Australian Dental Journal

Cover image for Vol. 60 Issue 4

Edited By: Professor Mark Bartold

Impact Factor: 1.104

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 53/88 (Dentistry Oral Surgery & Medicine)

Online ISSN: 1834-7819

Author Guidelines


Thank you for your interest in the Australian Dental Journal. Please read the complete Author Guidelines carefully prior to submission, including the section on copyright. To ensure fast peer review and publication, manuscripts that do not adhere to the following instructions will be returned to the corresponding author for technical revision before undergoing peer review.

Note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium.

Once you have prepared your submission in accordance with the Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online at

For help with submissions, please contact

We look forward to your submission.


Aims and scope
The Australian Dental Journal is the official journal of the Australian Dental Association Inc. The role of the Journal is to keep its readers informed of research, clinical developments, clinical opinions and treatments as well as other key issues of relevance to dentistry as practised in Australia. The objective of the Journal is to stimulate interest, debate, discussion and interaction among dentists and specialists of all disciplines within the field of dentistry.

Editorial Review and Acceptance
The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to our readership. Except where otherwise stated, manuscripts are peer reviewed by two anonymous reviewers and the Editor.

The Australian Dental Journal has a comprehensive, double-blind peer review process. Editorial decisions are supported by peer reviews and Editor guidance. The Editor considers all information related to suitability of the manuscript for the Journal’s audience, manuscript novelty, academic rigor, quality of communication, and other matters. The Editor’s decisions about which manuscripts are accepted for publication are final.

Manuscripts must be in English and should be written so that they are intelligible to the professional reader who is not a specialist in the particular field. They should be written in a clear, concise, direct style. Where contributions are judged as acceptable for publication on the basis of content, the Editor and the Publisher reserve the right to modify manuscripts to eliminate ambiguity and repetition and improve communication between author and reader.


Principles for Publication of Research Involving Human Subjects. Manuscripts must contain a statement to the effect that all human studies have been reviewed by the appropriate ethics committee and have therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in an appropriate version of the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in Brazil 2013), available at It should also state clearly in the text that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. All investigations on human subjects must include a statement that the subject gave informed consent. Patient anonymity should be preserved. Photographs need to be cropped sufficiently to prevent human subjects being recognized (or an eye bar should be used). If a patient pictured in a digital image or photograph can be identified, his or her permission is required to publish the image. The corresponding author must submit a letter signed by the patient authorizing the Australian Dental Journal to publish the image or photograph.
This approval must be received by the Editorial Office prior to final acceptance of the manuscript for publication.

Conflicts of Interest Disclosure. The Australian Dental Journal requires that all authors (both the corresponding author and co-authors) disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author’s objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or indirectly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include but are not limited to patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker’s fees from a company. If authors are unsure whether a past or present affiliation or relationship should be disclosed in the manuscript, please contact the editorial office at: The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication in this journal.

The above policies are in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals produced by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (

It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to have all authors of a manuscript fill out a conflict of interest disclosure form, and to upload all forms together with the manuscript on submission. Please find the form here.

Standards. Materials should comply with the ICMJE Uniform Requirements. EQUATOR reporting guidelines and checklists (e.g. CONSORT, STROBE, STARD, QUOROM, MOOSE) should be used when appropriate.

Plagiarism Detection. The journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.

Committee on Publication Ethics. The journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).


Submissions to the journal should be limited to one of the categories defined below. Specific information regarding length and format is provided for each category.

Scientific Articles
Scientific articles are papers that report significant clinical or basic research in dentistry. They should contain the following sections: (i) structured abstract, consisting of no more than 200 words divided into four paragraphs (background, methods, results and conclusions); (ii) introduction (no more than one and a half pages); (iii) materials and methods; (iv) results; (v) discussion (no longer than four pages); and (vi) references, which should be kept to a reasonable minimum.

Generally, review articles will be solicited by the Editor and are intended to be focused reviews of basic and clinical science related to all aspects of dentistry. Unsolicited submissions will be considered but, to avoid duplicating a topic already in preparation, authors should contact the editor before developing a manuscript. Reviews should be no more than 10 Journal pages in length including figures, tables and references. They should contain the following sections: (i) abstract (200 words or less); (ii) introduction; (iii) body; and (iv) references, which should be kept to a reasonable minimum.

