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Online ISSN: 1757-1707
Associated Title(s): Global Change Biology
In Vitro Culture and Transformation of Miscanthus
Miscanthus is considered to be a promising bioenergy crop due to its low nutrient requirements, high water use efficiency, and high productivity. In addition, because this crop is genetically unimproved, there is potential to further increase its yield.
The genus Miscanthus x giganteus is of particular interest because it has the greatest biomass yield. However, multiple characteristics of the genus constrain breeding for improvement. This particular genus is unable to produce seed, which means that crosses cannot be made to generate variability. Genetic variation is also limited in M. x. giganteus because there are few independently derived lines. An alternative way to create genetic variation is to produce plants with desired characteristics by genetic transformation of cultured plant tissue.
Wang and coauthors established in vitro culture and transformation techniques for one of M. x. giganteus progenitors, M. sinensis. The authors induced the formation of a callus, a mass of undifferentiated cells, from seed collected from various sites in Japan.
The authors used calli as target material for genetic transformation by particle bombardment. After establishing which calli type was most suitable for transformation, foreign genes were delivered into M. sinensis calli by shooting particles coated with foreign DNA into the plant tissue. The transgenes were then released from the particle into the cell. The authors next optimized the use of selectable markers to identify the plant cells that take up the foreign genes. Whole transformed plants were then regenerated from the transformed calli. The protocols established in this study will allow genetically modified plants with desirable characteristics to be produced from all species in the genus Miscanthus.
Wang X, Yamada T, Kong F-J, Abe Y, Hoshino Y, Sato H, Takamizo T, Kanazawa A, Yamada T (2011) Establishment of an efficient in vitro culture and particle bombardment-mediated transformation systems in Miscanthus sinensis Anderss., a potential bioenergy crop. GCB Bioenergy, 3: no. doi: 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2011.01090.x Read this paper.