This paper presents a contribution to wind farm ouput power estimation. The calculation for a single wind turbine involves the use of the power coefficient or, more directly, the power curve data sheet. Thus, if the wind speed value is given, a simple calculation or search in the data sheet will provide the generated power as a result. However, a wind farm generally comprises more than one wind turbine, which means the estimation of power generated by the wind farm as a function of the wind speed is a more complex process that depends on several factors, including the important issue of wind direction. While the concept of a wind turbine power curve for a single wind turbine is clear, it is more subject to discussion when applied to a whole wind farm. This paper provides a simplified method for the estimation of wind farm power, based on the use of an equivalent wake effect coefficient. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A framework based on isogeometric analysis is presented for parametrizing a wind turbine rotor blade and evaluating its response. The framework consists of a multi-fidelity approach for wind turbine rotor analysis. The aeroelastic loads are determined using a low-fidelity model. The model is based on isogeometric approach to model both the structural and aerodynamic properties. The structural deformations are solved using an isogeometric formulation of geometrically exact 3D beam theory. The aerodynamic loads are calculated using a standard Blade Element Momentum(BEM) theory. Moreover, the aerodynamic loads calculated using BEM theory are modified to account for the change in the blade shape due to blade deformation. The aeroelastic loads are applied in finite element solver *Nastran*, and both the stress response and buckling response are extracted. Furthermore, the capabilities of Nastran are extended such that design dependent loads can be applied, resulting in correct aeroelastic sensitivities of Nastran responses, making this framework suitable for optimization. The framework is verified against results from the commercial codes *FAST* and *GH Bladed*, using the NREL 61.5*m* rotor blade as a baseline for comparison, showing good agreement. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Although the Blade Element Momentum method has been derived for the steady conditions, it is used for unsteady conditions by using corrections of engineering dynamic inflow models. Its applicability in these cases is not yet fully verified. In this paper, the validity of the assumptions of quasi-steady state and annuli independence of the blade element momentum theory for unsteady, radially varied, axi-symmetric load cases is investigated. Firstly, a free wake model that combines a vortex ring model with a semi-infinite cylindrical vortex tube was developed and applied to an actuator disc in three load cases: (i) steady uniform and radially varied, (ii) two types of unsteady uniform load and (iii) unsteady radially varied load. Results from the three cases were compared with Momentum Theory and also with two widely used engineering dynamic inflow models—the Pitt-Peters and the Øye for the unsteady load cases. For unsteady load, the free wake vortex ring model predicts different hysteresis loops of the velocity at the disc or local annuli, and different aerodynamic work from the engineering dynamic inflow models. Given that the free wake vortex ring model is more physically representative, the results indicate that the engineering dynamic inflow models should be improved for unsteady loaded rotor, especially for radially varied unsteady loads. © 2016 The Authors. Wind Energy Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper discusses the findings from a measurement campaign on a rotating wind turbine blade operating in the free atmosphere under realistic conditions. A total of 40 pressure sensors together with an array of 23 usable hot-film sensors (based on constant temperature anemometry) were used to study the behavior of the boundary layer within a specific zone on the suction side of a 30 m diameter wind turbine at different operational states. A set of several hundreds of data sequences were recorded. Some of them show that under certain circumstances, the flow may be regarded as not fully turbulent. Accompanying Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD) simulations suggest the view that a classical transition scenario according to the growth of so-called Tollmien–Schlichting did not apply. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ice on wind turbine blades reduces efficiency and causes financial loss to energy companies. Thus, it is important to know the possible risk of icing already in the planning phase of a wind park. This paper presents a new Finnish Icing Atlas and the methodology behind it and is prepared by applying the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model AROME with 2.5km horizontal resolution and an ice growth model based on ISO 12494. The same meteorological dataset is used as was used in the Finnish Wind Atlas (published in 2009), and thus is fully compatible with and comparable with existing climatological wind resource estimations. Representation of the selected time period is evaluated from an icing point of view. Comparing reanalysed temperature and humidity datasets for both the past 20 years and the wind atlas period, we conclude that the used time period represents large-scale atmospheric conditions favourable for icing. We perform a series of sensitivity tests to evaluate how sensitive this ice model is to input from the weather model. The new atlas presents climatological distributions of active and passive icing periods and wind power production loss in map form for three different heights (50, 100 and 200m) over all of Finland. The results show that the risk for active icing is much greater in coastal areas, while the risk of passive icing is larger inland. © 2016 The Authors. Wind Energy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Modern offshore turbine blades can be designed for high fatigue life and damage tolerance to avoid excessive maintenance and therefore significantly reduce the overall cost of offshore wind power. An aeroelastic design strategy for large wind turbine blades is presented and demonstrated for a 100 m blade. High fidelity analysis techniques like 3D finite element modeling are used alongside beam models of wind turbine blades to characterize the resulting designs in terms of their aeroelastic performance as well as their ability to resist damage growth. This study considers a common damage type for wind turbine blades, the bond line failure, and explores the damage tolerance of the designs to gain insight into how to improve bond line failure through aeroelastic design. Flat-back airfoils are also explored to improve the damage tolerance performance of trailing-edge bond line failures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Much of the US offshore wind energy resource is located in shallow water off the Atlantic coast, which is exposed to both hurricanes and breaking waves. Current practice in offshore wind turbine (OWT) design is to realize a target structural reliability by amplifying loads using fixed load factors that do not vary with structural or site characteristics. Given that variability in both hurricane conditions and breaking waves is structure- and site-specific, the structural reliability of OWTs may vary significantly from site to site if fixed load factors are used. To understand the implications of this situation, there is a need to compare the numerical values of fixed load factors with those calculated using methods that prescribe structure-specific and site-specific load amplification that reflects variability in long-term conditions. In this paper, site-specific load amplification is considered for four Atlantic coast locations and four water depths per location and then compared with fixed load factors commonly used in the design of OWTs. The study shows that decreasing water depth and increasing hurricane exposure tend to increase the required load amplification for consistent structural reliability. Another influential factor is the mean return period at which impact loads due to breaking waves begin to dominate the loading. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We demonstrate a method for incorporating wind velocity measurements from multiple-point scanning lidars into three-dimensional wind turbulence time series serving as input to wind turbine load simulations. Simulated lidar scanning patterns are implemented by imposing constraints on randomly generated Gaussian turbulence fields in compliance with the Mann model for neutral stability. The expected efficiency of various scanning patterns is estimated by means of the explained variance associated with the constrained field. A numerical study is made using the hawc2 aeroelastic software, whereby the constrained turbulence wind time series serves as input to load simulations on a 10 MW wind turbine model using scanning patterns simulating different lidar technologies—pulsed lidar with one or multiple beams—and continuous-wave lidars scanning in three different revolving patterns. Based on the results of this study, we assess the influence of the proposed method on the statistical uncertainty in wind turbine extreme and fatigue loads. The main conclusion is that introducing lidar measurements as turbulence constraints in load simulations may bring significant reduction in load and energy production uncertainty, not accounting for any additional uncertainty from real measurements. The constrained turbulence method is most efficient for prediction of energy production and loads governed by the turbulence intensity and the thrust force, while for other load components such as tower base side-to-side moment, the achieved reduction in uncertainty is minimal. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a wind plant modeling and optimization tool that enables the maximization of wind plant annual energy production (AEP) using yaw-based wake steering control and layout changes. The tool is an extension of a wake engineering model describing the steady-state effects of yaw on wake velocity profiles and power productions of wind turbines in a wind plant. To make predictions of a wind plant's AEP, necessary extensions of the original wake model include coupling it with a detailed rotor model and a control policy for turbine blade pitch and rotor speed. This enables the prediction of power production with wake effects throughout a range of wind speeds. We use the tool to perform an example optimization study on a wind plant based on the Princess Amalia Wind Park. In this case study, combined optimization of layout and wake steering control increases AEP by 5%. The power gains from wake steering control are highest for region 1.5 inflow wind speeds, and they continue to be present to some extent for the above-rated inflow wind speeds. The results show that layout optimization and wake steering are complementary because significant AEP improvements can be achieved with wake steering in a wind plant layout that is already optimized to reduce wake losses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, the seismic behavior of wind turbines sitting on a finite flexible soil layer is investigated in three-dimensional space. A numerical algorithm formulated in frequency domain is proposed in order to simulate the dynamic soil–structure interaction (SSI). The wind turbine is discretized using finite element method (FEM) while, the underlying soil is represented by complex dynamic stiffness functions based on cone models. A parametric study consisting of 24 ground motions and three soil profiles is carried out, and different response quantities of the wind tower model are calculated and presented in the paper. The free-field ground motions are estimated based on an equivalent linear approach using SHAKE2000 computer software. Transfer functions for total acceleration of the wind tower are obtained under the considered soil profiles and the modal frequencies of the coupled wind turbine–soil foundation are estimated. It is shown that the response quantities such as displacement, rotation, acceleration, base shear and moment are significantly affected by SSI, although the effect of SSI on the fundamental frequencies of the wind tower is insignificant. The moment and shear force distribution along the height of the tower is highly influenced as the soil stiffness decreases. The change in seismic demand distribution along the tower height because of SSI is not addressed by simplified design approached and should be carefully considered in seismic design of wind towers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An experimental study was performed to assess the feasibility of passive air jet vortex-generators to the performance enhancement of a domestic scale wind turbine. It has been demonstrated that these simple devices, properly designed and implemented, can provide worthwhile performance benefits for domestic wind turbines of the type investigated in this study. In particular, this study shows that they can increase the maximum output power coefficient, reduce the cut-in wind speed and improve power output at lower wind speeds while reducing the sensitivity to wind speed unsteadiness. A theoretical performance analysis of a 500 kW stall-regulated wind turbine, based on blade element momentum theory, indicates that passive air jet vortex-generators would be capable of recovering some of the power loss because of blade stall, thereby allowing attainment of rated power output at slightly lower average wind speeds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this study, we address the benefits of a vertically staggered (VS) wind farm, in which vertical-axis and horizontal-axis wind turbines are collocated in a large wind farm. The case study consists of 20 small vertical-axis turbines added around each large horizontal-axis turbine. Large-eddy simulation is used to compare power extraction and flow properties of the VS wind farm versus a traditional wind farm with only large turbines. The VS wind farm produces up to 32% more power than the traditional one, and the power extracted by the large turbines alone is increased by 10%, caused by faster wake recovery from enhanced turbulence due to the presence of the small turbines. A theoretical analysis based on a top-down model is performed and compared with the large-eddy simulation. The analysis suggests a nonlinear increase of total power extraction with increase of the loading of smaller turbines, with weak sensitivity to various parameters, such as size, and type aspect ratio, and thrust coefficient of the vertical-axis turbines. We conclude that vertical staggering can be an effective way to increase energy production in existing wind farms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A row of wind turbine rotors with a mutual spacing of three diameters is simulated using both Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations and a simple inviscid vortex model. The angle between the incoming wind and the line connecting the turbines is varied between 45 and 90 degrees. The simulations show that the power production of the turbines deviate significantly compared with a corresponding isolated turbine even though there is no direct wake-turbine interaction at the considered wind directions. