As a result of deposition process and particle characteristics, granular materials can be inherently anisotropic. Many researchers have strongly suggested that the inherent anisotropy is the main reason for the deformation non-coaxiality of granular materials. However, their relationships are not unanimous because of the limited understanding of the non-coaxial micro-mechanism. In this study, we investigated the influence of inherent anisotropy on the non-coaxial angle using the discrete element method. Firstly, we developed a new discrete element method approach using rough elliptic particles and proposed a novel method to produce anisotropic specimens. Secondly, the effects of initial specimen density and particle characteristics, such as particle aspect ratio *A*_{m}, rolling resistance coefficient *β*, and bedding plane orientation *δ*, were examined by a series of biaxial tests and rotational principal axes tests. Findings from the numerical simulations are summarized as follows: (1) the peak internal friction angle *ϕ*_{p} and the non-coaxial angle *i* both increase with the initial density, *A*_{m} and *β*, and they both increase initially and then decrease with *δ* in the range of 0–90°; (2) among the particle characteristics, the influence of *A*_{m} is the most significant; and (3) for anisotropic specimens, the non-coaxial angle can be calculated using the double slip and rotation rate model. Then, an empirical formula was proposed based on the simulation results to depict the relationship between the non-coaxial angle and the particle characteristics. Finally, the particle-scale mechanism of non-coaxiality for granular materials was discussed from the perspective of energy dissipation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A new mixed displacement-pressure element for solving solid–pore fluid interaction problems is presented. In the resulting coupled system of equations, the balance of momentum equation remains unaltered, while the mass balance equation for the pore fluid is stabilized with the inclusion of higher-order terms multiplied by arbitrary dimensions in space, following the finite calculus (FIC) procedure. The stabilized FIC-FEM formulation can be applied to any kind of interpolation for the displacements and the pressure, but in this work, we have used linear elements of equal order interpolation for both set of unknowns. Examples in 2D and 3D are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the stabilized formulation for solid–pore fluid interaction problems. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This article is an attempt at providing an insight into the development of hypoplasticity (including barodesy, which is a recent development of hypoplasticity) as a theory elaborated since 1977, when the first version was published by the first author, until present. The multiplicity of the many versions published since then is hard to overlook. This article presents a review and insight into the evolution of a theory and the struggle to formulate a satisfactory constitutive law. Among the many proposed versions, we focus on those ones that can be seen as changes of paradigm. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A Lagrangian numerical approach for the simulation of rapid landslide runouts is presented and discussed. The simulation approach is based on the so-called Particle Finite Element Method. The moving soil mass is assumed to obey a rigid-viscoplastic, non-dilatant Drucker–Prager constitutive law, which is cast in the form of a regularized, pressure-sensitive Bingham model. Unlike in classical formulations of computational fluid mechanics, where no-slip boundary conditions are assumed, basal slip boundary conditions are introduced to account for the specific nature of the landslide-basal surface interface. The basal slip conditions are formulated in the form of modified Navier boundary conditions, with a pressure-sensitive threshold. A special mixed Eulerian–Lagrangian formulation is used for the elements on the basal interface to accommodate the new slip conditions into the Particle Finite Element Method framework. To avoid inconsistencies in the presence of complex shapes of the basal surface, the no-flux condition through the basal surface is relaxed using a penalty approach. The proposed model is validated by simulating both laboratory tests and a real large-scale problem, and the critical role of the basal slip is elucidated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Three-dimensional particle morphology is a significant problem in the discrete element modeling of granular sand. The major technical challenge is generating a realistic 3D sand assembly that is composed of a large number of random-shaped particles containing essential morphological features of natural sands. Based on X-ray micro-computed tomography data collected from a series of image processing techniques, we used the spherical harmonics (SH) analysis to represent and reconstruct the multi-scale features of real 3D particle morphologies. The SH analysis was extended to some highly complex particles with sharp corners and surface cavities. We then proposed a statistical approach for the generation of realistic particle assembly of a given type of sand based on the principle component analysis (PCA). The PCA aims to identify the major pattern of the coefficient matrix, which is made up of the SH coefficients of all the particles involved in the analysis. This approach takes into account the particle size effect on the variation of particle morphology, which is observed from the available results of micro-computed tomography and QICPIC analyses of sand particle morphology. Using the aforementioned approach, two virtual sand samples were generated, whose statistics of morphological parameters were compared with those measured from real sand particles. The comparison shows that the proposed approach is capable of generating a realistic sand assembly that retains the major morphological features of the mother sand. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Thermo-hydro-mechanical responses around a cylindrical cavity drilled or excavated in a low-permeability formation are studied when the cavity is subjected to a time-dependent thermal loading. The cavity is considered backfilled after it is supported by casing or lining. Solutions of temperature, pore water pressure, stress, and displacement responses are analytically formulated based on Biot's consolidation theory with the assumption that the backfilling material, supporting material, and surrounding low-permeability formation are poroelastic media. The solution is expressed in Laplace space, and numerical inversion techniques are used to find field variables in the real-time domain. After the solution is verified with the numerical results, it is applied in a large-scale *in situ* heating test – PRACLAY heating test – for a predictive reference calculation and an extensive parametric study. Another medium-scale *in situ* heating test – ATLAS III heating test – is also analyzed using the solution, which provides reasonable agreement with measurements. The new analytical solution proves to be a convenient tool for a good understanding of the resulting coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior and is therefore valuable for the interpretation of measured data in engineering practices and for a rational design of potential radioactive waste repositories. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The complexity of formulations for the hydromechanical coupled mechanics of porous media is typically minimised by simplifying assumptions such as neglecting the effect of inertia terms. For example, three formulations commonly employed to model practical problems are classified as fully dynamic, simplified dynamic and quasi-static. Thus, depending on the porous media conditions, each formulation will have advantages and limitations. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of these limitations when solving one-dimensional fully saturated porous media problems in addition to a new solution that considers a more general loading situation. A phase diagram is developed to assist on the selection of which formulation is more appropriate and convenient regarding particular cases of porosity and hydraulic conductivity values. Non-dimensional formulations are proposed to achieve this goal. Results using the analytical solutions are compared against numerical values obtained with the finite element method, and the effect of porosity is investigated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A simple method called anisotropic transformed stress (ATS) method is proposed to develop failure criteria and constitutive models for anisotropic soils. In this method, stress components in different directions are modified differently in order to reflect the effect of anisotropy. It includes two steps of mapping of stress. First, a modified stress tensor is introduced, which is a symmetric multiplication of stress tensor and fabric tensor. In the modified stress space, anisotropic soils can be treated to be isotropic. Second, a TS tensor is derived from the modified stress tensor for the convenience of developing anisotropic constitutive models to account for the effect of intermediate principal stress. By replacing the ordinary stress tensor with the TS tensor directly, the unified hardening model is extended to model the anisotropic deformation of soils. Anisotropic Lade's criterion is adopted for shear yield and shear failure in the model. The form of the original model formulations remains unchanged, and the model parameters are independent of the loading direction. Good agreement between the experimental results and predictions of the anisotropic unified hardening model is observed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper revisits the variational limit equilibrium (LE) analysis of three-dimensional (3D) slope stability in the context of limit analysis (LA). It proves the kinematic admissibility of the 3D mechanism in LA, although it was derived from LE variational extremization. It also includes algorithms in the realm of LA that are associated with the variational mechanism. A comparison between the variational results and reported LA upper-bound or LE closed-form results is conducted. It demonstrates that the variationally derived mechanism consistently yields upper-bound solutions for 3D symmetrical slopes that are as accurate as those produced by postulated mechanisms in LA. However, the results are more critical than those derived from spherical failure mechanism in LE. The generalized log spiral 3D mechanism rigorously legitimizes the variational slope stability analysis in both frameworks of mechanics LE and LA. Stability charts were produced where the 3D factor of safety can be assessed for a constrained length of failure, while including factors like pore water pressure and seismic loading. The results presented within this study demonstrate the capabilities of the variational 3D solution and can be used to evaluate approximate methods, numerical or closed-form, developed in 3D slope stability analyses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a numerical evaluation of three non-coaxial kinematic models by performing Distinct Element Method (DEM) simple shear tests on specimens composed of elliptical particles with different aspect ratios of 1.4 and 1.7. The models evaluated are the double-shearing model, the double-sliding free-rotating model and the double slip and rotation rate model (DSR^{2} model). Two modes of monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests were simulated to evaluate the role played by the inherent anisotropy of the specimens. The main findings are supported by all the DEM simple shear tests, irrespective of particle shape, specimen density or shear mode. The evaluation demonstrates that the assumption in the double-shearing model is inconsistent with the DEM results and that the energy dissipation requirements in the double-sliding free-rotating model appear to be too restrictive to describe the kinematic flow of elliptical particle systems. In contrast, the predictions made by the DSR^{2} model agree reasonably well with the DEM data, which demonstrates that the DSR^{2} model can effectively predict the non-coaxial kinematic behavior of elliptical particle systems. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Thermal fracturing can play an important role in development of unconventional petroleum and geothermal resources. Thermal fractures can result from the nonlinear deformation of the rock in response to thermal stress related to cold water injection as well as heating. Before the rock reaches the final failure stage, material softening and bulk modulus degradation can cause changes in the thermo-mechanical properties of the solid. In order to capture this aspect of the rock fracture, a virtual multidimensional internal bond-based thermo-mechanical model is derived to track elastic, softening, and the failure stages of the rock in response to the temporal changes of its temperature field. The variations in thermo-mechanical properties of the rock are derived from a nonlinear constitutive model. To represent the thermo-mechanical behavior of pre-existing fractures, the element partition method is employed. Using the model, numerical simulation of 3D thermal fracture propagation in brittle rock is carried out. Results of numerical simulations provide evidence of model verification and illustrate nonlinear thermal response and fracture development in rock under uniform cooling. In addition, fracture coalescence in a cluster of fractures under thermal stress is illustrated, and the process of thermal fracturing from a wellbore is captured. Results underscore the importance of thermal stress in reservoir stimulation and show the effectiveness of the model to predict 3D thermal fracturing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

At present, several of the existing elastoplastic constitutive models are adapted for describing the stress–strain behavior of unsaturated soils. However, most of them present certain limitations in this field. These limitations can be related to the basic model and/or added unsaturated state variables and formulations. In this regard, inability to model the hydro-mechanical behavior in constant water (CW) conditions is an example of these limitations. In this paper, an advanced version of CJS model is selected for adaptation to the unsaturated states. Adaptation to unsaturated states is achieved in the framework of effective stress approach. Effective stress equation and unsaturated state variables are selected based on the recent research existing in the literature. The developed model is capable of describing the complex behavior of unsaturated soil in the CW condition in addition to predicting the behavior at failure and post–failure, nonlinear elastoplastic behavior at low levels of stress and strain (by selecting a very small elastic domain), as well as wetting and collapse behaviors. In order to validate the model, results of triaxial tests in CD and CW conditions are used. The validation results indicate the good capability of the proposed model. Behavior of the unsaturated soils during wetting is an important issue. For this reason, the model is also evaluated based on the results of wetting and collapse triaxial tests. A comparison between the tests and simulation results shows that the model is able to predict the soil behavior under the wetting path. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Geomaterials such as soils and rocks are inherently anisotropic and sensitive to temperature changes caused by various internal and external processes. They are also susceptible to strain localization in the form of shear bands when subjected to critical loads. We present a thermoplastic framework for modeling coupled thermomechanical response and for predicting the inception of a shear band in a transversely isotropic material using the general framework of critical state plasticity and the specific framework of an anisotropic modified Cam–Clay model. The formulation incorporates anisotropy in both elastic and plastic responses under the assumption of infinitesimal deformation. The model is first calibrated using experimental data from triaxial tests to demonstrate its capability in capturing anisotropy in the mechanical response. Subsequently, stress-point simulations of strain localization are carried out under two different conditions, namely, isothermal localization and adiabatic localization. The adiabatic formulation investigates the effect of temperature on localization via thermomechanical coupling. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the important role of anisotropy, hardening, and thermal softening on strain localization inception and orientation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An adaptive substepping explicit integration scheme is developed for a porosity-dependent hydro-mechanical model for unsaturated soils. The model is referred to as the modified **σ**–Θ model in this paper, which features the employment of the subloading surface plasticity and the stress–saturation approach. On numerical aspects, convex/nonconvex subloading surfaces in the **σ**–Θ space may result in incorrect loading–unloading decisions during the integration. A new loading–unloading decision method is developed here to solve the problem and then embedded into the explicit integration scheme for the modified **σ**–Θ model. In addition, to enhance the accuracy of the explicit integration, local errors from both hydraulic and mechanical components are included in the error control for each substep. A drift correction method is also developed to ensure the state point lies on the subloading surface in the **σ**–Θ space within a set error level. The performance of the loading–unloading decision method for the modified **σ**–Θ model is discussed through comparing it with the conventional loading–unloading decision method. The importance of involving the hydraulic component in the error control is also demonstrated. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed adaptive substepping explicit integration scheme for the modified *p*–Θ model are also studied via several numerical examples.

Under the proportional strain loading path, particle assemblies may exhibit various failure modes. Besides the strain localization, the diffuse failure may also occur under certain conditions. The diffuse failure mode corresponds to a homogeneous occurrence of failure with stress states strictly included within the plastic limit condition. This paper emphasizes the influences of the density degree and the rolling resistance under the strain path. A contact model considering rolling friction is adopted in a discrete element method analysis as an approximate means to account for the effects of particle shape. Mechanical responses indicate that loose assemblies without the rolling resistance are more vulnerable to static liquefaction. A sample with a smaller initial void ratio or larger rolling friction coefficient will reinforce the stability of the structure and reduce the likelihood of failure. For microscopic properties, the evolution of coordination numbers, contact forces, force chains and the anisotropies of the assemblies are explored and discussed. Rotational resistance helps increase the shear stress of the granular material, and the microscopic parameters indicate that the assembly has a strong anisotropy and a stable structure to resist the increasing loading.

Natural soils are one of the most inherently variables in the ground. Although the significance of inherent soil variability in relation to reliable predictions of consolidation rates of soil deposits has long been realized, there have been few studies that addressed the issue of soil variability for the problem of ground improvement by prefabricated vertical drains. Despite showing valuable insights into the impact of soil spatial variability on soil consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains, available stochastic works on this subject are based on a single-drain (or unit cell) analyses. However, how the idealized unit cell solution can be a supplement to the complex multi-drain systems for spatially variable soils has never been addressed in the literature. In this study, a rigorous stochastic finite elements modeling approach that allows the true nature of soil spatial variability to be considered in a reliable and quantifiable manner, both for the single-drain and multi-drain systems, is presented. The feasibility of performing an analysis based on the unit cell concept as compared with the multi-drain analysis is assessed in a probabilistic context. It is shown that with proper input statistics representative of a particular domain of interest, both the single-drain and multi-drain analyses yield almost identical results.

A novel, simplified approach is presented in order to compute variations of grading in granular assemblies during confined comminution under quasi-static compression. The method is based on a population balance equation and requires a breakage probability, considered here as a probabilistic phenomenon that takes into account the particle strength and the loading condition of individual grains. Under basic assumptions, a simple breakage probability can be defined in order to get a valuable result for engineering applications and powder technology. The size effect in the strength of individual particles is introduced according to Weibull's theory. The particle loading and the cushioning effect in the granular packing are accounted for by considering the orientations of the contact forces obtained from 3D discrete element method simulations of highly polydisperse materials. The method proposed could have a value for engineering purposes in powder technology and geomechanics and gives a general framework for further research developments based on population balance.

Quantitative assessment of the risk of submarine landslides is an essential part of the design process for offshore oil and gas developments in deep water, beyond the continental shelf. Landslides may be triggered by a reduction in shear strength of subsea sediments over a given zone, caused for example by seismic activity. Simple criteria are then needed to identify critical conditions whereby the zone of weakness could grow catastrophically to cause a landslide. A number of such criteria have been developed over the last decade, based either on ideas drawn from fracture mechanics, or considering the equilibrium of the initial weakened zone and adjacent process zones of gradually softening material. Accounting for the history of the weak zone initiation is critical for derivation of reliable propagation criteria, in particular considering dynamic effects arising from accumulating kinetic energy of the failing material, which will allow the failure to propagate from a smaller initial zone of weakened sediments. Criteria are developed here for planar conditions, taking full account of such dynamic effects, which are shown to be capable of reducing the critical length of the softened zone by 20% or more compared with criteria based on static conditions. A numerical approach is used to solve the governing dynamic equations for the sliding material, the results from which justify assumptions that allow analytical criteria to be developed for the case where the initial softening occurs instantaneously. The effect of more gradual softening is also explored.

In the absence of initial cracks, the material behavior is limited by its strength, usually defined in homogeneous conditions (of stress and strain). Beyond this limit, in quasi-brittle case, cracks may propagate and the material behavior tends to be well described by fracture mechanics. Discrete element approaches show consistent results dealing with this transition during rupture. However, the calibration of the parameters of the numerical models (i.e., stiffness, strength, and toughness) may be quite complex and sometimes only approximative. Based on a brittle rupture criterion, we analyze the biaxial response of uncracked samples. Thus, tensile and compressive strengths are analytically identified and become direct parameters of our discrete model. Furthermore, a physically reliable crack initiation (and subsequent propagation) is shown to be induced during rupture and verified by the simulation of three-point bending and diametral compression tests. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In the present study, we have developed a numerical method which can simulate the dynamic behaviour of a seabed ground during gas production from methane hydrate-bearing sediments. The proposed method can describe the chemo-thermo-mechanical-seismic coupled behaviours, such as phase changes from hydrates to water and gas, temperature changes and ground deformation related to the flow of pore fluids during earthquakes. In the first part of the present study, the governing equations for the proposed method and its discretization are presented. Then, numerical analyses are performed for hydrate-bearing sediments in order to investigate the dynamic behaviour during gas production. The geological conditions and the material parameters are determined using the data of the seabed ground at Daini-Atsumi knoll, Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan, where the first offshore production test of methane hydrates was conducted. A predicted earthquake at the site is used in the analyses.

Regarding the seismic response to the earthquake which occur during gas production process, the wave profiles of horizontal acceleration and horizontal velocity were not extensively affected by the gas production. Hydrate dissociation behaviour is sensitive to changes in the pore pressure during earthquakes. Methane hydrate dissociation temporarily became active in some areas because of the main motion of the earthquake, then methane hydrate dissociation brought about an increase in the average pressure of the fluids during the earthquake. And, it was this increase in average pore pressure that finally caused the methane hydrate dissociation to cease during the earthquake.

Compaction and associated fluid flow are fundamental processes in sedimentary basin deformation. Purely mechanical compaction originates mainly from pore fluid expulsion and rearrangement of solid particles during burial, while chemo-mechanical compaction results from Intergranular Pressure-Solution (IPS) and represents a major mechanism of deformation in sedimentary basins during diagenesis. The aim of the present contribution is to provide a comprehensive 3D framework for constitutive and numerical modeling of purely mechanical and chemo-mechanical compaction in sedimentary basins. Extending the concepts that have been previously proposed for the modeling of purely mechanical compaction in finite poroplasticity, deformation by IPS is addressed herein by means of additional viscoplastic terms in the state equations of the porous material. The finite element model integrates the poroplastic and poroviscoplastic components of deformation at large strains. The corresponding implementation allows for numerical simulation of sediments accretion/erosion periods by progressive activation/deactivation of the gravity forces within a fictitious closed material system. Validation of the numerical approach is assessed by means of comparison with closed-form solutions derived in the context of a simplified compaction model. The last part of the paper presents the results of numerical basin simulation performed in one dimensional setting, demonstrating the ability of the modeling to capture the main features in elastoplastic and viscoplastic compaction.

This paper presents a generalized, rigorous and simple large strain solution for the undrained expansion of a vertical cylindrical cavity in critical state soils using a rate-based plasticity formulation: the initial stress field is taken as anisotropic, that is with horizontal stresses that differ from the vertical stress, and the soil is assumed to satisfy any two-invariant constitutive model from the critical state (Cam-clay) family; no simplifying assumption is made during the mathematical derivation; calculating the effective stresses around the cavity requires the solution of a nonlinear equation by means of the Newton–Raphson method in combination with quadrature. Cavity expansion curves and stress distributions in the soil are then presented for different critical state models (including the modified Cam-clay model). The solution derived can be useful for estimating the instantaneous response of saturated low-permeability soils around piles and self-boring pressuremeters and can serve as trustworthy benchmark for numerical analysis codes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The kinematic approach in combination with numerical simulation is used to examine the effect of pore water pressure on tunnel face stability. Pore water pressure distribution obtained by numerical calculations using *FLAC*^{3D} is used to interpolate the pore water pressure on a 3D rotational collapse mechanism. Comparisons are made to check the present approach against other solutions, showing that the present approach improves the existing upper bound solutions. Results obtained indicate that critical effective face pressure increases with water table elevation. Several normalized charts are also presented for quick evaluation of tunnel face stability. At the end of the paper, the influence of anisotropic permeability on tunnel face stability is also discussed, showing that the isotropic model leads to an overestimation of the necessary tunnel face pressure for anisotropic soils. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Crack growth in hot brittle rocks, driven by thermal cooling, was simulated using a coupled two-dimensional discrete element and heat transport model that explicitly includes the random initiation and subsequent propagation of interacting cracks. The model clearly predicts that a quasi-hierarchical array of subparallel cracks, oriented along the direction of the temperature gradient, is formed under small to moderately large thermally generated strain load conditions. The simulation results also demonstrate that, after an initial transient, thermal cracks propagate in a stable fashion with a velocity that scales with ~ *t*^{− 1/2}. However, under large thermal strain loads, a more complicated geometry composed of cracks that curve and coalesce develops during the later stages of crack growth. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, a fully coupled model is developed for numerical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in partially saturated weak porous formations using the extended finite element method, which provides an effective means to simulate the coupled hydro-mechanical processes occurring during hydraulic fracturing. The developed model is for short fractures where plane strain assumptions are valid. The propagation of the hydraulic fracture is governed by the cohesive crack model, which accounts for crack closure and reopening. The developed model allows for fluid flow within the open part of the crack and crack face contact resulting from fracture closure. To prevent the unphysical crack face interpenetration during the closing mode, the crack face contact or self-contact condition is enforced using the penalty method. Along the open part of the crack, the leakage flux through the crack faces is obtained directly as a part of the solution without introducing any simplifying assumption. If the crack undergoes the closing mode, zero leakage flux condition is imposed along the contact zone. An application of the developed model is shown in numerical modeling of pump-in/shut-in test. It is illustrated that the developed model is able to capture the salient features bottomhole pressure/time records exhibit and can extract the confining stress perpendicular to the direction of the hydraulic fracture propagation from the fracture closure pressure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper develops a three-layer model and elastic solutions to capture nonlinear response of rigid, passive piles in sliding soil. Elastic solutions are obtained for an equivalent force per unit length *p _{s}* of the soil movement. They are repeated for a series of linearly increasing

- On-pile pressure in rotationally restrained, sliding layer reduces by a factor α, which resembles the
*p*-multiplier for a laterally loaded, capped pile, but for its increase with vertical loading (embankment surcharge), and stiffness of underlying stiff layer: α = 0.25 and 0.6 for a shallow, translating and rotating piles, respectively; α = 0.33–0.5 and 0.8–1.3 for a slide overlying a stiff layer concerning a uniform and a linearly increasing pressure, respectively; and α = 0.5–0.72 for moving clay under embankment loading. - Ultimate state is well defined using the ratio of passive earth pressure coefficient over that of active earth pressure. The subgrade modulus for a large soil movement may be scaled from model tests.
- The normalised rotational stiffness is equal to 0.1–0.15 for the capped piles, which increases the pile displacement with depth.

The three-layer model solutions well predict nonlinear response of capped piles subjected to passive loading, which may be used for pertinent design. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hydraulic fracturing (HF) of underground formations has widely been used in different fields of engineering. Despite the technological advances in techniques of *in situ* HF, the industry uses semi-analytical tools to design HF treatment. This is due to the complex interaction among various mechanisms involved in this process, so that for thorough simulations of HF operations a fully coupled numerical model is required.

In this study, using element-free Galerkin (EFG) mesh-less method, a new formulation for numerical modeling of hydraulic fracture propagation in porous media is developed. This numerical approach, which is based on the simultaneous solution of equilibrium and continuity equations, considers the hydro-mechanical coupling between the crack and its surrounding porous medium. Therefore, the developed EFG model is capable of simulating fluid leak-off and fluid lag phenomena.

To create the discrete equation system, the Galerkin technique is applied, and the essential boundary conditions are imposed via penalty method. Then, the resultant constrained integral equations are discretized in space using EFG shape functions. For temporal discretization, a fully implicit scheme is employed. The final set of algebraic equations that forms a non-linear equation system is solved using the direct iterative procedure.

Modeling of cracks is performed on the basis of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and for this purpose, the so-called diffraction method is employed. For verification of the model, a number of problems are solved. According to the obtained results, the developed EFG computer program can successfully be applied for simulating the complex process of hydraulic fracture propagation in porous media. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a hypoplastic constitutive model for the viscous behavior of frozen soil. The model is composed of a ‘solid’ part and a ‘fluid’ part. The solid part is based on the extended hypoplastic model, and the fluid part is dependent on the second time derivative of strain. The performance of the model is demonstrated by simulating some uniaxial compression tests at different strain rates. Moreover, the model can describe in a unified way the three stages of typical creep tests, that is, primary, secondary, and tertiary stage. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concrete-faced rockfill dam (CFRD) is a popular alternative to traditional dam types in the last two decades. The modelling of CFRD involves complex multi-body contact and strong geometry and material nonlinearities. We present a numerical approach for the modelling of CFRDs in this paper. Based on the dual-mortar finite element method, the presented approach considers different parts of rockfill and all concrete slabs as independent deformable continuum. The multi-body contacts are modelled using Lagrange multipliers with a weak form segment-to-segment contact strategy. To alleviate instability induced by strong geometry nonlinearity in the slab–slab contact, we propose a mixed type of constraints for the tangential contact. A general transformation scheme is introduced to simplify the implementation of contact constraints. Three-dimensional analysis of Tianshengqiao-1 CFRD is performed. The nonlinear and time-dependent deformation of the rockfill is considered. We study the influence of the rockfill deformation on the reliability of the concrete face. Three major concerns of the face, that is, the axial compression, the slab–slab separation and the face-rockfill separation, are discussed in detail. The numerical results are compared with data from *in-situ* observation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Modeling of progressive development of zones of large inelastic shear deformation (shear band) that results from strain-softening behavior of sensitive clays could explain the failure mechanisms of large landslides. Because of toe erosion, a shear band can be initiated and propagated upward (inward) from the river bank. On the other hand, upslope surcharge loading could generate shear bands that might propagate down towards the river bank. In the present study, upward and downward propagation of shear bands and failure of sensitive clay slopes are modeled using the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian approach in Abaqus finite element (FE) software. It is shown that the formation and propagation of shear bands are significantly influenced by kinematic constraints that change with displacements of the soil masses, and therefore the propagation of an existing shear band might be stopped and new shear bands could be formed. The main advantages of the present FE modeling are: (i) extremely large strains in the shear bands can be successfully simulated without numerical issues, (ii) a priori definition of shearing zones is not required to tackle severe strains; instead, the FE program automatically identifies the critical locations for shear band formation and propagation. Toe erosion could significantly increase the slope failure potential because of upslope surcharge loading. FE analyses with a thick and thin sensitive clay layers show that the global failure could occur at lower surcharge loads in the former as compared to the latter cases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An investigation is made to present analytical solutions provided by a Winkler model approach for analysis of piled rafts with nodular pile subjected to vertical loads in nonhomogeneous soils. The vertical stiffness coefficient along a piled raft with the nodular pile in nonhomogeneous soils is derived from the displacement given by the Mindlin solution for elastic continuum analysis. The vertical stiffness coefficients for the bases of the raft and the nodular part in the nodular pile in a soil are expressed by the Muki solution for the 3-D elastic analysis. The relationship between settlement and vertical load on the pile base is presented considering the Mindlin solution and the equivalent thickness in the equivalent elastic method. The interaction factor between the shaft of the nodular pile and the soil is expressed taking into account the Mindlin solution and the equivalent elastic modulus. The relationship between settlement and vertical load for a piled raft with the nodular pile in nonhomogeneous soils is obtained by using the recurrence equation of influence factors of the pile for each layer. The percentage of each load carried by both nodular pile and raft subjected to vertical load is represented through the vertical influence factors proposed here. Comparison of the results calculated by the present method for piled rafts with nodular piles in nonhomogeneous soils has shown good agreement with those obtained from the finite element method and a field test. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper uses Biot's poroelasticity approach to examine the consolidation behaviour of a rigid foundation with a frictionless base in contact with a poroelastic halfspace. The mathematical development of the mixed boundary value problem involves a set of dual integral equations in the Laplace transform domain which cannot be conveniently solved by employing conventional procedures. In this paper, a numerical solution is developed using a scheme where the contact normal stress is approximated by a discretized equivalent. The influence of limiting drainage boundary conditions at the entire surface of the halfspace on the degree of consolidation of the rigid circular foundation is investigated. The results obtained in this study are compared with the corresponding results given in the literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In the practice of geotechnical engineering, the case of a ring footing carrying a set of concentrated point loads is a common problem. At times, the induced vertical and angular displacements for the ring footing need to be evaluated at a relatively precise level. By making use of the governing set of equations derived for the case of a general curved beam, expressions that can be easily implemented in modern computing software are derived for the vertical and angular displacements of a ring footing of rectangular cross section as functions of the radial position. The loading case considered is a vertical point load, and the soil is modelled as elastic. Estimates of the displacements have been shown for a common range of practical applications. The behaviour for a set of concentrated loads may be evaluated using the derived equations through direct superposition. Nonlinear finite element analysis is used to evaluate the vertical deflection and angular twist of the ring foundation. Numerical analysis performed for three ring foundations with different radii and cross sections is reported to validate the accuracy of the derived analytical solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A new analytical proof is presented for steady-state seepage in recharged heterogeneous unconfined aquifers. The paper also presents a detailed procedure and important rules for performing correctly numerical studies of unsaturated seepage. Once a numerical solution is calibrated with field data, using a set of spatially distributed values for hydraulic conductivity *K* and effective infiltration *EI*, any new numerical analysis with a set of *αK* and *αEI* values, where *α* is a constant, yields an equally good calibration. However, if the effective porosities of each layer are unchanged, the groundwater velocities are multiplied by *α*, whereas the travel times are divided by *α*, which may help to select *α* in order to match known travel time data. This is a clear example of multiple solutions to an inverse problem. The paper underlines the role and the need to finely mesh unsaturated zones and also contacts between layers to reach the asymptotic convergence range, as it was carried out to verify the proof and as it should be completed to study any seepage problem. A few consequences of the new analytical proof and the rigorous procedure are shown with examples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents an analytical-numerical approach to obtain the distribution of stresses and deformations around a reinforced tunnel. The increase in the radial stress of the reinforced tunnel, based on the performance of a bolt, is modeled by a function, which its maximum value is in the vicinity of the bolt periphery and it exponentially decreases in the far distance from the bolt. On the basis of this approach, the shear stiffness between the bolt and the rock mass and the shear stress distribution around the bolt within the rock mass are also analytically obtained. The results are compared with those obtained by the assumption of ‘uniform increase of radial stress’ method, which is made by the previous studies. The analyses show when the bolts' spacing is large, the safety factor must be increased if the ‘uniform increase of radial stress’ method is used for the design.

Finally, a procedure is introduced to calculate the non-equal deformation of the rock mass between the bolts at any radius that can be useful to compute the bending moment in shotcrete layer in New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) approach. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A method for simulation of differential (spatially varying) track settlement in a ballasted railway track is presented. It employs a cycle domain constitutive model to determine accumulated plastic (permanent) deformation of the granular layers supporting the track. The constitutive model is adopted for both the ballast and the sub-ballast but with different parameter sets. The proposed framework can be used to predict differential track settlement accounting for heterogeneous (space-variant) track characteristics and loading conditions. Here, it is demonstrated for three-dimensional continuum modelling of a railway crossing panel subjected to a large number of axle passages. Because of the design of the crossing panel and the transient character of the impact loads on the crossing, the load transferred into the track bed is not uniform along the track, and the resulting differential settlement leads to vertical irregularities in track geometry. The spatial variation of track settlement is calculated both along the sleepers and along the rails. The influences of the number of adjacent sleepers accounted for in the model and the stiffness of the subgrade on the predicted settlement at the crossing are studied. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

By virtue of a pair of scalar potentials for the displacement of the solid skeleton and the pore fluid pressure field of a saturated poroelastic medium, an alternative solution method to the Helmholtz decomposition is developed for the wave propagation problems in the framework of Biot's theory. As an application, a comprehensive solution for three-dimensional response of an isotropic poroelastic half-space with a partially permeable hydraulic free surface under an arbitrarily distributed time-harmonic internal force field and fluid sources is developed. The Green's functions for the poroelastic fields, corresponding to point, ring, and disk loads, are reduced to semi-infinite complex-valued integrals that can be evaluated numerically by an appropriate quadrature scheme. Analytical and numerical comparisons are made with existing elastic and poroelastic solutions to illustrate the quality and features of the solution. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This note presents a new method to derive closed-form expressions describing the horizontal response of an end-bearing pile in viscoelastic soil subjected to harmonic loads at its head. The soil surrounding the pile is assumed as a linearly viscoelastic layer. The propagation of waves in the soil and pile is treated mathematically by three-dimensional and one-dimensional theories, respectively. Unlike previous studies of the problem, the formulation presented allows the governing equations of the soil to be solved directly, eliminating the need to introduce potential functions. Accordingly, the dynamic response of the pile is obtained by means of the initial parameter method, invoking the requirement for continuity at the pile–soil interface. It is demonstrated that the derived compact solution matches exactly an existing solution that utilises potential functions to formulate the problem. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The consolidation of the layered saturated soil is an important issue in civil engineering and has been investigated extensively during the past decades. In this study, based on the Biot's theory, the reflection–transmission matrix (RTM) method for treating the layered saturated soil under axisymmetric consolidation is developed. To decouple the governing equations of the Biot's theory, the McNamee displacement functions are introduced, and the general solution for the saturated soil is obtained using the Laplace and Hankel transforms. In order to develop the RTM method for the layered saturated soil, based on the obtained general solution, the static wave vector corresponding to the state vector of the saturated soil and the transform matrix relating the aforementioned two vectors are defined. Also, the transfer matrices corresponding to the two vectors are introduced, and the representations of the RTMs for the static wave vector of the saturated soil are presented. As the state vector, static wave vector, and the transform matrix relating the two vectors are all defined in the global coordinate system, the RTMs obtained in this study thus have a reasonable physical meaning. By using the RTMs for the layered saturated soil, the solutions for the layered saturated soil subjected to external sources are derived. Comparison of results due to the proposed RTM method with some existing results and results due to the transfer matrix method validates the developed RTM method. Some numerical results are obtained based on the proposed RTM method for the layered saturated soil. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The main purpose of the paper is to present a relatively simple, yet realistic, constitutive model for simulations of structured sensitive clays. The proposed constitutive model can simulate 1-D and isotropic consolidation, and drained and undrained shear response of sensitive structured clay.

The proposed sensitive bounding surface model is based on concepts from the modified Cam clay model (Roscoe and Burland, 1968) and bounding surface plasticity (Dafalias and Herrmann, 1982), with the addition of a simple degradation law. The key material parameters are *M*, *λ*, *κ*, and *ν* from the modified Cam clay framework, *h* from the bounding surface framework to model a smoothed elasto-plastic transition, and *ω _{v}*,

The model has separate parameters to model destructuration caused by volumetric strain and deviatoric strain. The model is capable of modeling unusual behavior of strain softening during 1-D compression (i.e., a reduction of effective stress as void ratio decreases). A good match between test results and the model simulation is demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this article, we evaluate geomechanics of fluid injection from a fully penetrating vertical well into an unconsolidated formation confined with stiff seal rocks. The coupled behavior of an isotropic, homogeneous sand layer is studied under injection pressures that are high enough to induce plasticity yet not fracturing. Propagation of the significant influence zone surrounding the injection borehole, quantified by the extent of the plastic domain in the elasto-plastic model, is examined for the first time. First, a new fully coupled axisymmetric numerical model is developed. A comprehensive assessment is performed on pore pressures, stresses/strains, and failure planes during the entire transient period of an injection cycle. Results anticipate existence of five distinctive zones in terms of plasticity state: liquefaction at wellbore; two inner plastic domains surrounding the wellbore, where failure occurs along two planes and major principal stress is in vertical direction; remaining of the plastic domain, where formation fails along one plane and major principal stress is in radial direction; and a non-plastic region. Failure mechanism at the wellbore is found to be shear followed by liquefaction. Next, a novel methodology is proposed based on which new weakly coupled poro-elasto-plastic analytical solutions are derived for all three stress/strain components. Unlike previous studies, extension of the plastic zone is obtained as a function of injection pressure, incorporating plasticity effects on the subsequent elastic domain. Solutions, proven to be a good approximation of numerical simulations, offer a huge advantage as the run time of coupled numerical simulations is considerably long. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The mechanical behavior of granular materials is characterized by strong nonlinearity and irreversibility. These properties have been differently described by a variety of constitutive models. To test any constitutive model, experimental data relative to the nature of the incremental stress–strain response of the material is desirable. However, this type of laboratory data is scarce because of being expensive and difficult to obtain. The discrete element method has been used several times as an alternative to obtain incremental responses of granular materials. Crushable grains add one extra source of irreversibility to granular materials. Crushability has been variously incorporated into different constitutive models. Again, it will be helpful to obtain incremental responses of crushable granular materials to test these models, but the experimental difficulties are increased. Making use of a recently introduced crushing model for discrete element simulation, this paper presents a new procedure to obtain incremental responses in discrete analogs of granular crushable materials. The parallel probe approach, previously used for uncrushable discrete analogs, is here extended to account for the presence of crushable grains. The contribution of grain crushing to the incremental irreversible strain is identified and separately measured. Robustness of the proposed method is examined in detail, paying particular attention to aspects such as dynamic instability or crushing localization. The proposed procedure is later applied to map incremental responses of a discrete analog of Fontainebleau sand on the triaxial plane. The effect of stress ratio and granular state on plastic flow characteristics is highlighted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

One-dimensional mathematical models for vapor-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) diffusion through composite cover barriers are presented. An analytical solution to the model was obtained by the method of separation of variables. The results obtained by the proposed solution agree well with those obtained by a numerical analysis. Based on the proposed analytical model, the VOC breakthrough curves of five different composite covers are compared. The effects of degree of saturation of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or compacted clay liner (CCL) on VOC migration in the composite covers are then presented. Results show that the composite cover barriers provide much better diffusion barriers for VOC than the single CCL. The top surface steady-state flux for a composite barrier, consisting of a 1.5 mm geomembrane (GM) and a 20 cm CCL, can be 8.3 times lower than that for a 30 cm CCL. The surface steady-state flux for the case with (1.5 mm GM + 6 mm GCL) was found to be 2.3 times lower than that for the case with (1.5 mm GM + 20 cm CCL). The degree of saturation *S _{r}* of the CCL has a great influence on VOC migration in composite covers when