Case Reports and Clinical Notes
Case reports and clinical notes manuscripts will emphasize all aspects of clinical dentistry. They should describe: (a) unique cases that may represent a previously undescribed condition; (b) unexpected association of two or more diseases; (c) adverse or unexpected treatment response; (d) any other clinical observation based upon well-documented cases that provides important new information; or (e) a new or revised clinical technique or procedure. They should be concise and occupy no more than three Journal pages. Case reports and clinical notes should contain the following sections: (i) abstract (200 words or less); (ii) introduction; (iii) case description and results; (iv) discussion; and (v) references, which should be kept to a reasonable minimum.

Letters to the Editor
Letters may comment on articles published in the Journal and should offer constructive criticism. When appropriate, comment on the letter is sought from the author. Letters to the Editor may also address any aspect of the profession, including education, new modes of practice and concepts of disease and its management. Letters should be brief (no more than two A4 pages).


Pre-acceptance English-language editing

Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English. Visit our site to learn about the options. All services are paid for and arranged by the author. Please note using the Wiley English Language Editing Service does not guarantee that your paper will be accepted by this journal.

Optimising Your Article for Search Engines

Many students and researchers looking for information online will use search engines such as Google, Yahoo or similar. By optimising your article for search engines, you will increase the chance of someone finding it. This in turn will make it more likely to be viewed and/or cited in another work. We have compiled these guidelines to enable you to maximise the web-friendliness of the most public part of your article.


Manuscripts should follow the style of the Vancouver agreement detailed in the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ revised ‘Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication’, as presented at

Spelling. The journal uses UK spelling and authors should therefore follow the latest edition of the The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary and Butterworths Medical Dictionary.

Units. Measurements must be given in SI or SI-derived units. More information is available at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website at Use the symbol for ‘per cent’ in the text, and in formulas, equations, tables and figures.

Numbers. Numbers may be spelt out or written as numbers, according to context. As a general rule, if the number is less than 10, spell it out. If the number is 10 or greater, it should be expressed as a number.

Reference to figures. When referring to a figure at the beginning of a sentence, spell the word out. Example: Figure 1 illustrates the cellular structure. When referring to a figure within the sentence, abbreviate. Example: The cellular structure is shown in Fig. 2 and its complexity should be noted.
When referring to a figure at the end of a sentence, abbreviate and enclose in parentheses. Example: The complexity of the cellular structure should be noted (Fig. 3).

Abbreviations. Abbreviations should be used sparingly – only where they ease the reader’s task by reducing repetition of long, technical terms. Initially use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.

Trade names. Proprietary names must be included within parentheses, or alternatively in an appropriate table. State the manufacturer and the place of manufacture. Example: Lederle Pharmaceuticals, Wolfratshausen, Germany.


The manuscript should be submitted in separate files: title page; main text file; figures.

Title page
The title page should contain: (i) a short informative title that contains the major key words; (ii) the full names of the authors; (ii) the addresses of the institutions at which the work was carried; (iv) the full postal and email address, plus telephone numbers, of the author to whom correspondence about the manuscript should be sent; and (v) acknowledgements. The present address of any author, if different from that where the work was carried out, should be supplied in a footnote.

Keep acknowledgements to a minimum. The source of financial grants and other funding must be acknowledged, including a frank declaration of the authors’ industrial links and affiliations. The contribution of colleagues or institutions should also be acknowledged. Permission and approval of the wording from the person or institution thanked is the responsibility of the author. Personal thanks and thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.

Main text file
As papers are double-blind peer reviewed the main text file should not include any information that might identify the authors.

The main text file should be presented in the following order: (i) abstract and key words, (ii) main text, (iii) references, (iv) tables (each table complete with title and footnotes) and (v) figure legends. Figures and supporting information should be supplied as separate files. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.

Abstract and key words
All manuscripts must have an abstract that states the purpose, basic procedures, main findings and principal conclusions of the study. Structured abstracts are required for Scientific Articles. The abstract should not contain abbreviations or references.
Five key words (for the purposes of indexing) should be supplied below the abstract in alphabetical order.

Refer to the section Manuscript Categories and Requirements for specific instructions on the various manuscript categories.

The Vancouver system of referencing should be used (examples are given below). In the text, references should be cited using superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear. If cited in tables or figure legends, number according to the first identification of the table or figure in the text.

Cite the surname and initial(s) of authors without stops. In the reference list when there are more than six authors to a paper, cite the first three, then indicate et al. In the body of the text when there are two authors cite both, when there are three or more then indicate et al. All citations mentioned in the text, tables or figures must be listed in the reference list.

Abbreviate the title of journal references according to the Index to Dental Literature or Index Medicus. State the year of publication, the number of the volume (not the number of the issue) and the first and last page numbers of the article.

In general, abstracts are not acceptable as references.

Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references.

Examples of style
Observe the following, including spacing and punctuation.

Journal: One or more author
1. Ellis B, Lamb DJ. The setting characteristics of alginate impression materials. Br Dent J 1981;151:343-346.

Journal: Corporate author
2. Therapeutics, Instruments, Materials and Equipment Committee, Australian Dental Association. Cotton pellets and gingival retraction cords. Clinical Notes No 2. Aust Dent J 1984;29:279.

Book: Single author
3. Nikiforu G. Understanding dental caries. 1. Etiology and mechanisms: basic and clinical aspects. Basle: Karger, 1975:150-151.

Book: Two authors/later edition
4. Brand RW, Isselhard DE. Anatomy of orofacial structures. 2nd edn. St Louis: Mosby, 1982:69-72.

Book: Editors as authors
5. Meyer J, Squier CA, Gerson SJ, eds. The structure and function of oral mucosa. Oxford: Pergamon, 1984.

Book: Reference to a chapter
6. Carlsson GE, Haraldson T. Functional response. In: Brånemark P-I, Zarb GA, Albrektsson T, eds. Tissue integrated prostheses. Osseointegration in clinical dentistry. Chicago: Quintessence, 1985:155-163.

Thesis, monograph, dissertation
7. Kingsford-Smith ED. Marginal seal of cervical restorations. Sydney: The University of Sydney, 1988. MDS thesis.
8. Cairns RB. Infrared spectroscopic studies of solid oxygen. Berkeley, California: University of California, 1965. Dissertation.

Papers awaiting publication
These may appear as references, provided they have been accepted by the Journal to which they have been submitted. They should be cited as follows:
9. Grant TC. Chronic periodontitis. Int Dent J (in press).

When referring to a website, include the date it was accessed. If the website only is cited, it should appear in the text within parentheses. If the website is additional to a reference, it should be included at the end of the reference as follows:
10. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Cancer in Australia. Canberra: AIHW, 1998. URL: ‘’. Accessed June 2005.

Written communications
These may be inserted in the text in parentheses or may appear as footnotes, providing they bear the writer’s name and the date of the communication. Example: (Smith GJ, written communication, July 1986).

Unpublished observation, verbal communications
These may not be listed as references.

These should be placed at the end of the paper, numbered in Roman numerals and referred to in the text. If written by a person other than the author of the main text, the writer’s name should be included below the title.

Tables should be self-contained and complement, but not duplicate, information contained in the text. Number tables consecutively in the text in Arabic numerals. Type tables on a separate page with the legend above. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend and footnotes must be understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be brief, with units of measurement in parentheses; all abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order) and *, **, *** should be reserved for P-values. Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

Figure legends
Type figure legends on a separate page. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.

All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) are classified as figures. Figures should be cited in consecutive order in the text. Figures should be sized to fit within the column (84 mm) or the full text width (177 mm). Magnifications should be indicated using a scale bar on the illustration.

Line figures should be sharp, black and white graphs or diagrams, drawn with computer graphics software. Lettering must be included and should be sized to be no larger than the journal text. For graph axes, place the axis legends parallel to the relevant axis, with (if required) units in parentheses after the legend. Differentiate between lines on graphs using different line symbols, not different line styles. For bar charts, use open fill, solid black fill, or a heavy patterned fill; do not use pale shading, small dots or thin hatching. Do not use a shaded background to line graphs or bar charts.

Use a transparent overlay for key lettering and to indicate the vital area of radiographs and histological subjects as a guide for reproduction, as well as for photomicrographs that require the unit of length to be clearly stated in the form of a bar.

More advice on figures can be found at Wiley’s guidelines for preparation of figures:

Supporting information
Supporting information is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background and may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc. This material can be submitted with your manuscript, and will appear online, without editing or typesetting. Guidelines on how to prepare this material and which formats and files sizes are acceptable can be found at:

Please note that the provision of supporting information is not encouraged as a general rule. It will be assessed critically by reviewers and editors and will only be accepted if it is essential.


