Thermal fracturing can play an important role in development of unconventional petroleum and geothermal resources. Thermal fractures can result from the nonlinear deformation of the rock in response to thermal stress related to cold water injection as well as heating. Before the rock reaches the final failure stage, material softening and bulk modulus degradation can cause changes in the thermo-mechanical properties of the solid. In order to capture this aspect of the rock fracture, a virtual multidimensional internal bond-based thermo-mechanical model is derived to track elastic, softening, and the failure stages of the rock in response to the temporal changes of its temperature field. The variations in thermo-mechanical properties of the rock are derived from a nonlinear constitutive model. To represent the thermo-mechanical behavior of pre-existing fractures, the element partition method is employed. Using the model, numerical simulation of 3D thermal fracture propagation in brittle rock is carried out. Results of numerical simulations provide evidence of model verification and illustrate nonlinear thermal response and fracture development in rock under uniform cooling. In addition, fracture coalescence in a cluster of fractures under thermal stress is illustrated, and the process of thermal fracturing from a wellbore is captured. Results underscore the importance of thermal stress in reservoir stimulation and show the effectiveness of the model to predict 3D thermal fracturing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

At present, several of the existing elastoplastic constitutive models are adapted for describing the stress–strain behavior of unsaturated soils. However, most of them present certain limitations in this field. These limitations can be related to the basic model and/or added unsaturated state variables and formulations. In this regard, inability to model the hydro-mechanical behavior in constant water (CW) conditions is an example of these limitations. In this paper, an advanced version of CJS model is selected for adaptation to the unsaturated states. Adaptation to unsaturated states is achieved in the framework of effective stress approach. Effective stress equation and unsaturated state variables are selected based on the recent research existing in the literature. The developed model is capable of describing the complex behavior of unsaturated soil in the CW condition in addition to predicting the behavior at failure and post–failure, nonlinear elastoplastic behavior at low levels of stress and strain (by selecting a very small elastic domain), as well as wetting and collapse behaviors. In order to validate the model, results of triaxial tests in CD and CW conditions are used. The validation results indicate the good capability of the proposed model. Behavior of the unsaturated soils during wetting is an important issue. For this reason, the model is also evaluated based on the results of wetting and collapse triaxial tests. A comparison between the tests and simulation results shows that the model is able to predict the soil behavior under the wetting path. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Geomaterials such as soils and rocks are inherently anisotropic and sensitive to temperature changes caused by various internal and external processes. They are also susceptible to strain localization in the form of shear bands when subjected to critical loads. We present a thermoplastic framework for modeling coupled thermomechanical response and for predicting the inception of a shear band in a transversely isotropic material using the general framework of critical state plasticity and the specific framework of an anisotropic modified Cam–Clay model. The formulation incorporates anisotropy in both elastic and plastic responses under the assumption of infinitesimal deformation. The model is first calibrated using experimental data from triaxial tests to demonstrate its capability in capturing anisotropy in the mechanical response. Subsequently, stress-point simulations of strain localization are carried out under two different conditions, namely, isothermal localization and adiabatic localization. The adiabatic formulation investigates the effect of temperature on localization via thermomechanical coupling. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the important role of anisotropy, hardening, and thermal softening on strain localization inception and orientation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An adaptive substepping explicit integration scheme is developed for a porosity-dependent hydro-mechanical model for unsaturated soils. The model is referred to as the modified **σ**–Θ model in this paper, which features the employment of the subloading surface plasticity and the stress–saturation approach. On numerical aspects, convex/nonconvex subloading surfaces in the **σ**–Θ space may result in incorrect loading–unloading decisions during the integration. A new loading–unloading decision method is developed here to solve the problem and then embedded into the explicit integration scheme for the modified **σ**–Θ model. In addition, to enhance the accuracy of the explicit integration, local errors from both hydraulic and mechanical components are included in the error control for each substep. A drift correction method is also developed to ensure the state point lies on the subloading surface in the **σ**–Θ space within a set error level. The performance of the loading–unloading decision method for the modified **σ**–Θ model is discussed through comparing it with the conventional loading–unloading decision method. The importance of involving the hydraulic component in the error control is also demonstrated. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed adaptive substepping explicit integration scheme for the modified *p*–Θ model are also studied via several numerical examples.

Under the proportional strain loading path, particle assemblies may exhibit various failure modes. Besides the strain localization, the diffuse failure may also occur under certain conditions. The diffuse failure mode corresponds to a homogeneous occurrence of failure with stress states strictly included within the plastic limit condition. This paper emphasizes the influences of the density degree and the rolling resistance under the strain path. A contact model considering rolling friction is adopted in a discrete element method analysis as an approximate means to account for the effects of particle shape. Mechanical responses indicate that loose assemblies without the rolling resistance are more vulnerable to static liquefaction. A sample with a smaller initial void ratio or larger rolling friction coefficient will reinforce the stability of the structure and reduce the likelihood of failure. For microscopic properties, the evolution of coordination numbers, contact forces, force chains and the anisotropies of the assemblies are explored and discussed. Rotational resistance helps increase the shear stress of the granular material, and the microscopic parameters indicate that the assembly has a strong anisotropy and a stable structure to resist the increasing loading.

Natural soils are one of the most inherently variables in the ground. Although the significance of inherent soil variability in relation to reliable predictions of consolidation rates of soil deposits has long been realized, there have been few studies that addressed the issue of soil variability for the problem of ground improvement by prefabricated vertical drains. Despite showing valuable insights into the impact of soil spatial variability on soil consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains, available stochastic works on this subject are based on a single-drain (or unit cell) analyses. However, how the idealized unit cell solution can be a supplement to the complex multi-drain systems for spatially variable soils has never been addressed in the literature. In this study, a rigorous stochastic finite elements modeling approach that allows the true nature of soil spatial variability to be considered in a reliable and quantifiable manner, both for the single-drain and multi-drain systems, is presented. The feasibility of performing an analysis based on the unit cell concept as compared with the multi-drain analysis is assessed in a probabilistic context. It is shown that with proper input statistics representative of a particular domain of interest, both the single-drain and multi-drain analyses yield almost identical results.

A novel, simplified approach is presented in order to compute variations of grading in granular assemblies during confined comminution under quasi-static compression. The method is based on a population balance equation and requires a breakage probability, considered here as a probabilistic phenomenon that takes into account the particle strength and the loading condition of individual grains. Under basic assumptions, a simple breakage probability can be defined in order to get a valuable result for engineering applications and powder technology. The size effect in the strength of individual particles is introduced according to Weibull's theory. The particle loading and the cushioning effect in the granular packing are accounted for by considering the orientations of the contact forces obtained from 3D discrete element method simulations of highly polydisperse materials. The method proposed could have a value for engineering purposes in powder technology and geomechanics and gives a general framework for further research developments based on population balance.

Quantitative assessment of the risk of submarine landslides is an essential part of the design process for offshore oil and gas developments in deep water, beyond the continental shelf. Landslides may be triggered by a reduction in shear strength of subsea sediments over a given zone, caused for example by seismic activity. Simple criteria are then needed to identify critical conditions whereby the zone of weakness could grow catastrophically to cause a landslide. A number of such criteria have been developed over the last decade, based either on ideas drawn from fracture mechanics, or considering the equilibrium of the initial weakened zone and adjacent process zones of gradually softening material. Accounting for the history of the weak zone initiation is critical for derivation of reliable propagation criteria, in particular considering dynamic effects arising from accumulating kinetic energy of the failing material, which will allow the failure to propagate from a smaller initial zone of weakened sediments. Criteria are developed here for planar conditions, taking full account of such dynamic effects, which are shown to be capable of reducing the critical length of the softened zone by 20% or more compared with criteria based on static conditions. A numerical approach is used to solve the governing dynamic equations for the sliding material, the results from which justify assumptions that allow analytical criteria to be developed for the case where the initial softening occurs instantaneously. The effect of more gradual softening is also explored.

In the absence of initial cracks, the material behavior is limited by its strength, usually defined in homogeneous conditions (of stress and strain). Beyond this limit, in quasi-brittle case, cracks may propagate and the material behavior tends to be well described by fracture mechanics. Discrete element approaches show consistent results dealing with this transition during rupture. However, the calibration of the parameters of the numerical models (i.e., stiffness, strength, and toughness) may be quite complex and sometimes only approximative. Based on a brittle rupture criterion, we analyze the biaxial response of uncracked samples. Thus, tensile and compressive strengths are analytically identified and become direct parameters of our discrete model. Furthermore, a physically reliable crack initiation (and subsequent propagation) is shown to be induced during rupture and verified by the simulation of three-point bending and diametral compression tests. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In the present study, we have developed a numerical method which can simulate the dynamic behaviour of a seabed ground during gas production from methane hydrate-bearing sediments. The proposed method can describe the chemo-thermo-mechanical-seismic coupled behaviours, such as phase changes from hydrates to water and gas, temperature changes and ground deformation related to the flow of pore fluids during earthquakes. In the first part of the present study, the governing equations for the proposed method and its discretization are presented. Then, numerical analyses are performed for hydrate-bearing sediments in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour during gas production. The geological conditions and the material parameters are determined using the data of the seabed ground at Daini-Atsumi knoll, Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan, where the first offshore production test of methane hydrates was conducted. A predicted earthquake at the site is used in the analyses.

Regarding the seismic response to the earthquake which occur during gas production process, the wave profiles of horizontal acceleration and horizontal velocity were not extensively affected by the gas production. Hydrate dissociation behaviour is sensitive to changes in the pore pressure during earthquakes. Methane hydrate dissociation temporarily became active in some areas because of the main motion of the earthquake, then methane hydrate dissociation brought about an increase in the average pressure of the fluids during the earthquake. And, it was this increase in average pore pressure that finally caused the methane hydrate dissociation to cease during the earthquake.

Compaction and associated fluid flow are fundamental processes in sedimentary basin deformation. Purely mechanical compaction originates mainly from pore fluid expulsion and rearrangement of solid particles during burial, while chemo-mechanical compaction results from Intergranular Pressure-Solution (IPS) and represents a major mechanism of deformation in sedimentary basins during diagenesis. The aim of the present contribution is to provide a comprehensive 3D framework for constitutive and numerical modeling of purely mechanical and chemo-mechanical compaction in sedimentary basins. Extending the concepts that have been previously proposed for the modeling of purely mechanical compaction in finite poroplasticity, deformation by IPS is addressed herein by means of additional viscoplastic terms in the state equations of the porous material. The finite element model integrates the poroplastic and poroviscoplastic components of deformation at large strains. The corresponding implementation allows for numerical simulation of sediments accretion/erosion periods by progressive activation/deactivation of the gravity forces within a fictitious closed material system. Validation of the numerical approach is assessed by means of comparison with closed-form solutions derived in the context of a simplified compaction model. The last part of the paper presents the results of numerical basin simulation performed in one dimensional setting, demonstrating the ability of the modeling to capture the main features in elastoplastic and viscoplastic compaction.

This paper presents a generalized, rigorous and simple large strain solution for the undrained expansion of a vertical cylindrical cavity in critical state soils using a rate-based plasticity formulation: the initial stress field is taken as anisotropic, that is with horizontal stresses that differ from the vertical stress, and the soil is assumed to satisfy any two-invariant constitutive model from the critical state (Cam-clay) family; no simplifying assumption is made during the mathematical derivation; calculating the effective stresses around the cavity requires the solution of a nonlinear equation by means of the Newton–Raphson method in combination with quadrature. Cavity expansion curves and stress distributions in the soil are then presented for different critical state models (including the modified Cam-clay model). The solution derived can be useful for estimating the instantaneous response of saturated low-permeability soils around piles and self-boring pressuremeters and can serve as trustworthy benchmark for numerical analysis codes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The kinematic approach in combination with numerical simulation is used to examine the effect of pore water pressure on tunnel face stability. Pore water pressure distribution obtained by numerical calculations using *FLAC*^{3D} is used to interpolate the pore water pressure on a 3D rotational collapse mechanism. Comparisons are made to check the present approach against other solutions, showing that the present approach improves the existing upper bound solutions. Results obtained indicate that critical effective face pressure increases with water table elevation. Several normalized charts are also presented for quick evaluation of tunnel face stability. At the end of the paper, the influence of anisotropic permeability on tunnel face stability is also discussed, showing that the isotropic model leads to an overestimation of the necessary tunnel face pressure for anisotropic soils. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Crack growth in hot brittle rocks, driven by thermal cooling, was simulated using a coupled two-dimensional discrete element and heat transport model that explicitly includes the random initiation and subsequent propagation of interacting cracks. The model clearly predicts that a quasi-hierarchical array of subparallel cracks, oriented along the direction of the temperature gradient, is formed under small to moderately large thermally generated strain load conditions. The simulation results also demonstrate that, after an initial transient, thermal cracks propagate in a stable fashion with a velocity that scales with ~ *t*^{− 1/2}. However, under large thermal strain loads, a more complicated geometry composed of cracks that curve and coalesce develops during the later stages of crack growth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, a fully coupled model is developed for numerical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in partially saturated weak porous formations using the extended finite element method, which provides an effective means to simulate the coupled hydro-mechanical processes occurring during hydraulic fracturing. The developed model is for short fractures where plane strain assumptions are valid. The propagation of the hydraulic fracture is governed by the cohesive crack model, which accounts for crack closure and reopening. The developed model allows for fluid flow within the open part of the crack and crack face contact resulting from fracture closure. To prevent the unphysical crack face interpenetration during the closing mode, the crack face contact or self-contact condition is enforced using the penalty method. Along the open part of the crack, the leakage flux through the crack faces is obtained directly as a part of the solution without introducing any simplifying assumption. If the crack undergoes the closing mode, zero leakage flux condition is imposed along the contact zone. An application of the developed model is shown in numerical modeling of pump-in/shut-in test. It is illustrated that the developed model is able to capture the salient features bottomhole pressure/time records exhibit and can extract the confining stress perpendicular to the direction of the hydraulic fracture propagation from the fracture closure pressure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper develops a three-layer model and elastic solutions to capture nonlinear response of rigid, passive piles in sliding soil. Elastic solutions are obtained for an equivalent force per unit length *p _{s}* of the soil movement. They are repeated for a series of linearly increasing

- On-pile pressure in rotationally restrained, sliding layer reduces by a factor α, which resembles the
*p*-multiplier for a laterally loaded, capped pile, but for its increase with vertical loading (embankment surcharge), and stiffness of underlying stiff layer: α = 0.25 and 0.6 for a shallow, translating and rotating piles, respectively; α = 0.33–0.5 and 0.8–1.3 for a slide overlying a stiff layer concerning a uniform and a linearly increasing pressure, respectively; and α = 0.5–0.72 for moving clay under embankment loading. - Ultimate state is well defined using the ratio of passive earth pressure coefficient over that of active earth pressure. The subgrade modulus for a large soil movement may be scaled from model tests.
- The normalised rotational stiffness is equal to 0.1–0.15 for the capped piles, which increases the pile displacement with depth.