A semi-analytical method for calculating the response of single piles and pile groups subjected to lateral loading is developed in this paper. Displacements anywhere in the soil domain are tied to the displacements of the piles through decay functions. The principle of virtual work and the calculus of variations are used to derive the governing differential equations that describe the response of the piles and soil. The eigenvalue method and the finite difference technique are used to solve the system of coupled differential equations for the piles and soil, respectively. The proposed method takes into account the soil surface displacement along and perpendicular to the loading direction and produces displacement fields that are very close to those produced by the finite element method but at lower computational effort. Compared with the previous method that considered only the soil displacement along the loading direction, accounting for the multi-directional soil displacement field produces responses for the piles and soil that are closer to those approximated by the finite element method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, a large-scale diffuse interface model is used to describe the evolution of a gypsum cavity formation induced by dissolution. The method is based upon the assumption of a pseudo-component dissolving with a thermodynamic equilibrium boundary condition. A methodology is proposed based on numerical computations with fixed boundaries in *order to choose suitable parameters* for the diffuse interface model, and hence predict the correct dissolution fluxes and surface recession velocity. Additional simulations were performed to check which type of momentum balance equation should be used. The numerical results did not show a strong impact of this choice for the typical initial boundary value problems under consideration. Calculations with a variable density and Boussinesq approximation were also performed to evaluate the potential for natural convection. The results showed that the impact of density driven flows was negligible in the cases under investigation. The potential of the methodology is illustrated on two large-scale configurations: one corresponding to a gypsum lens located strictly within a porous rock formation and the other to an isolated pillar in a flooded gypsum room and pillar quarry. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Granular materials like sand are widely used in civil engineering. They are composed of different sizes of grains, which generate a complex behaviour, difficult to assess experimentally. Internal instability of a granular material is its inability to prevent the loss of its fine particles under flow effect. It is geometrically possible if the fine particles can migrate through the pores of the coarse soil matrix and results in a change in its mechanical properties. This paper uses the three-dimensional Particle Flow Code (PFC3D/DEM) to study the stability/instability of granular materials and their mechanical behaviour after suffusion. Stability properties of widely graded materials are analysed by simulating the transport of smaller particles through the constrictions formed by the coarse particles under the effect of a downward flow with uniform pressure gradient. A sample made by an initially stable material according to the Kenney & Lau geometrical criterion was divided into five equal layers. The classification of these layers by this criterion before and after the test shows that even stable granular materials can lose fine particles and present local instability. The failure criterion of eroded samples, in which erosion is simulated by progressive removal of fine particles, evolves in an unexpected way. Internal friction angle increases with the initial porosity, the rate of lost fine particles and the average diameter *D*_{50}. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Various analytical theories of consolidation for soils with vertical drains have been proposed in the past. Most conventional theories are based on a cylindrical unit cell that contains only a single vertical drain. This paper described a new analytical model where a vertical drain located at the centre (the ‘inner vertical drain’) and is surrounded by two or three vertical drains (the ‘outer vertical drains’), the number of which depends on whether the configuration is triangular or rectangular. Both types of drains are combined into a cylindrical unit cell, and the water is assumed to flow both inwards to the inner vertical drain and outwards to the outer vertical drains distributed around the circumference. The outer radial boundary of the unit cell is regarded as a permeable boundary, with a drainage capacity of two or three separate vertical drains for triangular and rectangular configurations, respectively. The smear effects and the drainage resistances for both the inner and outer vertical drains are considered in the analysis as well. In this way, the equations governing the consolidation process with multiple vertical drains are derived, and the corresponding analytical solutions are obtained for instantaneously loading, ramp loading and multi-stage of instantaneously loading and multi-stage of ramp loading. The present solutions are finally compared with several conventional solutions for a single vertical drain in the literature. The results show that the present model predicts the same average degree of consolidation as conventional models do, which verifies the correctness of this new model. Finally, the settlement predicted by the present solution is compared with the measured settlement from a field test at the Port of Brisbane, Australia, which shows a good agreement between them. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This study presents a formulation for field problems using hybrid polygonal finite elements, taking steady state seepage through a porous material as the focus. We make comparisons with a conventional finite element formulation based on a single primary variable, focussing on the advantages of the hybrid formulation in terms of flux field accuracy and extension to convex polygonal shaped elements. For the unconfined case, we adopt a head dependent hydraulic conductivity that does not require remeshing. The performance of the hybrid polygonal element formulation is demonstrated through a series of numerical examples. The results show a sensitivity of the location of the free surface in unconfined seepage to mesh configuration for hybrid quadrilateral meshes with various aspect ratios, but not for hybrid polygonal meshes with various orientations and irregularity. Examination of the free surface location results for several conforming shape function options shows an insensitivity to choice of interpolation function, provided that it conforms with the assumptions in the formulation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Confinement effect on jointed rock pillars is numerically characterised in this research using a Synthetic Rock Mass (SRM) approach. The SRM is an integrated model incorporating a discrete fracture network within a Particle Flow Code 3D particle assembly. In this paper, the confinement effect on a 3D jointed pillar SRM model is investigated in a series of simulations, including biaxial compression tests and true and conventional triaxial compression tests. The numerical results suggest that the applied confining stresses generally result in higher pillar strengths and ductile post-peak responses. More brittle post-peak behaviour is simulated in the biaxial and true triaxial tests when the pillar is confined by a high stress in one lateral direction and by a zero/low stress in the other lateral direction. This phenomenon is attributed to significant lateral pillar dilation in the less confined direction. Detailed pillar failure modes are monitored in the uniaxial and triaxial tests. Axial splitting fractures and long shear zones cutting through the pillar are simulated when the pillar is able to dilate in the direction of least confinement. Localised shearing along joints and failed rock blocks is the dominant failure mode when the pillar dilation is resisted by the applied confining stresses. The pillar remains relatively intact with limited cracking in the pillar core in the highly confined triaxial tests. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a numerical model for the elasto-plastic electro-osmosis consolidation of unsaturated clays experiencing large strains, by considering electro-osmosis and hydro-mechanical flows in a deformable multiphase porous medium. The coupled governing equations involving the pore water flow, pore gas flow, electric flow and mechanical deformation in unsaturated clays are derived within the framework of averaging theory and solved numerically using finite elements. The displacements of the solid phase, the pressure of the water phase, the pressure of the gas phase and the electric potential are taken as the primary unknowns in the proposed model. The nonlinear variation of transport parameters during electro-osmosis consolidation are incorporated into the model using empirical expressions that strongly depend on the degree of water saturation, whereas the Barcelona Basic Model is employed to simulate the elasto-plastic mechanical behaviour of unsaturated clays. The accuracy of the proposed model is evaluated by validating it against two well-known numerical examples, involving electro-osmosis and unsaturated soil behaviour respectively. Two further examples are then investigated to study the capability of the computational algorithm in modelling multiphase flow in electro-osmosis consolidation. Finally, the effects of gas generation at the anode, the deformation characteristics, the degree of saturation and the time dependent evolution of the excess pore pressure are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The propagation characteristic of Rayleigh waves in a fluid-saturated non-homogeneous poroelastic half-plane is addressed. Based on Biot's theory for fluid-saturated media, which takes the inertia, fluid viscosity, mechanical coupling, compressibility of solid grains, and fluid into account, the dispersion equations of Rayleigh waves in fluid-saturated non-homogeneous soils/rocks are established. By considering the shear modulus of solid skeleton variation with depth exponentially, a small parameter, which reflects the relative change of shear modulus, is introduced. The asymptotic solution of the dispersion equation expressing the relationship between the phase velocity and wave number is obtained by using the perturbation method. In order to analyze the effects of non-homogeneity on the propagation characteristic of Rayleigh waves, the variation of the phase velocity with the wave number is presented graphically and discussed through numerical examples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The reliability of heterogeneous slopes can be evaluated using a wide range of available probabilistic methods. One of these methods is the random finite element method (RFEM), which combines random field theory with the non-linear elasto-plastic finite element slope stability analysis method. The RFEM computes the probability of failure of a slope using the Monte Carlo simulation process. The major drawback of this approach is the intensive computational time required, mainly due to the finite element analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation process. Therefore, a simplified model or solution, which can bypass the computationally intensive and time-consuming numerical analyses, is desirable. The present study investigates the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to develop such a simplified model. ANNs are well known for their strong capability in mapping the input and output relationship of complex non-linear systems. The RFEM is used to generate possible solutions and to establish a large database that is used to develop and verify the ANN model. In this paper, multi-layer perceptrons, which are trained with the back-propagation algorithm, are used. The results of various performance measures indicate that the developed ANN model has a high degree of accuracy in predicting the reliability of heterogeneous slopes. The developed ANN model is then transformed into relatively simple formulae for direct application in practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a new purely viscoplastic soil model based on the subloading surface concept with a mobile centre of homothety, enabling the occurrence of viscoplastic strains inside the yield surface and avoiding the abrupt change in stiffness of the traditional overstress viscoplastic models. This is required for overconsolidated soils. The model is formulated to reproduce the soil rate-dependent behaviour under cyclic loading (changes in loading direction) and incorporates both initial and induced anisotropy, as well as destructuring. The model shows good qualitative response to some imposed three-dimensional stress paths under quasi-inviscid (elastoplastic) behaviour. Some of the main time-dependent aspects of soil behaviour that the model is capable of reproducing were also illustrated. The capability of the model to adequately reproduce the results from an undrained triaxial test performed on stiff overconsolidated clays from the Lisbon region (*Formação de Benfica*), with an unloading–reloading deviatoric stress cycle at constant mean stress, that incorporates a series of staggered fast loading and creep stages, was evaluated. The model was able to reproduce well the main observed aspects of the time-dependent stress–strain response and pore pressure evolution of a stiff overconsolidated clay under complex loading. The revised and generalised viscoplastic subloading surface concept is viable and can be applied to a consistent extension to viscoplasticity, including in the interior of the yield surface, of existing elastoplastic models formulated for soils and other materials. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No abstract is available for this article.

