Pediatric Obesity

Cover image for Vol. 11 Issue 3

Edited By: Professor Michael I Goran

Impact Factor: 4.573

ISI Journal Citation Reports © Ranking: 2014: 5/120 (Pediatrics)

Online ISSN: 2047-6310

Associated Title(s): Clinical Obesity, Obesity Reviews, Obesity Science & Practice

Author Guidelines

Author Guidelines

Pediatric Obesity is a peer-reviewed, bi-monthly journal devoted to research into obesity and its co-morbidities during neonatal development, infancy, childhood and adolescence. We are interested in papers that cover the broad spectrum of issues related to pediatric obesity including the following categories: Treatment & Prevention; Epidemiology and Global Prevalence; Measurement & Assessment; Disease Outcomes; Mechanisms; Behavior & Environment; Diet and Physical Activity. Pediatric Obesity is an official journal of the World Obesity Federation.

Submission is considered on the conditions that papers are previously unpublished, and are not offered simultaneously elsewhere; that all authors have read and approved the content, and all authors have also declared all competing interests; and that the work complies with the Ethical Policies of the journal, and has been conducted under internationally accepted ethical standards after relevant ethical review. It is highly recommended you read this policy and complete any necessary documentation prior to your submission.

This journal employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript to this journal you accept that your manuscript may be screened for plagiarism against previously published works.


Acceptance of papers is based on the originality of the observation or investigation, the quality of the work described, the clarity of presentation, and the relevance to our readership. When submitting a manuscript it is with the understanding that the manuscript (or its essential substance) has not been published other than as an abstract in any language or format and has not been submitted elsewhere for print or electronic publication consideration.

The journal operates a stringent peer review process. All manuscripts will be reviewed by the Editor, members of the Editorial Board, or other expert reviewers. At the discretion of the Editor, the manuscript may be returned immediately without full review, if deemed not competitive or outside the realm of interests of the majority of the readership of the Journal. The decision (reject, invite revision, accept) letter will be conveyed through Pediatric Obesity ScholarOne Manuscripts, coming directly from the Editor who has assumed responsibility for the manuscript's review. Editorial decisions are based not just on technical merit of the work, but also on other factors such as the priority for publication and the relevance to the Journal's general readership. All papers are judged in relation to other submissions currently under consideration. Rebuttals to rejected manuscripts are strongly discouraged and requests for resubmission of rejected manuscripts are generally not granted.

Publication ethics

Pediatric Obesity is a member of the UK Committee on Publication Ethics and subscribes to its recommendations (Committee on Publication Ethics [COPE]: guidelines on good publication practice, Our Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: A Publisher's Perspective. Second Edition are available at The Editors reserve the right to reject a paper on ethical grounds. All authors are responsible for adhering to guidelines on good publication practice.

No paper can be published in the Journal unless it meets all of these requirements.

The corresponding author must provide an e-mail address for communication with the Editors and the Publisher.

Article types

Original Articles which report on clinical, population health and laboratory investigations and observations from both human and animal studies in all areas relevant to the broad area of child and adolescent obesity including its critical periods of development from the neonatal period to young adulthood. Manuscripts should be between 1,500 and 3,000 words in length (i.e. up to 6 typewritten double-spaced pages), not including tables, figure legends, and references necessary to support the data and their interpretation. Manuscripts should generally follow the IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) format. They should include hypothesis testing, appropriate statistical methods, a clear reporting of results, and conclusions that are supported by the results.

Short Communications Studies that fall short of the criteria for full research papers (e.g. preliminary experiments limited by sample size or duration, novel hypotheses, commentaries) may be submitted as Short Communications, which will be published online-only. They should generally contain no more than 1,000 words of text, a maximum of two display items (tables and/or figures) and a maximum of 20 references. Apart from the Abstract (one paragraph of maximum 150 words) and Keywords, the text does not need to be divided into sections. In all other respects, the directions for full papers should be followed.

Review Articles Please contact the Editor-in-Chief before submission of a review article in order to ensure that the proposed topic falls within the journal guidelines and that a review on that topic is not currently under preparation by another author. Reviews should be a maximum of 5000 words, excluding references.

Letters to the Editor are considered for publication (subject to editing and abridgment) provided they do not contain material that has been submitted or published elsewhere, and will be published online-only. The text, not including references, must not exceed 250 words if it is in reference to a recent Journal article, or 400 words in all other cases. A letter must have no more than five references and one figure or table. Letters referring to a recent Journal article must be received within one month of its publication.

Please note the maximum word limits for each article type (excludes abstract):

• Original Articles: 3000 words, 30 references, 3 tables/figures, additional tables/figures as Supplementary Files

• Short Communications: 1000 words, 20 references, 2 tables/figures, additional tables/figures as Supplementary Files

• Review Articles: 5000 words, excluding references

• Letters to the Editor: 250 words for responses to published articles, 400 words for standalone letters

Specific Types of Studies

Epidemiological reports

Authors should include the following information in their reports:

Details of study

• Population sampled. National, regional, or specific selected group. Indicate if the sample population is representative of a national or regional population. If neither, state from what population the sample was drawn (e.g. children from an ethnic minority group, children from lower socio-economic status families, children from an urban obesity clinic), giving details and stating why this group may be of significance.

• Time of data collection. Indicate the time period when data were collected (e.g. at school entry autumn 2003, or recruited between January 2002 and July 2002).

• Anthropometric data recorded. Indicate what measures were taken and how (e.g. self reported in interview, reported by parents, measured by school nurse). If measured, indicate whether weight included clothing, shoes etc, height was in shoes or not, waist circumference included clothing, and also indicate definitions of waist, hip, thigh etc). Skinfold measures should also be described carefully.

Defining overweight and obesity

• The prevalence of overweight and obesity should be defined according to cut-off criteria.

• If using national or local definitions, a reference to the source tables giving the cut-off criteria should be provided (also cite this in the Reference list).

• For studies reporting the prevalence of childhood overweight and/or obesity in their population characteristics, the journal requests that these are shown using both the IOTF and WHO definitions. Although these definitions produce somewhat different prevalence rates, both definitions are being used for international comparisons at this stage and sufficient numbers of published studies which report both prevalence values will be needed to generate the algorithms to estimate one from the other.

The IOTF reference for children aged 2-18 years is: Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 1240-5. Available at

The WHO reference for children aged 0-5 years is: WHO Child Growth Standards: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age: Methods and development. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006. Available at:

The WHO reference for children aged 5-19 years is: de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2007; 85: 660-7. Available at:

• In all cases, please state clearly whether or not the figures for ‘overweight’ include those for ‘obese’.

Study results

The presentation of results should include, where appropriate, age- and sex-specific results and an indication of sample size in sub-groups.

Clinical Trials

Trial registration

•All clinical trials published in the Journal must have been prospectively registered in a public trials registry. The details of this policy are contained in the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” (

•The trial registration number should be given at the end of the Abstract.

Reporting of trials

Trials should be reported in accordance with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement ( Please also submit a checklist for editors and reviewers (not for publication) showing that you have covered each of the main CONSORT reporting points within the text of the manuscript ( 2010 Checklist.doc)

Manuscript format

Authors must provide their entire manuscript (in English) in electronic format.

General advice about the presentation of manuscripts:

  • Provide a clear, concise and interesting title, and abstract, this helps readers quickly see the value of your work.
  • The full contact details of the corresponding author must be included on the title page and the covering letter.
  • All pages should be numbered.
  • Avoid, as much as possible, the use of abbreviations.
  • All scientific units should be expressed in SI units.
  • Read these Author Guidelines carefully and follow them as closely as you can.

Title Page

The title page should contain: (1) the title of the article, (2) the name of each author (first name and surname preferred), (3) the name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the authors belong, (4) three to six keywords, (5) a running title, (6) full address including e-mail of the corresponding author.

Main text

Original research papers should be divided into (1) ‘What is already known about this subject’ and ‘What this study adds’ (up to three short bullet points for each), (2) structured abstract (200 words) comprising Background; Objectives; Methods; Results; Conclusions, (3) introduction, (4) methods, (5) results, (6) discussion, (7) conflicts of interest statement, (8) acknowledgements (including author contributions), (9) references.

