Acta Ophthalmologica

Cover image for Vol. 95 Issue 2

Edited By: Einar Stefánsson

Impact Factor: 3.032

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 11/56 (Ophthalmology)

Online ISSN: 1755-3768

Author Guidelines

Acta Ophthalmologica publishes clinical and experimental original articles, reviews, editorials, educational photo-essays (Diagnosis and Therapy in Ophthalmology), case reports and case series, letters to the editor, doctoral theses.
Priority is given to high quality original papers and review articles. Manuscripts are accepted on the condition that they have not been, and will not be published elsewhere, except for abstracts of oral presentations. All submissions are subject to editorial review and will be reviewed by two or more independent reviewers, editorial board members, and guest editors. It is assumed that the author(s) has considered the ethical aspects of the study and followed the guidelines of the Helsinki Declaration, which should always be specified in the manuscript.

Online Only Publication
Letters to the editor are published online only from January 2010, and from January 2010 newly submitted letters to the editor will be exempt from colour charges.

The editor decides whether any publication is electronic only or both in print and electronic form. The authors are notified and consulted on this decision.

Manuscripts to Acta Ophthalmologica should be submitted online via the journal's submission site, ScholarOne Manuscripts (formerly known as Manuscript Central). To access this system for submission and review, go directly to:

Complete instructions for preparing and submitting manuscripts online are provided at the submission site. If you need assistance, please contact our support staff by phone at +1 434 817 2040 ext. 167 or via e-mail at

Please note that docx files are compatible with the journal submission systems.


Arrangement of the manuscript: The manuscript should include the following: 1) title page; 2) abstract, and key words; 3) main text (introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion); 4) acknowledgement; 5) references; 6) figure and figure legends; 7) tables; 8) illustrations and graphics. For more information on manuscript format, please refer to the following guidelines.

1) The Title Page should contain on separate lines author(s) name, institution, and the title of the article. In addition it should contain the e-mail and postal addresses, plus telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author. All author affiliations and corresponding authors addresses should be supplied in English.

2) The Abstract of original papers must be structured with the following headings: Purpose, Methods, Results, Conclusion, and should not exceed 250 words. Abstracts of review articles, perspective of ophthalmology, historical articles, case reports and case series do not have to be structured in this same way. Diagnosis/Therapy in Ophthalmology contributions, editorials and Letters to the Editor do not have an abstract, please see separate instructions below. Key Words: Four to nine key words for indexing purposes must be given.

3) Main text should be concise and as far as possible free of specialised language, and unnecessary or not generally accepted abbreviations. Abbreviations must be spelled out on first mention.
The following order of presentation is recommended:
Introduction stating the purpose of the article and key aspects of present knowledge. Extensive literature reviews are not desirable. Primary sources are preferred.
Material: Notice that the journal requests that all research has followed the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki, and that the details are provided in the manuscript text. Methods of investigation with sufficient information to permit repetition of experiments. The journal requires that authors who report on eye cancer include in their manuscript the Union for International Cancer Control / American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC / AJCC) Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) categories and stages (7th Edition) in addition to any other cancer classification scheme the authors wish to use.

Statistics and mathematical analyses should be applied when appropriate and be described under Methods. Authors are encouraged to take advice from an expert of statistics already when the study is designed. The following rules regarding reporting should be adhered to:
- Report proportions if the number of subjects is smaller than 10 (e.g. 2 of 5), report percentages in integers if the number of subjects is less than 100 (e.g. 34%). If the number of subjects is larger, one decimal place can be given, but is seldom necessary (e.g. 34.5%).
- Report summary statistics of normally distributed variables as mean with standard deviation, and other variable as medium with range. Use parametric and nonparametric statistical tests accordingly.
- Give exact p-values (e.g. p=0.15 and p=0.034); if p-value is smaller than 0.0001, report p - Give 95% confidence intervals for main findings.
- Mention the statistical test used with the p-value (e.g. p=0.015, paird t-test). If the same test is repeated, it does not need to be specified again.
- The statistical software used need not be referenced in the manuscript text, unless it is specific for the statistical method used (or these can be put later under a separate heading, with a pointer here).
Results should be as clearly presented as possible. Scatterplots and similar graphical presentations are often preferable to tables. Do not duplicate in the text data that is given in tables and figures.
Discussion should be based directly on the author(s)' contributions and with reference to prior investigations, pointing out the significance and the limitations of the study.

4) Acknowledgements should indicate the name, society and date of the meeting if an abstract of the article has been presented previously. Support for the study can also be published here. A statement regarding possible conflict of interest must be included here (e.g. disclose financial interest in the equipment or method described, research or travelling grant support, consulting services provided, or disclose absence of commercial or propriety interest).