The three-layer model solutions well predict nonlinear response of capped piles subjected to passive loading, which may be used for pertinent design. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hydraulic fracturing (HF) of underground formations has widely been used in different fields of engineering. Despite the technological advances in techniques of *in situ* HF, the industry uses semi-analytical tools to design HF treatment. This is due to the complex interaction among various mechanisms involved in this process, so that for thorough simulations of HF operations a fully coupled numerical model is required.

In this study, using element-free Galerkin (EFG) mesh-less method, a new formulation for numerical modeling of hydraulic fracture propagation in porous media is developed. This numerical approach, which is based on the simultaneous solution of equilibrium and continuity equations, considers the hydro-mechanical coupling between the crack and its surrounding porous medium. Therefore, the developed EFG model is capable of simulating fluid leak-off and fluid lag phenomena.

To create the discrete equation system, the Galerkin technique is applied, and the essential boundary conditions are imposed via penalty method. Then, the resultant constrained integral equations are discretized in space using EFG shape functions. For temporal discretization, a fully implicit scheme is employed. The final set of algebraic equations that forms a non-linear equation system is solved using the direct iterative procedure.

Modeling of cracks is performed on the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and for this purpose, the so-called diffraction method is employed. For verification of the model, a number of problems are solved. According to the obtained results, the developed EFG computer program can successfully be applied for simulating the complex process of hydraulic fracture propagation in porous media. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a hypoplastic constitutive model for the viscous behavior of frozen soil. The model is composed of a ‘solid’ part and a ‘fluid’ part. The solid part is based on the extended hypoplastic model, and the fluid part is dependent on the second time derivative of strain. The performance of the model is demonstrated by simulating some uniaxial compression tests at different strain rates. Moreover, the model can describe in a unified way the three stages of typical creep tests, that is, primary, secondary, and tertiary stage. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concrete-faced rockfill dam (CFRD) is a popular alternative to traditional dam types in the last two decades. The modelling of CFRD involves complex multi-body contact and strong geometry and material nonlinearities. We present a numerical approach for the modelling of CFRDs in this paper. Based on the dual-mortar finite element method, the presented approach considers different parts of rockfill and all concrete slabs as independent deformable continuum. The multi-body contacts are modelled using Lagrange multipliers with a weak form segment-to-segment contact strategy. To alleviate instability induced by strong geometry nonlinearity in the slab–slab contact, we propose a mixed type of constraints for the tangential contact. A general transformation scheme is introduced to simplify the implementation of contact constraints. Three-dimensional analysis of Tianshengqiao-1 CFRD is performed. The nonlinear and time-dependent deformation of the rockfill is considered. We study the influence of the rockfill deformation on the reliability of the concrete face. Three major concerns of the face, that is, the axial compression, the slab–slab separation and the face-rockfill separation, are discussed in detail. The numerical results are compared with data from *in-situ* observation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Modeling of progressive development of zones of large inelastic shear deformation (shear band) that results from strain-softening behavior of sensitive clays could explain the failure mechanisms of large landslides. Because of toe erosion, a shear band can be initiated and propagated upward (inward) from the river bank. On the other hand, upslope surcharge loading could generate shear bands that might propagate down towards the river bank. In the present study, upward and downward propagation of shear bands and failure of sensitive clay slopes are modeled using the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian approach in Abaqus finite element (FE) software. It is shown that the formation and propagation of shear bands are significantly influenced by kinematic constraints that change with displacements of the soil masses, and therefore the propagation of an existing shear band might be stopped and new shear bands could be formed. The main advantages of the present FE modeling are: (i) extremely large strains in the shear bands can be successfully simulated without numerical issues, (ii) a priori definition of shearing zones is not required to tackle severe strains; instead, the FE program automatically identifies the critical locations for shear band formation and propagation. Toe erosion could significantly increase the slope failure potential because of upslope surcharge loading. FE analyses with a thick and thin sensitive clay layers show that the global failure could occur at lower surcharge loads in the former as compared to the latter cases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An investigation is made to present analytical solutions provided by a Winkler model approach for analysis of piled rafts with nodular pile subjected to vertical loads in nonhomogeneous soils. The vertical stiffness coefficient along a piled raft with the nodular pile in nonhomogeneous soils is derived from the displacement given by the Mindlin solution for elastic continuum analysis. The vertical stiffness coefficients for the bases of the raft and the nodular part in the nodular pile in a soil are expressed by the Muki solution for the 3-D elastic analysis. The relationship between settlement and vertical load on the pile base is presented considering the Mindlin solution and the equivalent thickness in the equivalent elastic method. The interaction factor between the shaft of the nodular pile and the soil is expressed taking into account the Mindlin solution and the equivalent elastic modulus. The relationship between settlement and vertical load for a piled raft with the nodular pile in nonhomogeneous soils is obtained by using the recurrence equation of influence factors of the pile for each layer. The percentage of each load carried by both nodular pile and raft subjected to vertical load is represented through the vertical influence factors proposed here. Comparison of the results calculated by the present method for piled rafts with nodular piles in nonhomogeneous soils has shown good agreement with those obtained from the finite element method and a field test. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper uses Biot's poroelasticity approach to examine the consolidation behaviour of a rigid foundation with a frictionless base in contact with a poroelastic halfspace. The mathematical development of the mixed boundary value problem involves a set of dual integral equations in the Laplace transform domain which cannot be conveniently solved by employing conventional procedures. In this paper, a numerical solution is developed using a scheme where the contact normal stress is approximated by a discretized equivalent. The influence of limiting drainage boundary conditions at the entire surface of the halfspace on the degree of consolidation of the rigid circular foundation is investigated. The results obtained in this study are compared with the corresponding results given in the literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In the practice of geotechnical engineering, the case of a ring footing carrying a set of concentrated point loads is a common problem. At times, the induced vertical and angular displacements for the ring footing need to be evaluated at a relatively precise level. By making use of the governing set of equations derived for the case of a general curved beam, expressions that can be easily implemented in modern computing software are derived for the vertical and angular displacements of a ring footing of rectangular cross section as functions of the radial position. The loading case considered is a vertical point load, and the soil is modelled as elastic. Estimates of the displacements have been shown for a common range of practical applications. The behaviour for a set of concentrated loads may be evaluated using the derived equations through direct superposition. Nonlinear finite element analysis is used to evaluate the vertical deflection and angular twist of the ring foundation. Numerical analysis performed for three ring foundations with different radii and cross sections is reported to validate the accuracy of the derived analytical solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A new analytical proof is presented for steady-state seepage in recharged heterogeneous unconfined aquifers. The paper also presents a detailed procedure and important rules for performing correctly numerical studies of unsaturated seepage. Once a numerical solution is calibrated with field data, using a set of spatially distributed values for hydraulic conductivity *K* and effective infiltration *EI*, any new numerical analysis with a set of *αK* and *αEI* values, where *α* is a constant, yields an equally good calibration. However, if the effective porosities of each layer are unchanged, the groundwater velocities are multiplied by *α*, whereas the travel times are divided by *α*, which may help to select *α* in order to match known travel time data. This is a clear example of multiple solutions to an inverse problem. The paper underlines the role and the need to finely mesh unsaturated zones and also contacts between layers to reach the asymptotic convergence range, as it was carried out to verify the proof and as it should be completed to study any seepage problem. A few consequences of the new analytical proof and the rigorous procedure are shown with examples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents an analytical-numerical approach to obtain the distribution of stresses and deformations around a reinforced tunnel. The increase in the radial stress of the reinforced tunnel, based on the performance of a bolt, is modeled by a function, which its maximum value is in the vicinity of the bolt periphery and it exponentially decreases in the far distance from the bolt. On the basis of this approach, the shear stiffness between the bolt and the rock mass and the shear stress distribution around the bolt within the rock mass are also analytically obtained. The results are compared with those obtained by the assumption of ‘uniform increase of radial stress’ method, which is made by the previous studies. The analyses show when the bolts' spacing is large, the safety factor must be increased if the ‘uniform increase of radial stress’ method is used for the design.