For guidance on the content and style of the introduction, materials and methods, results and discussion, please follow the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICJME) Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals:

Reviews should be divided into: (1) structured abstract (200 words), (2) introduction, (3) text subdivided into paragraphs, (4) conclusion or discussion, (5) conflicts of interest statement, (6) author contributions, (7) acknowledgements, (8) references. Review authors are particularly encouraged to use tables, diagrams and figures. Personal conclusions and practical applications are welcome.


Abbreviations should be explained at the beginning of the manuscript and listed in the order in which they appear. Avoid abbreviations in the title and in the abstract.

Drug Names

Generic names should, in general, be used. If an author so desires, brand names may be inserted in parentheses.


This section should outline the contribution of each author to the manuscript e.g.: study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, literature search, generation of figures, writing of the manuscript. An example that authors might like to follow is:

XY and NM conceived and carried out experiments, AB and GH conceived experiments and analysed data. OP carried out experiments. All authors were involved in writing the paper and had final approval of the submitted and published versions.

Any contributors who did not meet the authorship criteria should also be listed, such as colleagues who provided only technical support, writing assistance or general support. Financial and material support must always be acknowledged, with a clear statement defining all funding sources. This should include grants, equipment, drugs and other reagents, or gifts of materials.


References should be cited numerically in the order they appear in the text. Identify references in text, tables and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses or as superscripts; authors of unpublished work which has not yet been accepted for publication must be included in the text only (e.g. J-P Després & MJ Stock - unpublished data). Please give the names of all authors, unless there are 7 or more authors, in which case, please list only the first 3 authors, followed by et al. References should be listed and must follow AMA style; and journal titles abbreviated according to the style used by Index Medicus; examples are given below.

Examples of journal references:

  • Castonguay TW, Dallman MF, Stern JS. Some metabolic and behavioural effects of adrenalectomy in obese Zucker rats. Am J Physiol 1986; 251: R923-R933.
  • Cann PA, Rovati LC, Smart H, Spiller RC, Whorwell PJ. Loxiglumide, a CCK-A antagonist, in irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot multicentre clinical study (Abstract). Gastroent 1993; 104: A486.
  • Maher VMG, Thompson GR. Analysis of evidence from cholesterol-lowering and regression trials. J Drug Dev Suppl 1990; 3/1: 199-203.

Examples of book references:

  • Lissner L, Bengtsson C, Lapidus L, Larson B, Bengtsson B, Brownell KD. Body weight variability and mortality in the Gothenburg Prospective Studies on men and women. In: Bjorntorp P, Rossner S (eds). Obesity in Europe 88: Proceedings of the First European Congress on Obesity. Libbey: London, 1989, pp 55-60.
  • Paul AA, Southgate DAT (eds) McCance and Widdowson's The composition of foods. 4th edn. HMSO: London, 1978.
  • National Research Council. Diet and health, National Academy Press: Washington DC 1989.

Example of a web reference:

We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote or Reference Manager for reference management and formatting.

EndNote style files can be found here:

Reference Manager style files can be found here:


Type each table on a separate page following on from the main text; number tables consecutively and supply a brief title and legend for each. Cite each table in the text in consecutive order, using Arabic numbers.


Artwork must be supplied in electronic form, as separate files per figure. Please save vector graphics (e.g. line artwork) in Encapsulated Postscript Format (EPS), and bitmap files (e.g. half-tones) in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). Detailed information on our digital illustration standards is available at: Letters, numbers and symbols should be clear and even throughout, and of sufficient size so that when reduced for publication the item will still be legible; titles and detailed explanations should be included in the legends, not in the illustrations themselves. Cite each figure in the text in consecutive order.

If a figure has been previously published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. For this, please use our official Permission Request Form.

It is the policy of Pediatric Obesity for authors to pay the full cost for the reproduction of their colour artwork. Therefore, please note that if there is colour artwork in your manuscript when it is accepted for publication, Blackwell Publishing require you to complete and return a Colour Work Agreement form before your paper can be published.

Once completed, please return the form to the Production Editor at the address below:

Pediatric Obesity
Elmerline Gamurot
SPi Bldg., Pascor Drive,
Sto. Nino, Paranaque City,
1700, Philippines
Fax: +632 325 0768

Any article received with colour figures, but without a Colour Work agreement form, will not be published until the form has been returned.