5) References. The author(s) is responsible for accurate references that must conform to journal style. If references are not in journal style, the manuscript will be returned for editing without review. References in the text should quote the last name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication: (Brown & Smith 2003) or (Brown et al. 2003) when there are three or more authors. The reference list should include only those publications cited in the text and must be listed in alphabetic order with no numbering. Initials of forenames are placed after the surname with no commas, periods or spaces between initials. All articles should be cited in the original language of the reference, not as an English translation. References 'in press' must be filled in at latest in at the proof stage. Reference to unpublished material should state the author's name followed by 'unpublished' or 'personal communications'; such references should not appear in the reference list. Titles of journals are abbreviated according to the recommendations of the Index Medicus.

The Wiley House Style guide provides a more details on reference management and can be accessed via Author Guidelines, here:

Examples of reference list:

Abrahamsson M, Ohlsson J & Abrahamsson H (2003): Clinical evaluation of an eccentric infrared photorefactor; the PowerRefractor. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 81: 605-610.

Sharaaway T (2003): Glaucoma surgery: Lest we forget. Acta Ophthalmol 81: 553-555.

Bailey IL (1998): Visual acuity. In: Benjamin WJ (ed.) Borish's Clinical Clinical Refraction. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders 179-202.

In papers with less than 9 authors, all author names should be listed in the reference list. In papers with 9 or more authors, please list the first three names followed by et al.

6) Figure Legends. Legends to figures should make the meaning of each illustration understandable without reference to the text. Figure legends should be on separate pages.

7) Tables should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and cited in the text. The approximate location in the text should be indicated in the manuscript. Each table should be typed as a separate document. Tables should have legends. Footnotes can be used in tables, if necessary.

8) Illustrations and graphics. All photographs, drawings and graphs are referred to as figures, abbreviated Fig., and should be numbered in sequence with Arabic numerals. Photographs and other images should be cropped so that only relevant parts of original figures are submitted. All figures should be planned to fit the printed column, 56, 117 or 178mm, and non-photographic illustrations should be professionally produced using modern software. Authors are encouraged to print their illustrations in the intended size before submission to make sure that sizes have been chosen correctly. The authors should also adapt graphics for the 3-column format and adjust the font size accordingly. Graphics are not re-drawn by the publisher. Histograms and similiar graphics should not be 3-dimensional. Complicated graphical illustrations can often be made more legible by the use of colour. Figures should be on separate pages. Please submit all line graphics as EPS or PDF files and photographs as TIF or PDF files. When submitting EPS files please embed fonts when you can. For more information on preparing and submitting figures please visit our Electronic Artwork Guidelines:

Consult the section on colour charges, colour policy and page charges below.

Review articles should be arranged in the following order: 1) title page; 2) abstract; 3) key words; 4) text, 5) acknowledgement; 6) references; 7) tables; 8) legends to figures; 9) illustrations and graphics.

Review articles have high priority. They are usually invited, but the journal may also accept unsolicited review articles. Articles with clinical relevance are preferred. Manuscripts of this type may be considerably longer than other contributions with numerous illustrations and more extensive reference lists. Review papers have an abstract that may be in a single segment.


Case series and case reports should be arranged in the following order: 1) title page; 2) abstract; 3) key words; 4) text, 5) acknowledgement; 6) references; 7) tables; 8) legends to figures; 9) illustrations and graphics.

Acta Ophthalmologica receives many more case reports than it can publish. Published case reports should provide unquestionably new knowledge, or be exceptionally well documented and educational. Authors should check before submission of case reports that their manuscript meets either of these requirements. Most manuscripts in this section are rejected without outside review for lack of new content and low priority. It is usually preferable to submit rare of unusual case observations in a much condensed format as a letter to the editor. Please consult also the Diagnosis/Therapy in Ophthalmology section below.

Acta Ophthalmologica will consider letters for publication. Letters to the editor will be published electronically in each issue of Acta. Other material, including articles, may also be published in electronic issues of Acta and not on paper. The electronic articles and letters will be listed in exactly the same way as other material in Acta, including in international databases. They will be accessible in the same way as other published material, except in the paper issue of the journal.

Letters should encourage scientific discussion on topics pertaining to ophthalmology, and may also consist of short reports or observations. A letter to the editor should start with 'Editor,' and be short and to the point. Long introductions and discussions are unacceptable. Letters should have title page, main text, no abstract, no key words, and no subheadings. Letters should not exceed 600 words and should have a maximum of 5 references and 1 table or 1 illustrations. It could be panel of figures. The editors reserve the right to edit letters for clarity and brevity.

The Diagnosis/Therapy in Ophthalmolgy section features photo essays, i.e. short contributions that focus on images rather than text. Submissions should be based on images which emphasise features relevant to contemporary diagnosis and treatment of eye disease. The aim of this section is to improve patient care by alerting readers to appropriate use of diagnostic techniques and important clinical signs. This section in not intended for reporting rare or unusual findings unless the technique described has wide applicability. The text should have no abstract, no subheadings and should start directly with the case report, followed by a short comment. The text should be about two doubly spaced manuscript pages. The legends are typed on a separate page. Illustrations can include any combination of clinical photographs, ultrasonographic and radiology images, histopathology slides, topographic maps, visual fields and other relevant pictures, provided that they have educational value to the general reader and cropped to show only essential details. The images must be accompanied by a concise comment and up to five references which put them in perspective. Acta will usually only print one article in this section in every issue. Acta has a section editor for this type of article.

