the policy of Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork, unless in exceptional circumstances the Editor decides to accept those costs. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Wiley require you to complete and return a colour work agreement form before your paper can be published. This form can be downloaded as a PDF here. If you are unable to download the form, please contact the Production Editor at pcmr@wiley.com and they will be able to email a form to you. Once completed, please return the form by post to Customer Services (OPI), John Wiley & Sons Ltd, European Distibution Centre, New Era Estate, Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis, West Sussex PO22 9NQ, UK. Any article received by Wiley with colour work will not be published until the form has been returned.

To read PDF files, you must have Acrobat Reader installed on your computer. If you do not have this program, it is available as a free download from the following website: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
Electronic Submission - all files should be uploaded online through the online submission system http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/pcmr. Requested information should be carefully provided online, as it will prevent delays and assure rapid processing of your submission. In case of specific inquiries – please contact the editorial assistant Andrea Lewis at pcmreditorial@wiley.com. For scientific inquiries, please direct your question to one of the Executive Editors, or the Editor in Chief. Type of files to upload: for the text and tables in DOC, DOCX or RTF format. Figures should be provided at the high resolution saved in EPS, AI or TIFF format (for more information on electronic figure formats, please see above).

PCMR endeavors to limit its review process to one round of revision. Thus, the Editors hope that authors who are invited to resubmit will address all of the reviewers' and editors' critiques and suggestions fully in their first revision

SUPPORTING INFORMATION
Supporting information can be published as web materials on Wiley Online Library at the Editor’s discretion. Supplementary materials may include details of Methods, Experimental procedures, as well as relevant data, including gene array expression studies or relevant multimedia files. The Supporting information material will be accessible by hot links from the on-line version of Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research. Authors are responsible for the preparation of Supporting information, which should be supplied in a format that will be most accessible by readers (e.g. Excel for tables, PDF or Word for text and TIFF/EPS for figures etc). More information can be found in our guidelines at http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/suppinfo.asp

PROOFS
The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat 7 will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site:

http://www.adobe.co.uk/products/acrobat/readermain.html

This will enable the file to be opened, read and corrected on screen. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately.

OFFPRINTS
Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers. Paper offprints of the printed published article may be purchased if ordered via the method stipulated on the instructions that will accompany the proofs.

Standard Abbreviations that can be used without definition are:
Amino Acids, 3 letter or 1 letter codes in sequences (Ala or A, alanine; Arg or R, arginine; Asn or N, asparagine; Asp or D, aspartic acid; Asx or B, aspartic acid or asparagine; Cys or C, cysteine; Glu or E, glutamic acid; Gln or Q, glutamine; Glx or Z, glutamic acid or glutamine; Gly or G, glycine; His or H, histidine; Ile or I, isoleucine; Leu or L, leucine; Lys or K, lysine; Met or M, methionine; Phe or F, phenylalanine; Pro or P, proline; Ser or S, serine; Thr or T, threonine; Trp or W, tryptophan; Tyr or Y, tyrosine; Val or V, valine)
Nucleosides and Nucleotides, 3 letter or 1 letter codes in sequences (Ado or A, adenosine; Cyd or C, cytidine; Guo or G, guanosine; Ino or I, inosine; Thd or T, Ribosylthymine; Urd or U, uridine; Xao or X, xanthine)

A, ampere
Å, angstrom (10-10 m)
ACTH, adrenocorticotropin
ADP, adenosine diphosphate
AMP, adenosine monophosphate
ATP, adenosine triphosphate
ATPase, adenosine triphosphatase

b, base
bp, base pair
Bq, becquerel
BrdU, bromodeoxyuridine
BSA, bovine serum albumin

cal, calorie(s)
cAMP, cyclic AMP
CD, circular dichroism
cDNA, complementary DNA
cRNA, complementary RNA
°C, degree Celsius
CHAPS, 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) diethy-ammonio-1 propanesulfonate
Ci, curie(s)
cpm, counts per minute
CTP, cytidine triphosphate

D, dalton
d, day
d, density
DAB, diaminobenzidine
DAG, diacylglycerol
DAPI, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole
DEAE, diethylaminoethyl
DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium
DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase, deoxyribonuclease
DNP, dinitrophenyl
dpm, disintegrations per minute
DTT, dithiothreitol

ECL, enhanced chemiluminescence
EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGF, epidermal growth factor
EGTA, ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethylether)- N,N-tetraacetic acid
ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EM, electron microscopy
EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance
ER, endoplasmic reticulum
ESR, electron spin resonance
EST, expressed sequence tag

°F, degree Fahrenheit
FACS, fluorescence-activated cell sorter
FBS, fetal bovine serum
FCS, fetal calf serum
FGF, fibroblast growth factor
FISH, fluorescent in situ hybridization
FITC, fluorescein isothiocyanate
FRAP, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching

g, gram
g, unit of gravity (multiplication sign should not be included before 'g')
GC, gas chromatography
GLC, gas-liquid chromatography
GSH, glutathione
GTP, guanosine triphosphate

h, hour
HBSS, Hanks' balanced salt solution
HEPES, N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethane sulfonic acid
HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography
HRP, horseradish peroxidase

IEF, isoelectric focusing
Ig, immunoglobulin
IPTG, isopropyl-ß-D-thiogalactoside
IR, infrared
IU, international unit(s)

k, kilo prefix (10-6), as in kiloliter(s)
l, liter(s)

µ, micro prefix (10-6), as in microliter(s)
m, milli prefix (10-3), as in milliliter(s)
m, meter
M, molar
mAb, monoclonal antibody
MEM, Eagle's minimum essential medium
MES, 2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid
min, minute
mol, mole(s)
mol wt, molecular weight
MOPS, morpholino propane sulfonic acid
Mr, relative molecular mass
mRNA, messenger RNA
MS, mass spectrometry
mtDNA, mitochondrial DNA
mtRNA, mitochondrial RNA

N, nano prefix (10-9), as in nanoliter(s)
N, normal (concentration of ionizable groups)
n, number in a study or group
NAD, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
ND, not determined
NGF, nerve growth factor
NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance
NP-40, Nonidet P-40
NS, not significant
nt, nucleotide

OD, optical density
ORD, optical rotary dispersion
ORF, open reading frame

p, pico prefix (10-12), as in picoliter(s)
P, probability
PAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PBS, phosphate-buffered saline
PCA, perchloric acid
PCR, polymerase chain reaction
PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor
PIPES, [1,4-piperazinebis(ethane sulfonic acid)]
PKA, protein kinase A
PKC, protein kinase C
PLC, phospholipase C
PMA, phorbol myristate acetate
PMSF, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride

r, correlation coefficient
RBC, red blood cell
RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum
RIA, radioimmunoassay
RNA, ribonucleic acid
rRNA, ribosomal RNA
RNase, ribonuclease
RNP, ribonucleoprotein
rpm, revolutions per minute

s, seconds(s)
s, sedimentation coefficient
S, Svedberg unit of sedimentation coefficient
SD, standard deviation
SDS, sodium dodecyl sulfate
SEM, standard error of the mean
sp act, specific activity
SSC, standard saline citrate
SV40, simian virus 40

t test, Student's t test
t1/2, half-life, half-time
TBS, Tris-buffered saline
TCA, trichloroacetic acid
TdR, thymidine deoxyribose
TGF, transforming growth factor
TGN, trans-Golgi network
TLC, thin layer chromatography
Treg (subscript)
Tris, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
tRNA, transfer RNA

U, unit
UDP, uridine diphosphate
UTP, uridine triphosphate
UV, ultraviolet

V, volt
vol, volume

W, watt
wt, weight

yr, year

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