Please note that this policy does not apply to invited reviews, in which the use of colour is free of charge.

Table and figure legends

Legends for tables and figures should be typed on a separate page following on from the main text, with Arabic numbers corresponding to the numbers assigned to the matching figure or table (Table 1: …, Table 2: …, Figure 1: … etc.). When symbols, arrows, numbers or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, explain each one in the legend. Explain the internal scale and identify the method of staining in photomicrographs.

Supporting information

Online Supporting Information can include additional explanatory notes, data sets, lists, figures or tables that will not be published in the print edition of the journal and which are ancillary to, rather than central to, the article. Supporting Information must be approved by the Editor and should be supplied as a single PDF file headed by the title of the paper and the authors' names, addresses and contact information. Supporting Information will be published exactly as supplied and it is the author's responsibility to ensure that the material is logically laid out, adequately described, and in a format accessible to readers. Animations and other moving images or sound files in standard formats must be supplied as separate files. Figures and tables in Supporting Information should be referred to in the main text and labelled Figure S1, Figure S2, or Table S1, etc., in the order cited. Full guidelines and information on acceptable file formats may be found at:


Articles (in English) should be submitted via our electronic system at: Please supply along with your manuscript files, forms (see below) and covering letter, the email address of each listed author.

All listed authors must complete an ICMJE COI disclosure form. The submitting author must collect all of these forms and each completed form must be scanned and submitted along with the manuscript. A Conflicts of Interest Statement including all of the information disclosed on the forms must be included in the manuscript, in a section placed after the discussion and before the acknowledgements.

If the manuscript contains a figure, table or quoted text that has been previously published, written permission to reproduce the material must be obtained from the copyright holder using the official Permission Request Form. The completed form should be scanned and submitted along with the manuscript.

The review process

All articles are subjected to full peer review. Comments and requests from the reviewers and Editor will be sent to the corresponding author. The authors then edit the article and submit it in revised form, providing clear details of the changes made and any responses to the comments. The revised version will be considered by the Editor, and if necessary, by the reviewers, before a final decision is made. The Editors retain the right to modify the style and length of a contribution (major changes being agreed with the corresponding author), and to decide the time of publication. Proof editing should be kept to a minimum.

Post acceptance

OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to archive the final version of their article. With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the author's institution pays a fee to ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication vis Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, click here.

Prior to acceptance, there is no requirement to inform the Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to. All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the Journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit. Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete a payment form and Creative Commons License Open Access Agreement via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS).


If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the OnlineOpen option is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs below:

CTA Terms and Conditions

For authors choosing OnlineOpen

If the OnlineOpen option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA

To preview the terms and conditions of these open access agreements please visit the Copyright FAQs hosted on Wiley Author Services and visit

If you select the OnlineOpen option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust and members of the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements. For more information on this policy and the Journal’s compliant self-archiving policy please visit:

Online production tracking via Author Services

Author Services enables authors to track their accepted article through the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system. Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. Visit for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more.


The corresponding author will receive an email alert containing a link to the online proofs. A working e-mail address must therefore be provided for the corresponding author. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF (portable document format) file from the site. Acrobat Reader is needed to read the file, this software can be downloaded (free of charge) from:

This will enable the file to be opened, read on screen and printed out in order for any corrections to be added. Further instructions will be sent with the proof email. Hardcopy proofs will be posted if no e-mail address is available. Excessive changes made by the author in the proofs (excluding the correction of typesetting errors) will be charged separately.


PDF offprints will be available for download through Author Services once an article has been published in print. Paper offprints may be ordered online, but please note that the cost is higher if the order arrives too late for the main print run, so these orders are best placed around the time of checking proofs. Offprints are normally despatched within three weeks of publication of the issue in which the paper appears. Please contact the Publishers if offprints do not arrive: however, please note that offprints are sent surface mail, so overseas orders may take up to six weeks to arrive.

Storage of author submitted materials

Please note that Blackwell Publishing will dispose of all hardcopy or electronic material submitted by authors 2 months after publication.