Hepatology Research

Cover image for Vol. 47 Issue 5

Edited By: Tetsuo Takehara

Impact Factor: 2.208

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2015: 49/79 (Gastroenterology & Hepatology)

Online ISSN: 1872-034X

Virtual Issue: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)

Compiled and commented by Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Division of Gastrenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University

Hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis: Improved treatment outcomes with external beam radiation therapy.
Kim JY, Chung SM, Choi BO, Kay CS.

The standard treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with portal vein tumor thrombosis is sorafenib under Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification. However, this treatment has little or no effect. In Japan, this disease has been treated effectively with chemotherapy via arterial injection, despite this therapy being unappreciated in the West. Heretofore, HCC has been sensitive to the effect of radiation. Recently, radiotherapies such as stereotactic radiation, proton therapy and heavy particle radiotherapy have been closely watched. In the future, treatment of HCC by radiotherapy will be widely used, resulting in increasing reports on this therapy and wider citation of similar reports.

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Laparoscopic repair of iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia following radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Singh M, Singh G, Pandey A, Cha CH, Kulkarni S.

Diaphragmatic hernia after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a late complicating disease that is rarely associated with mortality. This report refers to the case reports of laparoscopic repair of diaphragmatic hernia following RFA and this surgical method. Diaphragmatic hernia occurs on a congenital basis in many cases. Acquired diaphragmatic hernia is not only caused by RFA but is also an iatrogenic disease. There are 13–25 reports on repair surgery of congenital and iatrogenic diaphragmatic hernia in PubMed. In these reports, one case is on RFA and two reports are on other surgical methods. In the future, it is hoped that there will be other cited reports of this laparoscopic repair surgery in not only liver but also other surgical fields.

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Hepatocellular carcinoma in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Growing evidence of an epidemic?
Hashimoto E, Tokushige K.

This report is a review of hepatocellular carcinoma in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The incidence and study of hepatocellular carcinoma has gradually increased in this field. There are five reports about this disease in the intended reports and we do not mention any more.

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Prediction and prevention of intrahepatic recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Izumi N.

This report details both broad and specific recent evidence on prevention of recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including molecular biological research, diabetes, tumor markers, antiviral therapy, branched-chain amino acids, vitamin K and retinoids. It is described in detail that the expression of progenitor cell feature markers in cancer cells such as epidermal cell adhesion molecule, cytokeratin 19 and CD 133 have been shown to be associated with intrahepatic recurrence of HCC and had poor prognosis. After the launch of sorafenib, HCC has become a topic of interest to researchers in this field. There are many reports, including basic research, some of which will be cited.

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Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in non-cancerous liver tissue predicts a high risk of recurrence after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hagiwara S, Kudo M, Chung H, Ueshima K, Inoue T, Haji S, Watanabe T, Park AM, Munakata H, Sakurai T.

The authors cite a report of their own (Hagiwara S, Kudo M, Nagai T, Inoue T, Ueshima K, Kishida N, Watanabe T, Sakurai T. Activation of JNK and high expression level of CD133 predict a poor response to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Cancer 2012 Jun 5; 106 (2): 1997–2003.). In this report, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is related to expression of CD133 and the predictive factor of sorafenib in poor prognosis. This report has been cited in four reports. It has been one of the most interesting predictors of the effects of sorafenib which is a weak effect. We believe that this report will become widely browsed in the future and will be cited in reports of JNK activation in HCC. The same authors from the University of Kinki will cite this report in their future reports.

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Recent trend of clinical features in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Nagaoki Y, Hyogo H, Aikata H, Tanaka M, Naeshiro N, Nakahara T, Honda Y, Miyaki D, Kawaoka T, Takaki S, Hiramatsu A, Waki K, Imamura M, Kawakami Y, Takahashi S, Chayama K.

This report strongly describes that recent clinical features in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma have been caused by the increase of patients with non-B and non-C type hepatitis. This report cites four published works. These reports mentioned the recent features of hepatocellular carcinoma as being the same and reviewed liver cancer induced by metabolic syndrome. When we report on live cancer induced by non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the authors believe that these reports should be cited, with the introduction: “Recently, non-B and non-C type liver cancer have tended to increase…”.

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In vitro and in vivo antitumoral action of metformin on hepatocellular carcinoma.

It was revealed that diabetes is associated with carcinogenesis. Attention was focused on the anticarcinogenic effect of metformin. Diabetes is a major occurrence factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, it has been revealed that metformin inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis in some large-scale epidemiological studies. However, the mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis is unknown. In the future, these reports will be published in this field. In addition, it is considered necessary that basic research is cited in this field.

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Dynamic computed tomography appearance of tumor response after stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: How should we evaluate treatment effects?
Kimura T, Takahashi S, Kenjo M, Nishibuchi I, Takahashi I, Takeuchi Y, Doi Y, Kaneyasu Y, Murakami Y, Honda Y, Aikata H, Chayama K, Nagata Y.

It is difficult to evaluate the effect of therapy using dynamic computed tomography (CT) on stereotactic body radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when we view the CT image in the same way as radiofrequency ablation and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization because there is a high-density area on CT imaging after therapy. In this report, it is determined that with successful therapy the high-density area disappears from the CT image within 3 months of therapy. In radiation therapy for HCC, the penetration rate of the apparatus is the highest in stereotactic radiation therapy, which is going to be the main therapy in the future because installation of this therapy is easy in a facility that is already using this apparatus in the treatment of lung cancer. We searched reports using terms such as “HCC”, “radiation therapy” and “CT” in PubMed. We found 10 reports from 2012 and eight reports from 2013. It is considered that these reports will be cited in the future.

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