]]>This paper presents a two-dimensional coupled bonded particle and lattice Boltzmann method (BPLBM) developed to simulate the fluid–solid interactions in geomechanics. In this new technique, the bonded particle model is employed to describe the inter-particle movement and forces, and the bond between a pair of contacting particles is assumed to be broken when the tensile force or tangential force reaches a certain critical value. As a result the fracture process can be delineated based on the present model for the solid phase comprising particles, such as rocks and cohesive soils. In the meantime, the fluid phase is modelled by using the LBM, and the immersed moving boundary scheme is utilized to characterize the fluid–solid interactions. Based on the novel technique case studies have been conducted, which show that the coupled BPLBM enjoys substantially improved accuracy and enlarged range of applicability in characterizing the mechanics responses of the fluid–solid systems. Indeed such a new technique is promising for a wide range of application in soil erosion in Geotechnical Engineering, sand production phenomenon in Petroleum Engineering, fracture flow in Mining Engineering and fracture process in a variety of engineering disciplines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a coupled hydro-mechanical formulation for the simulation of non-planar three-dimensional hydraulic fractures. Deformation in the rock is modeled using linear elasticity, and the lubrication theory is adopted for the fluid flow in the fracture. The governing equations of the fluid flow and elasticity and the subsequent discretization are fully coupled. A Generalized/eXtended Finite Element Method (G/XFEM) is adopted for the discretization of the coupled system of equations. A Newton–Raphson method is used to solve the resulting system of nonlinear equations. A discretization strategy for the fluid flow problem on non-planar three-dimensional surfaces and a computationally efficient strategy for handling time integration combined with mesh adaptivity are also presented. Several three-dimensional numerical verification examples are solved. The examples illustrate the generality and accuracy of the proposed coupled formulation and discretization strategies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The landfills are dumped without any compaction and have a relatively open structure, which is similar to that of the granular materials. However, the original dumped material might be gradually transformed into a lumpy composite structure because of the influence of the climate. As a result, the lumps are randomly distributed in the reconstituted soil. In the presented study, the compression behavior of the lumpy composite soils was analyzed within the homogenization framework. Firstly, the volume of the composite soil was divided into four individual components. The inter-lump porosity was introduced to account for the evolution of the volume fractions of the constituents, and it was formulated as a function of the overall porosity and those of its constituents. A homogenization law was then proposed based on the analysis of the lumpy structure together with a numerical method, which gives a relationship for tangent stiffnesses of the lumpy soil and its constituents. Finally, a simple compression model was proposed for the composite lumpy material, which incorporates both the influence of the soil structure and the volume fraction change of the reconstituted soil. The predictions of the model were validated against the test results, and the stress distribution within the lumpy composite was assessed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper advocates the use of a multiphase model, already developed for static or quasi-static geotechnical engineering problems, for simulating the behaviour of piled raft foundations subject to horizontal as well as rocking dynamic solicitations. It is shown that such a model, implemented in a FEM code, yields appropriate predictions for the foundation impedance characteristics, provided that shear and bending effects in the piles are taken into account, thus corroborating the findings of the asymptotic homogenization theory. Besides, it is notably pointed out that such a multiphase-based computational tool makes it possible to assess the dynamic behaviour of pile groups in a much quicker way than when using direct numerical simulations, which may face oversized problems when large pile groups are concerned. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We present a contribution on the risk of hydraulic fracturing in CO_{2} geological storage using an analytical model of hydraulic fracturing in weak formations. The work is based on a Mohr–Coulomb dislocation model that is extended to account for material with fracture toughness. The complete slip process that is distributed around the crack tip is replaced by superdislocations that are placed in the effective centers. The analytical model enables the identification of a dominant parameter, which defines the regimes of brittle to ductile propagation and the limit at which a mode-1 fracture cannot advance. We examine also how the corrosive effect of CO_{2} on rock strength may affect hydraulic fracture propagation. We found that a hydraulically induced vertical fracture from CO_{2} injection is more likely to propagate horizontally than vertically, remaining contained in the storage zone. The horizontal fracture propagation will have a positive effect on the injectivity and storage capacity of the formation. The containment in the vertical direction will mitigate the risk of fracturing and migration of CO_{2} to upper layers and back to the atmosphere. Although the corrosive effect of CO_{2} is expected to decrease the rock toughness and the resistance to fracturing, the overall decrease of rock strength promotes ductile behavior with the energy dissipated in plastic deformation and hence mitigates the mode-1 fracture propagation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The (THM) coupling effects on the dynamic wave propagation and strain localization in a fully saturated softening porous medium are analyzed. The characteristic polynomial corresponding to the governing equations of the THM system is derived, and the stability analysis is conducted to determine the necessary conditions for stability in both non-isothermal and adiabatic cases. The result from the dispersion analysis based on the Abel–Ruffini theorem reveals that the roots of the characteristic polynomial for the THM problem cannot be expressed algebraically. Meanwhile, the dispersion analysis on the adiabatic case leads to a new analytical expression of the internal length scale. Our limit analysis on the phase velocity for the non-isothermal case indicates that the internal length scale for the non-isothermal THM system may vanish at the short wavelength limit. This result leads to the conclusion that the rate-dependence introduced by multiphysical coupling may not regularize the THM governing equations when softening occurs. Numerical experiments are used to verify the results from the stability and dispersion analyses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.