Finally, a procedure is introduced to calculate the non-equal deformation of the rock mass between the bolts at any radius that can be useful to compute the bending moment in shotcrete layer in New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) approach. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A method for simulation of differential (spatially varying) track settlement in a ballasted railway track is presented. It employs a cycle domain constitutive model to determine accumulated plastic (permanent) deformation of the granular layers supporting the track. The constitutive model is adopted for both the ballast and the sub-ballast but with different parameter sets. The proposed framework can be used to predict differential track settlement accounting for heterogeneous (space-variant) track characteristics and loading conditions. Here, it is demonstrated for three-dimensional continuum modelling of a railway crossing panel subjected to a large number of axle passages. Because of the design of the crossing panel and the transient character of the impact loads on the crossing, the load transferred into the track bed is not uniform along the track, and the resulting differential settlement leads to vertical irregularities in track geometry. The spatial variation of track settlement is calculated both along the sleepers and along the rails. The influences of the number of adjacent sleepers accounted for in the model and the stiffness of the subgrade on the predicted settlement at the crossing are studied. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

By virtue of a pair of scalar potentials for the displacement of the solid skeleton and the pore fluid pressure field of a saturated poroelastic medium, an alternative solution method to the Helmholtz decomposition is developed for the wave propagation problems in the framework of Biot's theory. As an application, a comprehensive solution for three-dimensional response of an isotropic poroelastic half-space with a partially permeable hydraulic free surface under an arbitrarily distributed time-harmonic internal force field and fluid sources is developed. The Green's functions for the poroelastic fields, corresponding to point, ring, and disk loads, are reduced to semi-infinite complex-valued integrals that can be evaluated numerically by an appropriate quadrature scheme. Analytical and numerical comparisons are made with existing elastic and poroelastic solutions to illustrate the quality and features of the solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This note presents a new method to derive closed-form expressions describing the horizontal response of an end-bearing pile in viscoelastic soil subjected to harmonic loads at its head. The soil surrounding the pile is assumed as a linearly viscoelastic layer. The propagation of waves in the soil and pile is treated mathematically by three-dimensional and one-dimensional theories, respectively. Unlike previous studies of the problem, the formulation presented allows the governing equations of the soil to be solved directly, eliminating the need to introduce potential functions. Accordingly, the dynamic response of the pile is obtained by means of the initial parameter method, invoking the requirement for continuity at the pile–soil interface. It is demonstrated that the derived compact solution matches exactly an existing solution that utilises potential functions to formulate the problem. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The consolidation of the layered saturated soil is an important issue in civil engineering and has been investigated extensively during the past decades. In this study, based on the Biot's theory, the reflection–transmission matrix (RTM) method for treating the layered saturated soil under axisymmetric consolidation is developed. To decouple the governing equations of the Biot's theory, the McNamee displacement functions are introduced, and the general solution for the saturated soil is obtained using the Laplace and Hankel transforms. In order to develop the RTM method for the layered saturated soil, based on the obtained general solution, the static wave vector corresponding to the state vector of the saturated soil and the transform matrix relating the aforementioned two vectors are defined. Also, the transfer matrices corresponding to the two vectors are introduced, and the representations of the RTMs for the static wave vector of the saturated soil are presented. As the state vector, static wave vector, and the transform matrix relating the two vectors are all defined in the global coordinate system, the RTMs obtained in this study thus have a reasonable physical meaning. By using the RTMs for the layered saturated soil, the solutions for the layered saturated soil subjected to external sources are derived. Comparison of results due to the proposed RTM method with some existing results and results due to the transfer matrix method validates the developed RTM method. Some numerical results are obtained based on the proposed RTM method for the layered saturated soil. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The main purpose of the paper is to present a relatively simple, yet realistic, constitutive model for simulations of structured sensitive clays. The proposed constitutive model can simulate 1-D and isotropic consolidation, and drained and undrained shear response of sensitive structured clay.

The proposed sensitive bounding surface model is based on concepts from the modified Cam clay model (Roscoe and Burland, 1968) and bounding surface plasticity (Dafalias and Herrmann, 1982), with the addition of a simple degradation law. The key material parameters are *M*, *λ*, *κ*, and *ν* from the modified Cam clay framework, *h* from the bounding surface framework to model a smoothed elasto-plastic transition, and *ω _{v}*,

The model has separate parameters to model destructuration caused by volumetric strain and deviatoric strain. The model is capable of modeling unusual behavior of strain softening during 1-D compression (i.e., a reduction of effective stress as void ratio decreases). A good match between test results and the model simulation is demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this article, we evaluate geomechanics of fluid injection from a fully penetrating vertical well into an unconsolidated formation confined with stiff seal rocks. The coupled behavior of an isotropic, homogeneous sand layer is studied under injection pressures that are high enough to induce plasticity yet not fracturing. Propagation of the significant influence zone surrounding the injection borehole, quantified by the extent of the plastic domain in the elasto-plastic model, is examined for the first time. First, a new fully coupled axisymmetric numerical model is developed. A comprehensive assessment is performed on pore pressures, stresses/strains, and failure planes during the entire transient period of an injection cycle. Results anticipate existence of five distinctive zones in terms of plasticity state: liquefaction at wellbore; two inner plastic domains surrounding the wellbore, where failure occurs along two planes and major principal stress is in vertical direction; remaining of the plastic domain, where formation fails along one plane and major principal stress is in radial direction; and a non-plastic region. Failure mechanism at the wellbore is found to be shear followed by liquefaction. Next, a novel methodology is proposed based on which new weakly coupled poro-elasto-plastic analytical solutions are derived for all three stress/strain components. Unlike previous studies, extension of the plastic zone is obtained as a function of injection pressure, incorporating plasticity effects on the subsequent elastic domain. Solutions, proven to be a good approximation of numerical simulations, offer a huge advantage as the run time of coupled numerical simulations is considerably long. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The mechanical behavior of granular materials is characterized by strong nonlinearity and irreversibility. These properties have been differently described by a variety of constitutive models. To test any constitutive model, experimental data relative to the nature of the incremental stress–strain response of the material is desirable. However, this type of laboratory data is scarce because of being expensive and difficult to obtain. The discrete element method has been used several times as an alternative to obtain incremental responses of granular materials. Crushable grains add one extra source of irreversibility to granular materials. Crushability has been variously incorporated into different constitutive models. Again, it will be helpful to obtain incremental responses of crushable granular materials to test these models, but the experimental difficulties are increased. Making use of a recently introduced crushing model for discrete element simulation, this paper presents a new procedure to obtain incremental responses in discrete analogs of granular crushable materials. The parallel probe approach, previously used for uncrushable discrete analogs, is here extended to account for the presence of crushable grains. The contribution of grain crushing to the incremental irreversible strain is identified and separately measured. Robustness of the proposed method is examined in detail, paying particular attention to aspects such as dynamic instability or crushing localization. The proposed procedure is later applied to map incremental responses of a discrete analog of Fontainebleau sand on the triaxial plane. The effect of stress ratio and granular state on plastic flow characteristics is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