Acta publishes full-text theses (academic dissertations) online. A one or two-page abstract is published in the printed version of the journal, while full text of the theses is available online only. Theses are freely available on the web both to subscribers and to non-subscribers. This means that theses can be found on Medline and are easily available over the world. The publication cost is low and the service is supported by Acta's owners, the Nordic Ophthalmological Societies. Click here for further information.

Papers should be written in English. The spelling should follow the Concise Oxford Dictionary, i.e. British English. For medical terms, Dorland's Medical Dictionary should be used. The minus sign should be shown as -. In decimal fractions use a full stop and not a comma. Footnotes should be avoided. In abbreviations, units, and symbols, standardised terms should be used.

Acta requests all figures that are inherently in colour (e.g. fundus photographs, clinical photographs, histology, optical coherence tomography) be submitted to the journal in true colour. If other figures are submitted in colour (photographs or graphics) it is assumed that they are also intended for publication in colour. For manuscripts where the formal corresponding authors is a member of the Nordic Ophthalmolgocial Societies, a member of EVER, or a personal subscriber, there will be no colour reproduction charge. For other manuscripts, a colourwork agreement form must be completed and submitted, authorizing a charge of GBP 300. Please submit colour work forms to:

Customer Services (OPI)
John Wiley & Sons Ltd,
European Distribution Centre
New Era Estate
Oldlands Way, Bognor Regis
West Sussex PO22 9NQ

Invited articles are not charged for colour illustrations.

Any article which exceeds 4 pages will be charged. Excess pages must be paid for at a rate of £80 (UK) per page unless specific written arrangements have been negotiated with the Editor-in-Chief. The page charges quoted in Sterling will be converted into the equivalent US Dollar or Euro rate depending on the billing area of the author if outside the UK. Invited papers are as a rule not charged for excess pages. Papers will be invoiced upon publication. One Acta page contains about 6,300 letters, space between words included. Please note that page charges apply to all authors, including subscribers and authors published in the online only section.

If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the Copyright Transfer Agreement
If the OnlineOpen option is not selected, the corresponding author will be presented with the Copyright Transfer Agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:
CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen
If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):
Creative Commons Attribution License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA
To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit
If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Online Open is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen, the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication via Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For more information on Online Open including the full list of terms and conditions and the online order form please go to here.

Prior to acceptance there is no requirement to inform an Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

Please note: 50% discounted OnlineOpen fee for Members of the Danish Ophthalmological Society, the Finnish Ophthalmological Society, the Icelandic Ophthalmological Society, the Norwegian Ophthalmological Society, the Swedish Ophthalmological Society or the European Association for Vision and Eye Research (EVER).

Proofs will be sent to one author only. The corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing a link to a web site. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from this site. Acrobat Reader will be required in order to read this file. This software can be downloaded (free of charge) from the following web site:

This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Hard copy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available. Any alteration made during linguistic editing by the publisher should be checked carefully and the proof returned with the least possible delay and with a minimum of essential corrections. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. If a significant amount of new material is added the paper may be re-dated. Second proofs will be sent only if specifically and justifiably requested by the author. Final proofs are read by the publisher.

Online production tracking is now available for your article through Wiley-Blackwell's Author Services
Author Services enables authors to track their article - once it has been accepted - through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address id provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and a for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Monographs of large original work, proceedings of symposia, etc. may be published as supplements, the full cost being paid by the author. Examples of material that may be accepted as supplements include theses with ophthalmic subjects or meeting proceedings from Nordic ophthalmic societies or ophthalmic meetings in the Nordic countries. Supplements are not subject to revision by the Editor. The quality of the language must meet the standards maintained by the journal, and all the above-mentioned instructions should be followed. All costs for production, postage to the subscribers, and translation or linguistic revision must be paid by the author. Supplements are sent free of charge to the subscribers. It is the policy to acknowledge in supplements any major sponsorship.

There are no free offprints. Information on how to order offprints and reprints will accompany the proofs. To order offprints please visit or email

Please note that unless specifically requested, Wiley-Blackwell will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted two months after publication. If you require the return of any material submitted, please inform the editorial office or production editor as soon as possible if you have not already done so.

The publisher's policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which have been manufactured from pulp which is processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used has met acceptable environmental accreditation standards.

The Publisher, the Nordic Ophthalmological Societies or Editors cannot be held responsible for errors or any consequences arising from the use of information contained in this journal; the views and opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Publisher, the Nordic Ophthalmological Societies or Editors, neither does the publication of advertisements constitute any endorsement by the Publisher, the Nordic Ophthalmological Societies or Editors of the products advertised.

Professor Einar Stefánsson
University of Iceland
National University Hospital
Department of Ophthalmology
101 Reykjavík, Iceland

Bryndis Thordardottir
Editorial Manager
Tel: +354 897 9752
Fax: +354 543 4831

Please email the Production Editor at: for queries after acceptance.