• A cover letter should be included in the ‘Cover Letter Field’ of the ScholarOne system. The text can be entered directly into the field or uploaded as a file.
• The covering letter must contain an acknowledgement that all authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors are in agreement with the content of the manuscript.
• The Wiley author conflict of interest disclosure form should be filled out by all authors on a manuscript, one form for each author. The completed forms should be uploaded as supplemental material during submission.
• Two Word-files need to be included upon submission: A title page file and a main text file that includes all parts of the text in the sequence indicated in the section 'Parts of the manuscript', including tables and figure legends but excluding figures which should be supplied separately.
• Each figure should be supplied as a separate file, with the figure number incorporated in the file name. For submission, low-resolution figures saved as .jpg or .bmp files should be uploaded, for ease of transmission during the review process. Upon acceptance of the article, high-resolution figures (at least 300 d.p.i.) saved as .eps or .tif files will be required.

Associate your ScholarOne account with your ORCiD iD today
ORCID iD is a unique and persistent identifier that distinguishes you from every other researcher and connects you and your research activities. We encourage you to register today for your ORCiD iD and then associate it with your ScholarOne account. Find out how.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. More details on the copyright and licencing options for the journal appear below.

Wiley’s Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The corresponding author will receive a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.

Accepted Articles

The journal offers Wiley’s Accepted Articles service for all manuscripts. This service ensures that accepted ‘in press’ manuscripts are published online very soon after acceptance, prior to copy-editing or typesetting. Accepted Articles are published online a few days after final acceptance, appear in PDF format only, are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows them to be cited and tracked, and are indexed by PubMed. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article.

The Accepted Articles service has been designed to ensure the earliest possible circulation of research papers after acceptance. Given that copyright licensing is a condition of publication, a completed copyright form is required before a manuscript can be processed as an Accepted Article.

Accepted articles will be indexed by PubMed; therefore the submitting author must carefully check the names and affiliations of all authors provided in the cover page of the manuscript, as it will not be possible to alter these once a paper is made available online in Accepted Article format. Subsequently the final copyedited and proofed articles will appear in an issue on Wiley Online Library; the link to the article in PubMed will automatically be updated.


Once the paper has been typeset the corresponding author will receive an e-mail alert containing instructions on how to provide proof corrections to the article. It is therefore essential that a working e-mail address is provided for the corresponding author. Proofs should be corrected carefully; responsibility for detecting errors lies with the author.

Early View

The journal offers rapid speed to publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in advance of their publication in a printed issue. Early View articles are complete and final. They have been fully reviewed, revised and edited for publication, and the authors' final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in final form, no changes can be made after online publication. Early View articles are given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and tracked before allocation to an issue. After print publication, the DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to cite and access the article. More information about DOIs can be found at


A PDF reprint of the article will be supplied free of charge to the corresponding author. Additional printed offprints may be ordered online for a fee. Please click on the following link and fill in the necessary details and ensure that you type information in all of the required fields: If you have queries about offprints please e-mail:

Author Marketing Toolkit

The Wiley Author Marketing Toolkit provides authors with support on how to use social media, publicity, conferences, multimedia, email and the web to promote their article.


Accepted papers will be passed to Wiley’s production team for publication. The author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Wiley’s Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be asked to complete an electronic license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

FAQs about the terms and conditions of the standard copyright transfer agreements (CTA) in place for the journal, including terms regarding archiving of the accepted version of the paper, are available at: Copyright Terms and Conditions FAQs.

OnlineOpen: 'Gold road' Open Access
OnlineOpen is available to authors of articles who wish to make their article freely available to all on Wiley Online Library under a Creative Commons licence. In addition, authors of OnlineOpen articles are permitted to post the final, published PDF of their article on a website, institutional repository or other free public server, immediately on publication. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made open access, known as ‘gold road’ open access.

OnlineOpen licenses.Authors choosing OnlineOpen retain copyright in their article and have a choice of publishing under the following Creative Commons License terms: Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC BY NC); Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial-NoDerivs License (CC BY NC ND).
For more information about the OnlineOpen license terms and conditions click here.


Helen Pontikis
Senior Production Editor
Australian Dental Journal
PO Box 520
St Leonards
NSW 1590
Email:; tel: +61 2 9906 4412; fax: +61 2 9906 4917.

Author Guidelines updated 24 November 2015