One-dimensional mathematical models for vapor-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion through composite cover barriers are presented. An analytical solution to the model was obtained by the method of separation of variables. The results obtained by the proposed solution agree well with those obtained by a numerical analysis. Based on the proposed analytical model, the VOC breakthrough curves of five different composite covers are compared. The effects of degree of saturation of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or compacted clay liner (CCL) on VOC migration in the composite covers are then presented. Results show that the composite cover barriers provide much better diffusion barriers for VOC than the single CCL. The top surface steady-state flux for a composite barrier, consisting of a 1.5 mm geomembrane (GM) and a 20 cm CCL, can be 8.3 times lower than that for a 30 cm CCL. The surface steady-state flux for the case with (1.5 mm GM + 6 mm GCL) was found to be 2.3 times lower than that for the case with (1.5 mm GM + 20 cm CCL). The degree of saturation *S _{r}* of the CCL has a great influence on VOC migration in composite covers when

A semi-analytical method for calculating the response of single piles and pile groups subjected to lateral loading is developed in this paper. Displacements anywhere in the soil domain are tied to the displacements of the piles through decay functions. The principle of virtual work and the calculus of variations are used to derive the governing differential equations that describe the response of the piles and soil. The eigenvalue method and the finite difference technique are used to solve the system of coupled differential equations for the piles and soil, respectively. The proposed method takes into account the soil surface displacement along and perpendicular to the loading direction and produces displacement fields that are very close to those produced by the finite element method but at lower computational effort. Compared with the previous method that considered only the soil displacement along the loading direction, accounting for the multi-directional soil displacement field produces responses for the piles and soil that are closer to those approximated by the finite element method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, a large-scale diffuse interface model is used to describe the evolution of a gypsum cavity formation induced by dissolution. The method is based upon the assumption of a pseudo-component dissolving with a thermodynamic equilibrium boundary condition. A methodology is proposed based on numerical computations with fixed boundaries in *order to choose suitable parameters* for the diffuse interface model, and hence predict the correct dissolution fluxes and surface recession velocity. Additional simulations were performed to check which type of momentum balance equation should be used. The numerical results did not show a strong impact of this choice for the typical initial boundary value problems under consideration. Calculations with a variable density and Boussinesq approximation were also performed to evaluate the potential for natural convection. The results showed that the impact of density driven flows was negligible in the cases under investigation. The potential of the methodology is illustrated on two large-scale configurations: one corresponding to a gypsum lens located strictly within a porous rock formation and the other to an isolated pillar in a flooded gypsum room and pillar quarry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Granular materials like sand are widely used in civil engineering. They are composed of different sizes of grains, which generate a complex behaviour, difficult to assess experimentally. Internal instability of a granular material is its inability to prevent the loss of its fine particles under flow effect. It is geometrically possible if the fine particles can migrate through the pores of the coarse soil matrix and results in a change in its mechanical properties. This paper uses the three-dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC3D/DEM) to study the stability/instability of granular materials and their mechanical behaviour after suffusion. Stability properties of widely graded materials are analysed by simulating the transport of smaller particles through the constrictions formed by the coarse particles under the effect of a downward flow with uniform pressure gradient. A sample made by an initially stable material according to the Kenney & Lau geometrical criterion was divided into five equal layers. The classification of these layers by this criterion before and after the test shows that even stable granular materials can lose fine particles and present local instability. The failure criterion of eroded samples, in which erosion is simulated by progressive removal of fine particles, evolves in an unexpected way. Internal friction angle increases with the initial porosity, the rate of lost fine particles and the average diameter *D*_{50}. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The (THM) coupling effects on the dynamic wave propagation and strain localization in a fully saturated softening porous medium are analyzed. The characteristic polynomial corresponding to the governing equations of the THM system is derived, and the stability analysis is conducted to determine the necessary conditions for stability in both non-isothermal and adiabatic cases. The result from the dispersion analysis based on the Abel–Ruffini theorem reveals that the roots of the characteristic polynomial for the THM problem cannot be expressed algebraically. Meanwhile, the dispersion analysis on the adiabatic case leads to a new analytical expression of the internal length scale. Our limit analysis on the phase velocity for the non-isothermal case indicates that the internal length scale for the non-isothermal THM system may vanish at the short wavelength limit. This result leads to the conclusion that the rate-dependence introduced by multiphysical coupling may not regularize the THM governing equations when softening occurs. Numerical experiments are used to verify the results from the stability and dispersion analyses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We present a contribution on the risk of hydraulic fracturing in CO_{2} geological storage using an analytical model of hydraulic fracturing in weak formations. The work is based on a Mohr–Coulomb dislocation model that is extended to account for material with fracture toughness. The complete slip process that is distributed around the crack tip is replaced by superdislocations that are placed in the effective centers. The analytical model enables the identification of a dominant parameter, which defines the regimes of brittle to ductile propagation and the limit at which a mode-1 fracture cannot advance. We examine also how the corrosive effect of CO_{2} on rock strength may affect hydraulic fracture propagation. We found that a hydraulically induced vertical fracture from CO_{2} injection is more likely to propagate horizontally than vertically, remaining contained in the storage zone. The horizontal fracture propagation will have a positive effect on the injectivity and storage capacity of the formation. The containment in the vertical direction will mitigate the risk of fracturing and migration of CO_{2} to upper layers and back to the atmosphere. Although the corrosive effect of CO_{2} is expected to decrease the rock toughness and the resistance to fracturing, the overall decrease of rock strength promotes ductile behavior with the energy dissipated in plastic deformation and hence mitigates the mode-1 fracture propagation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Various analytical theories of consolidation for soils with vertical drains have been proposed in the past. Most conventional theories are based on a cylindrical unit cell that contains only a single vertical drain. This paper described a new analytical model where a vertical drain located at the centre (the ‘inner vertical drain’) and is surrounded by two or three vertical drains (the ‘outer vertical drains’), the number of which depends on whether the configuration is triangular or rectangular. Both types of drains are combined into a cylindrical unit cell, and the water is assumed to flow both inwards to the inner vertical drain and outwards to the outer vertical drains distributed around the circumference. The outer radial boundary of the unit cell is regarded as a permeable boundary, with a drainage capacity of two or three separate vertical drains for triangular and rectangular configurations, respectively. The smear effects and the drainage resistances for both the inner and outer vertical drains are considered in the analysis as well. In this way, the equations governing the consolidation process with multiple vertical drains are derived, and the corresponding analytical solutions are obtained for instantaneously loading, ramp loading and multi-stage of instantaneously loading and multi-stage of ramp loading. The present solutions are finally compared with several conventional solutions for a single vertical drain in the literature. The results show that the present model predicts the same average degree of consolidation as conventional models do, which verifies the correctness of this new model. Finally, the settlement predicted by the present solution is compared with the measured settlement from a field test at the Port of Brisbane, Australia, which shows a good agreement between them. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This study presents a formulation for field problems using hybrid polygonal finite elements, taking steady state seepage through a porous material as the focus. We make comparisons with a conventional finite element formulation based on a single primary variable, focussing on the advantages of the hybrid formulation in terms of flux field accuracy and extension to convex polygonal shaped elements. For the unconfined case, we adopt a head dependent hydraulic conductivity that does not require remeshing. The performance of the hybrid polygonal element formulation is demonstrated through a series of numerical examples. The results show a sensitivity of the location of the free surface in unconfined seepage to mesh configuration for hybrid quadrilateral meshes with various aspect ratios, but not for hybrid polygonal meshes with various orientations and irregularity. Examination of the free surface location results for several conforming shape function options shows an insensitivity to choice of interpolation function, provided that it conforms with the assumptions in the formulation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Confinement effect on jointed rock pillars is numerically characterised in this research using a Synthetic Rock Mass (SRM) approach. The SRM is an integrated model incorporating a discrete fracture network within a Particle Flow Code 3D particle assembly. In this paper, the confinement effect on a 3D jointed pillar SRM model is investigated in a series of simulations, including biaxial compression tests and true and conventional triaxial compression tests. The numerical results suggest that the applied confining stresses generally result in higher pillar strengths and ductile post-peak responses. More brittle post-peak behaviour is simulated in the biaxial and true triaxial tests when the pillar is confined by a high stress in one lateral direction and by a zero/low stress in the other lateral direction. This phenomenon is attributed to significant lateral pillar dilation in the less confined direction. Detailed pillar failure modes are monitored in the uniaxial and triaxial tests. Axial splitting fractures and long shear zones cutting through the pillar are simulated when the pillar is able to dilate in the direction of least confinement. Localised shearing along joints and failed rock blocks is the dominant failure mode when the pillar dilation is resisted by the applied confining stresses. The pillar remains relatively intact with limited cracking in the pillar core in the highly confined triaxial tests. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a numerical model for the elasto-plastic electro-osmosis consolidation of unsaturated clays experiencing large strains, by considering electro-osmosis and hydro-mechanical flows in a deformable multiphase porous medium. The coupled governing equations involving the pore water flow, pore gas flow, electric flow and mechanical deformation in unsaturated clays are derived within the framework of averaging theory and solved numerically using finite elements. The displacements of the solid phase, the pressure of the water phase, the pressure of the gas phase and the electric potential are taken as the primary unknowns in the proposed model. The nonlinear variation of transport parameters during electro-osmosis consolidation are incorporated into the model using empirical expressions that strongly depend on the degree of water saturation, whereas the Barcelona Basic Model is employed to simulate the elasto-plastic mechanical behaviour of unsaturated clays. The accuracy of the proposed model is evaluated by validating it against two well-known numerical examples, involving electro-osmosis and unsaturated soil behaviour respectively. Two further examples are then investigated to study the capability of the computational algorithm in modelling multiphase flow in electro-osmosis consolidation. Finally, the effects of gas generation at the anode, the deformation characteristics, the degree of saturation and the time dependent evolution of the excess pore pressure are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a dynamic fully coupled formulation for saturated and unsaturated soils that undergo large deformations based on material point method. Governing equations are applied to porous material while considering it as a continuum in which the pores of the solid skeleton are filled with water and air. The accuracy of the developed method is tested with available experimental and numerical results. The developed method has been applied to investigate the failure and post-failure behaviour of rapid landslides in unsaturated slopes subjected to rainfall infiltration using two different bedrock geometries that lie below the top soil. The models show different failure and post-failure mechanisms depending on the bedrock geometry and highlight the negative effects of continuous rain infiltrations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The propagation characteristic of Rayleigh waves in a fluid-saturated non-homogeneous poroelastic half-plane is addressed. Based on Biot's theory for fluid-saturated media, which takes the inertia, fluid viscosity, mechanical coupling, compressibility of solid grains, and fluid into account, the dispersion equations of Rayleigh waves in fluid-saturated non-homogeneous soils/rocks are established. By considering the shear modulus of solid skeleton variation with depth exponentially, a small parameter, which reflects the relative change of shear modulus, is introduced. The asymptotic solution of the dispersion equation expressing the relationship between the phase velocity and wave number is obtained by using the perturbation method. In order to analyze the effects of non-homogeneity on the propagation characteristic of Rayleigh waves, the variation of the phase velocity with the wave number is presented graphically and discussed through numerical examples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The reliability of heterogeneous slopes can be evaluated using a wide range of available probabilistic methods. One of these methods is the random finite element method (RFEM), which combines random field theory with the non-linear elasto-plastic finite element slope stability analysis method. The RFEM computes the probability of failure of a slope using the Monte Carlo simulation process. The major drawback of this approach is the intensive computational time required, mainly due to the finite element analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation process. Therefore, a simplified model or solution, which can bypass the computationally intensive and time-consuming numerical analyses, is desirable. The present study investigates the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to develop such a simplified model. ANNs are well known for their strong capability in mapping the input and output relationship of complex non-linear systems. The RFEM is used to generate possible solutions and to establish a large database that is used to develop and verify the ANN model. In this paper, multi-layer perceptrons, which are trained with the back-propagation algorithm, are used. The results of various performance measures indicate that the developed ANN model has a high degree of accuracy in predicting the reliability of heterogeneous slopes. The developed ANN model is then transformed into relatively simple formulae for direct application in practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The landfills are dumped without any compaction and have a relatively open structure, which is similar to that of the granular materials. However, the original dumped material might be gradually transformed into a lumpy composite structure because of the influence of the climate. As a result, the lumps are randomly distributed in the reconstituted soil. In the presented study, the compression behavior of the lumpy composite soils was analyzed within the homogenization framework. Firstly, the volume of the composite soil was divided into four individual components. The inter-lump porosity was introduced to account for the evolution of the volume fractions of the constituents, and it was formulated as a function of the overall porosity and those of its constituents. A homogenization law was then proposed based on the analysis of the lumpy structure together with a numerical method, which gives a relationship for tangent stiffnesses of the lumpy soil and its constituents. Finally, a simple compression model was proposed for the composite lumpy material, which incorporates both the influence of the soil structure and the volume fraction change of the reconstituted soil. The predictions of the model were validated against the test results, and the stress distribution within the lumpy composite was assessed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a two-dimensional coupled bonded particle and lattice Boltzmann method (BPLBM) developed to simulate the fluid–solid interactions in geomechanics. In this new technique, the bonded particle model is employed to describe the inter-particle movement and forces, and the bond between a pair of contacting particles is assumed to be broken when the tensile force or tangential force reaches a certain critical value. As a result the fracture process can be delineated based on the present model for the solid phase comprising particles, such as rocks and cohesive soils. In the meantime, the fluid phase is modelled by using the LBM, and the immersed moving boundary scheme is utilized to characterize the fluid–solid interactions. Based on the novel technique case studies have been conducted, which show that the coupled BPLBM enjoys substantially improved accuracy and enlarged range of applicability in characterizing the mechanics responses of the fluid–solid systems. Indeed such a new technique is promising for a wide range of application in soil erosion in Geotechnical Engineering, sand production phenomenon in Petroleum Engineering, fracture flow in Mining Engineering and fracture process in a variety of engineering disciplines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a new purely viscoplastic soil model based on the subloading surface concept with a mobile centre of homothety, enabling the occurrence of viscoplastic strains inside the yield surface and avoiding the abrupt change in stiffness of the traditional overstress viscoplastic models. This is required for overconsolidated soils. The model is formulated to reproduce the soil rate-dependent behaviour under cyclic loading (changes in loading direction) and incorporates both initial and induced anisotropy, as well as destructuring. The model shows good qualitative response to some imposed three-dimensional stress paths under quasi-inviscid (elastoplastic) behaviour. Some of