Australian Dental Journal

Cover image for Vol. 60 Issue 1

Edited By: Professor Mark Bartold

Impact Factor: 1.482

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2013: 30/83 (Dentistry Oral Surgery & Medicine)

Online ISSN: 1834-7819

Author Guidelines


Table example
The journal to which you are submitting your manuscript employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

The Australian Dental Journal is the official journal of the Australian Dental Association Inc. The role of the Journal is to keep its readers informed of research, clinical developments, clinical opinions and treatments as well as other key issues of relevance to dentistry as practised in Australia. The objective of the Journal is to stimulate interest, debate, discussion and interaction among dentists and specialists of all disciplines within the field of dentistry.

The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor.
The Australian Dental Journal has a comprehensive, double-blind peer review process. Editorial decisions are supported by peer reviews and Editor guidance. The Editor considers all information related to suitability of the manuscript for the Journal’s audience, manuscript novelty, academic rigor, quality of communication, and other matters. The Editor’s decisions about which manuscripts are accepted for publication are final.
Manuscripts must be in English and should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. They should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify manuscripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader. If extensive alterations are required, the manuscript will be returned to the author for revision.

Manuscripts should be submitted online at Authors must supply an email address as all correspondence will be by email. Each submission must include: a covering letter, title page and manuscript (in Word or rich text format (.rtf)). The length of manuscripts must adhere to the specifications under the Manuscript Categories and Preparation section. The covering letter should be uploaded as a file not for review.
All manuscripts submitted to the Journal must comply with these instructions. Failure to do so will result in return of the manuscript and possible delay in publication.

• Submissions should be double-spaced.
• All margins should be at least 30 mm.
• All pages should be numbered consecutively in the top right-hand corner, beginning with the title page.
• Do not use ‘Enter’ at the end of lines within a paragraph.
• Do not centre headings, underline copy, use block capitals, italics, bold face or multiple typefaces.
• Turn the hyphenation option off; include only those hyphens that are essential to the meaning.
• Specify any special characters used to represent non-keyboard characters.
• Take care not to use l (ell) for 1 (one), O (capital o) for 0 (zero) or ß (German esszett) for β (Greek beta).
• Use a tab, not spaces, to separate data points in tables. If you use a table editor function, ensure that each data point is contained within a unique cell (i.e. do not use carriage returns within cells).

Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the manuscript, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files should be uploaded. Digital images supplied only as low-resolution files cannot be used.
Further instructions are available at the submission site.

Pre-acceptance English-language editing: Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Author identification

To protect anonymity in the reviewing process, authors should avoid disclosing their identity in the manuscript. Authors should withhold their name, affiliation and acknowledgements from the paper until after it has been accepted. A separate title page should accompany all submissions.

Covering letter
Papers are accepted for publication in the Journal on the understanding that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. This must be stated in the covering letter, which can be downloaded from the Australian Dental Association website.
The covering letter must also contain an acknowledgement that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
Authors must declare any financial support or relationships that may pose conflict of interest by disclosing at the time of submission any financial arrangements they have with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company making a competing product. Such information will be held in confidence while the paper is under review and will not influence the editorial decision but, if the manuscript is accepted for publication, the Editor will usually discuss with the authors the manner in which such information is to be communicated to the reader.
If tables or figures have been reproduced from another source, a letter from the copyright holder (usually the Publisher), stating authorization to reproduce the material, must be attached to the covering letter.

Author material archive policy
Authors who require the return of any submitted material that is accepted for publication should inform the Editorial Office after acceptance. If no indication is given that author material should be returned, Wiley will dispose of all hardcopy and electronic material two months after publication.

Authors must state that the protocol for the research project has been approved by a suitably constituted Ethics Committee of the institution within which the work was undertaken and that it conforms to the provisions of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Tokyo 2004), available at
All investigations on human subjects must include a statement that the subject gave informed consent. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped sufficiently to prevent human subjects being recognized (or an eye bar should be used).
If a patient pictured in a digital image or photograph can be identified, his or her permission is required to publish the image. The corresponding author must submit a letter signed by the patient authorizing the Australian Dental Journal to publish the image or photograph.
This approval must be received by the Editorial Office prior to final acceptance of the manuscript for publication.
Standards. Materials should comply with the ICMJE Uniform Requirements. EQUATOR reporting guidelines and checklists (e.g. CONSORT, STROBE, STARD, QUOROM, MOOSE) should be used when appropriate.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard copyright transfer agreements (CTA) in place for the journal, including terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: CTA Terms and Conditions FAQs

OnlineOpen – ‘Gold road’ Open Access
OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons licence. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access, known as ‘gold road’ open access.

OnlineOpen licenses. Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND).

For more information about the OnlineOpen license terms and conditions click here.

Manuscripts should follow the style of the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as presented at

The Journal uses UK spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and Butterworths Medical Dictionary.

All measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units. More information is available at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website at Use the symbol for ‘per cent’ in the text, and in formulas, equations, tables and figures.

Numbers may be spelt out or written as numbers, according to context. As a general rule, if the number is less than 10, spell it out. If the number is 10 or greater, it should be expressed as a number.

Reference to figures.
When referring to a figure at the beginning of a sentence, spell the word out. Example: Figure 1 illustrates the cellular structure. When referring to a figure within the sentence, abbreviate. Example: The cellular structure is shown in Fig 2 and its complexity should be noted.
When referring to a figure at the end of a sentence, abbreviate and enclose in parentheses. Example: The complexity of the cellular structure should be noted (Fig 3).

Abbreviations should be used sparingly – only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.

Trade names.
Proprietary names must be included within parentheses, or alternatively in an appropriate table. State the manufacturer and the place of manufacture. Example: Lederle Pharmaceuticals, Wolfratshausen, Germany.

Manuscripts should be presented in the following order: (i) title page, (ii) abstract and key words, (iii) text, (iv) acknowledgements, (v) references, (vi) appendices, (vii) figure legends, (viii) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and (ix) figures. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Title page
As manuscripts are double-blind reviewed, material that might identify authorship of the paper should be placed on a cover sheet; this will be detached before the paper is sent to referees.
The title page should contain (i) the title of the paper, (ii) the full names of the authors and (iii) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried out together with (iv) the full postal and email address, plus facsimile and telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.
The title should be short, informative and contain the major key words. Do not use abbreviations in the title. A short running title (less than 40 characters) should also be provided.

Abstract and key words
All manuscripts must have an abstract that states the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Structured abstracts are required for Scientific Articles. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references.
Five key words (for the purposes of indexing) should be supplied below the abstract in alphabetical order.

Refer to the section Manuscript Categories and Preparation for specific instructions on the various manuscript categories.

Keep acknowledgements to a minimum. The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Permission and approval of the wording from the person or institution thanked is the responsibility of the author. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

The Vancouver system of referencing should be used (examples are given below). In the text, references should be cited using superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear. If cited in tables or figure legends, number according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text.
Cite the surname and initial(s) of authors without stops. In the reference list when there are more than six authors to a paper, cite the first three, then indicate et al. In the body of the text when there are two authors cite both, when there are three or more then indicate et al. All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list.
Abbreviate the title of journal references according to the Index to Dental Literature or Index Medicus. State the year of publication, the number of the volume (not the number of the issue) and the first and last page numbers of the article.
In general, abstracts are not acceptable as references.
Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. We recommend the use of a tool such as Reference Manager for reference management and formatting. Reference Manager reference styles can be searched for here:

Examples of style
Observe the following, including spacing and punctuation.

Journal: One or more authors
1. Ellis B, Lamb DJ. The setting characteristics of alginate impression materials. Br Dent J 1981;151:343-346.

Journal: Corporate author
2. Therapeutics, Instruments, Materials and Equipment Committee, Australian Dental Association. Cotton pellets and gingival retraction cords. Clinical Notes No 2. Aust Dent J 1984;29:279.

Book: Single author
3. Nikiforu G. Understanding dental caries. 1. Etiology and mechanisms: basic and clinical aspects. Basle: Karger, 1975:150-151.

Book: Two authors/later edition
4. Brand RW, Isselhard DE. Anatomy of orofacial structures. 2nd edn. St Louis: Mosby, 1982:69-72.

Book: Editors as authors
5. Meyer J, Squier CA, Gerson SJ, eds. The structure and function of oral mucosa. Oxford: Pergamon, 1984.

Book: Reference to a chapter
6. Carlsson GE, Haraldson T. Functional response. In: Brånemark P-I, Zarb GA, Albrektsson T, eds. Tissue integrated prostheses. Osseointegration in clinical dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence, 1985:155-163.

Thesis, monograph, dissertation
7. Kingsford-Smith ED. Marginal seal of cervical restorations. Sydney: The University of Sydney, 1988. MDS thesis.
8. Cairns RB. Infrared spectroscopic studies of solid oxygen. Berkeley, California: University of California, 1965. Dissertation.

Papers awaiting publication
These may appear as references, provided they have been accepted by the Journal to which they have been submitted. They should be cited as follows:
9. Grant TC. Chronic periodontitis. Int Dent J (in press).

When referring to a website, include the date it was accessed. If the website only is cited, it should appear in the text within parentheses. If the website is additional to a reference, it should be included at the end of the reference as follows:
10. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer in Australia. Canberra: AIHW, 1998. URL: ‘’. Accessed June 2005.

Written communications
These may be inserted in the text in parentheses or may appear as footnotes, providing they bear the writer’s name and the date of the communication. Example: (Smith GJ, written communication, July 1986).

Unpublished observation, verbal communications
These may not be listed as references.

These should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.

Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be sized to fit within the column (84 mm) or the full text width (177 mm). Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration.
Line figures should be sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn with computer graphics software. Lettering must be included and should be sized to be no larger than the journal text. For graph axes, place the axis legends parallel to the relevant axis, with (if required) units in parentheses after the legend. Differentiate between lines on graphs using different line symbols, not different line styles. For bar charts, use open fill, solid black fill, or a heavy patterned fill; do not use pale shading, small dots or thin hatching. Do not use a shaded background to line graphs or bar charts.
Use a transparent overlay for key lettering and to indicate the vital area of radiographs and histological subjects as a guide for reproduction, as well as for photomicrographs that require the unit of length to be clearly stated in the form of a bar.

Figure legends
Type figure legends on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

Submissions to the Journal should be limited to one of the categories defined below. Specific information regarding length and format is provided for each category.

Scientific Articles
Scientific articles are papers that report significant clinical or basic research in dentistry. They should contain the following sections: (i) structured abstract, consisting of no more than 200 words divided into four paragraphs (background, methods, results and conclusions); (ii) introduction (no more than one and a half pages); (iii) materials and methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion (no longer than four pages); and (vi) references should be kept to a reasonable minimum.

Generally, review articles will be solicited by the Editor and are intended to be focused reviews of basic and clinical science related to all aspects of dentistry. Unsolicited submissions will be considered, but, to avoid duplicating a topic already in preparation, authors should contact the editor before developing a manuscript. Reviews should be no more than 10 Journal pages in length including figures, tables and references. They should contain the following sections: (i) abstract (200 words or less); (ii) introduction; (iii) body; and (iv) references should be kept to a reasonable minimum.

Case Reports and Clinical Notes
Case reports and clinical notes manuscripts will emphasize all aspects of clinical dentistry. They should describe: (a) unique cases that may represent a previously undescribed condition; (b) expected association of two or more diseases; (c) adverse or unexpected treatment response; (d) any other clinical observation based upon well-documented cases that provides important new information; or (e) a new or revised clinical technique or procedure. They should be concise and occupy no more than three Journal pages. Case reports and clinical notes should contain the following sections: (i) abstract (200 words or less); (ii) introduction; (iii) case description and results; (iv) discussion; and (v) references should be kept to a reasonable minimum.

Letters to the Editor
Letters may comment on articles published in the Journal and should offer constructive criticism. When appropriate, comment on the letter is sought from the author. Letters to the Editor may also address any aspect of the profession, including education, new modes of practice and concepts of disease and its management. Letters should be brief (no more than two A4 pages).

It is essential that corresponding authors supply an email address to which correspondence can be emailed while their article is in production.
Word files of edited articles will be sent for checking via email, and should be returned to the Editorial Office. It is essential that these files are checked carefully, as the cost of changes made at a later stage may be charged to the author. Full instructions on how to correct and return the file will be attached to the email.
Notification of the URL from where to download a Portable Document Format (PDF) typeset page proof, associated forms and further instructions will be sent by email to the corresponding author. The purpose of the PDF proof is a final check of the layout, and of tables and figures. Alterations other than the essential correction of errors are unacceptable at PDF proof stage. The proof should be checked, and approval to publish the article should be emailed to the Editorial Office by the date indicated, otherwise, it may be signed off on by the Editor or held over to the next issue.

A free PDF offprint will be supplied to the corresponding author. Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and enjoy the many other benefits the service offers.
Paper offprints may be ordered online. Please visit, fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields. If you have queries about offprints, please email

'Accepted Articles' have been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but have not been through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only (without the accompanying full-text HTML) and are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked. The DOI remains unique to a given article in perpetuity. More information about DOIs can be found online at Given that Accepted Articles are not considered to be final, please note that changes will be made to an article after Accepted Article online publication, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record. The Accepted Articles service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance. Accepted articles will be indexed by PubMed; therefore the submitting author must carefully check the names and affiliations of all authors provided in the cover page of the manuscript, as it will not be possible to alter these once a paper is made available online in Accepted Article format. Subsequently the final copyedited and proofed articles will appear either as Early View articles in a matter of weeks or in an issue on Wiley Online Library[; the link to the article in PubMed will automatically be updated].

The Australian Dental Journal is covered by Wiley's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Therefore, articles are made available as soon as they are ready, rather than being held for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before it is allocated to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. More information about DOIs can be found at

Visit the Australian Dental Journal home page at for more information, and Wiley’s web pages for submission guidelines and digital graphics standards at and The Australian Dental Journal is also available online via Wiley Online Library at

Author Services enables authors to track their article, once it has been accepted, through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated emails at key stages of production so they do not need to contact the production editor to check on progress. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources, including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Helen Pontikis
Senior Production Editor
Australian Dental Journal
PO Box 520
St Leonards
NSW 1590
Email:; tel: 61 2 9906 4412; fax: 61 2 9906 4917.