the main time-dependent aspects of soil behaviour that the model is capable of reproducing were also illustrated. The capability of the model to adequately reproduce the results from an undrained triaxial test performed on stiff overconsolidated clays from the Lisbon region (*Formação de Benfica*), with an unloading–reloading deviatoric stress cycle at constant mean stress, that incorporates a series of staggered fast loading and creep stages, was evaluated. The model was able to reproduce well the main observed aspects of the time-dependent stress–strain response and pore pressure evolution of a stiff overconsolidated clay under complex loading. The revised and generalised viscoplastic subloading surface concept is viable and can be applied to a consistent extension to viscoplasticity, including in the interior of the yield surface, of existing elastoplastic models formulated for soils and other materials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper advocates the use of a multiphase model, already developed for static or quasi-static geotechnical engineering problems, for simulating the behaviour of piled raft foundations subject to horizontal as well as rocking dynamic solicitations. It is shown that such a model, implemented in a FEM code, yields appropriate predictions for the foundation impedance characteristics, provided that shear and bending effects in the piles are taken into account, thus corroborating the findings of the asymptotic homogenization theory. Besides, it is notably pointed out that such a multiphase-based computational tool makes it possible to assess the dynamic behaviour of pile groups in a much quicker way than when using direct numerical simulations, which may face oversized problems when large pile groups are concerned. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper deals with numerical modeling of dynamic failure phenomena in rate-sensitive quasi-brittle materials, such as rocks, with initial microcrack populations. To this end, a continuum viscodamage-embedded discontinuity model is developed and tested in full 3D setting. The model describes the pre-peak nonlinear and rate-sensitive hardening response of the material behavior, representing the fracture-process zone creation, by a rate-dependent continuum damage model. The post-peak response, involving the macrocrack creation accompanied by exponential softening, is formulated by using an embedded displacement discontinuity model. The finite element implementation of this model relies upon the linear tetrahedral element, which seems appropriate for explicit dynamic analyses involving stress wave propagation. The problems of crack locking and spreading typical of embedded discontinuity models are addressed in this paper. A combination of two remedies, the inclusion of viscosity in the spirit of Wang's viscoplastic consistency approach and introduction of isotropic damaging into the embedded discontinuity model, is shown to be effective in the present explicit dynamics setting. The model performance is illustrated by several numerical simulations. In particular, the dynamic Brazilian disc test and the Kalthoff–Winkler experiment show that the present model provides realistic predictions with the correct failure modes and rate-dependent tensile strengths of rock at different loading rates. The ability of initial embedded discontinuity populations to model the initial microcrack populations in rocks is also successfully tested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a coupled hydro-mechanical formulation for the simulation of non-planar three-dimensional hydraulic fractures. Deformation in the rock is modeled using linear elasticity, and the lubrication theory is adopted for the fluid flow in the fracture. The governing equations of the fluid flow and elasticity and the subsequent discretization are fully coupled. A Generalized/eXtended Finite Element Method (G/XFEM) is adopted for the discretization of the coupled system of equations. A Newton–Raphson method is used to solve the resulting system of nonlinear equations. A discretization strategy for the fluid flow problem on non-planar three-dimensional surfaces and a computationally efficient strategy for handling time integration combined with mesh adaptivity are also presented. Several three-dimensional numerical verification examples are solved. The examples illustrate the generality and accuracy of the proposed coupled formulation and discretization strategies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A three-dimensional constitutive model for joints is described that incorporates nonlinear elasticity based on volumetric elastic strain, and plasticity for both compaction and shear with emphasis on compaction. The formulation is general in the sense that alternative specific functional forms and evolution equations can be easily incorporated. A corresponding numerical structure based on finite elements is provided so that a joint width can vary from a fraction of an element size to a width that occupies several elements. The latter case is particularly appropriate for modeling a fault, which is considered simply to be a joint with large width. For small joint widths, the requisite equilibrium and kinematic requirements within an element are satisfied numerically. The result is that if the constitutive equation for either the joint or the rock is changed, the numerical framework remains unchanged. A unique aspect of the general formulation is the capability to handle either pre-existing gaps or the formation of gaps. Representative stress–strain plots are given to illustrate both the features of the model and the effects of changes in values of material parameters. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper studies the chemo-mechanics of cemented granular solids in the context of continuum thermodynamics for fluid-saturated porous media. For this purpose, an existing constitutive model formulated in the frame of the Breakage Mechanics theory is augmented to cope with reactive processes. Chemical state variables accounting for the reactions between the solid constituents and the solutes in the pore fluid are introduced to enrich the interactions among the microstructural units simulated by the model (i.e., grains and cement bonds). Two different reactive processes are studied (i.e., grain dissolution and cement precipitation), using the chemical variables to describe the progression of the reactions and track changes in the size of grains and bonds. Finally, a homogenization strategy is used to derive the energy potentials of the solid mixture, adopting probability density functions that depend on both mechanical and chemical indices. It is shown that the connection between the statistics of the micro-scale attributes and the continuum properties of the solid enables the mathematical capture of numerous mechanical effects of lithification and chemical deterioration, such as changes in stiffness, expansion/contraction of the elastic domain, and development of inelastic strains during reaction. In particular, the model offers an interpretation of the plastic strains generated by aggressive environments, which are here interpreted as an outcome of chemically driven debonding and comminution. As a result, the model explains widely observed macroscopic signatures of geomaterial degradation by reconciling the energetics of the deformation/reaction processes with the evolving geometry of the microstructural attributes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method to determine the pile foundation system capacity based on the lower bound theorem of plasticity. The motivations for determining the lower bound capacity are the following: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of solutions based on the upper bound method; (2) to provide a conservative and efficient solution to the system capacity; and (3) to provide information about load distribution among individual piles at the verge of failure for the pile system. The failure mechanisms for a single pile and for the pile system are assumed to be two-dimensional. For a typical long offshore pile, the upper and lower bound analyses produce identical lateral capacities. A simplified failure surface for loads at the single pile head is proposed and verified through analysis of 16 case study piles. With this proposed failure surface for a single pile, the lower bound failure load of the pile foundation system is obtained using the elastic compensation method enhanced with the linear matching method. Comparing with the existing upper bound and finite element solutions, the proposed lower bound method is capable of accurately and efficiently predicting the ultimate capacity of a pile foundation system. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Dynamic two-phase interaction of soil can be modelled by a displacement-based, two-phase formulation. The finite element method together with a semi-implicit Euler–Cromer time-stepping scheme renders a discrete equation that can be solved by recursion. By experience, it is found that the CFL stability condition for undrained wave propagation is not sufficient for the considered two-phase formulation to be numerically stable at low values of permeability. Because the stability analysis of the two-phase formulation is onerous, an analysis is performed on a simplified two-phase formulation that is derived by assuming an incompressible pore fluid. The deformation of saturated porous media is now captured in a single, second-order partial differential equation, where the energy dissipation associated with the flow of the fluid relative to the soil skeleton is represented by a damping term. The paper focuses on the different options to discretize the damping term and its effect on the stability criterion. Based on the eigenvalue analyses of a single element, it is observed that in addition to the CFL stability condition, the influence of the permeability must be included. This paper introduces a permeability-dependent stability criterion. The findings are illustrated and validated with an example for the dynamic response of a sand deposit. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No abstract is available for this article.

]]>Although the use of blasting has become a routine in contemporary mine operations, there is a lack of knowledge on the response of cement tailings backfills subjected to sudden dynamic loading. To rationally describe such a phenomenon, a new coupled chemo-viscoplastic cap model is proposed in the present study to describe the behavior of hydrating cemented tailings backfill under blast loading. A modified Perzyna type of visco-plasticity model is adopted to represent the rate-dependent behavior of the cemented tailings backfill under blast loading. A modified smooth surface cap model is consequently developed to characterize the yield of the material, which also facilitates hysteresis and full compaction as well as dilation control. Then, the viscoplastic formulation is further augmented with a variable bulk modulus derived from a Mie–Gruneisen equation of state, in order to capture the nonlinear hydrostatic response of cemented backfills subjected to high pressure. Subsequently, the material properties required in the viscoplastic cap model are coupled with a chemical model, which captures and quantifies the degree of cement hydration. Thus, the behavior of hydrating cemented backfills under the impact of blast loading can be evaluated under any curing time of interest. The validation results of the developed model show a good agreement between the experimental and the predicted results. The authors believe that the proposed model will contribute to a better understanding of the performance of cemented backfills under mine blasting and contribute to evaluating and managing the risk of failure of backfill structures under such a dynamic condition. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A new numerical approach is proposed in this study to model the mechanical behaviors of inherently anisotropic rocks in which the rock matrix is represented as bonded particle model, and the intrinsic anisotropy is imposed by replacing any parallel bonds dipping within a certain angle range with smooth-joint contacts. A series of numerical models with *β* = 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° are constructed and tested (*β* is defined as the angle between the normal of weak layers and the maximum principal stress direction). The effect of smooth-joint parameters on the uniaxial compression strength and Young's modulus is investigated systematically. The simulation results reveal that the normal strength of smooth-joint mainly affects the behaviors at high anisotropy angles (*β* > 45°), while the shear strength plays an important role at medium anisotropy angles (30°–75°). The normal stiffness controls the mechanical behaviors at low anisotropy angles. The angle range of parallel bonds being replaced plays an important role on defining the degree of anisotropy. Step-by-step procedures for the calibration of micro parameters are recommended. The numerical model is calibrated to reproduce the behaviors of different anisotropic rocks. Detailed analyses are conducted to investigate the brittle failure process by looking at stress-strain behaviors, increment of micro cracks, initiation and propagation of fractures. Most of these responses agree well with previous experimental findings and can provide new insights into the micro mechanisms related to the anisotropic deformation and failure behaviors. The numerical approach is then applied to simulate the stress-induced borehole breakouts in anisotropic rock formations at reduced scale. The effect of rock anisotropy and stress anisotropy can be captured. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We present a micro-mechanical analysis of macroscopic peak strength, critical state, and residual strength in two-dimensional non-cohesive granular media. Typical continuum constitutive quantities such as frictional strength and dilation angle are explicitly related to their corresponding grain-scale counterparts (e.g., inter-particle contact forces, fabric, particle displacements, and velocities), providing an across-the-scale basis for a better understanding and modeling of granular materials. These multi-scale relations are derived in three steps. First, explicit relations between macroscopic stress and strain rate with the corresponding grain-scale mechanics are established. Second, these relations are used in conjunction with the non-associative Mohr–Coulomb criterion to explicitly connect internal friction and dilation angles to the micro-mechanics. Third, the mentioned explicit connections are applied to investigate, understand, and derive micro-mechanical conditions for peak strength, critical state, and residual strength. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, we present a micromechanics-based elastic–plastic model to describe the mechanical behaviour of concrete composites subjected to carbonation. For this purpose, a three-step nonlinear homogenization procedure is employed. At the microscopic scale, calcite grains generated by the carbonation are embedded in the solid calcium silicate hydrates phase. At the mesoscopic scale, the cement paste is considered as a porous medium. At the macroscopic scale, large aggregates are taken into account. By using the modified secant method, the homogenization procedure leads to a closed-form plastic yield function for the carbonated concrete, taking into account the effects of the volume fraction of calcite grains, the porosity and the aggregates volume fraction. An associated plastic model is then formulated by introducing a specific plastic hardening law. Further, a heuristic non-associated plastic potential is proposed directly at the macroscopic scale in order to capture differences with the associated model for the description of plastic volumetric strain and porosity change. The proposed models are implemented in a standard finite element code and applied to reproduce a series of laboratory tests. Comparisons between numerical results and experimental data are presented to assess the capacity of the model to take into consideration the main features of mechanical behaviour of concrete composites. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Numerous constitutive models of granular soils have been developed during the last few decades. As a consequence, how to select an appropriate model with the necessary features based on conventional tests and with an easy way of identifying parameters for geotechnical applications has become a major issue. This paper aims to discuss the selection of sand models and parameters identification by using genetic algorithm. A real-coded genetic algorithm is enhanced for the optimization with high efficiency. Models with gradually varying features (elastic-perfectly plastic modelling, nonlinear stress–strain hardening, critical state concept and two-surface concept) are selected from numerous sand models as examples for optimization. Conventional triaxial tests on Hostun sand are selected as the objectives in the optimization. Four key points are then discussed in turn: (i) which features are necessary to be accounted for in constitutive modelling of sand; (ii) which type of tests (drained and/or undrained) should be selected for an optimal identification of parameters; (iii) what is the minimum number of tests that should be selected for parameter identification; and (iv) what is the suitable and least strain level of objective tests to obtain reliable and reasonable parameters. Finally, a useful guide, based on all comparisons, is provided at the end of the discussion. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An approach based on the category of limiting equilibrium analysis is proposed to consider the reinforcing effect of one row of vertical piles on slope under seismic conditions. The approach is based on an uncoupled formulation in which the pile response and slope stability are considered separately. Closed-form equations are derived, allowing the yield acceleration coefficient to be determined for giving pile characteristics. Results were compared with those obtained using another limit equilibrium method. The effects of pile location on the effectiveness of increasing seismic stability of the slope–pile system were elucidated. It was found out that the piles should be installed in the middle–upper part of the slope to achieve greatest safety, but the pile length and other possible failure modes should be checked carefully in design. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.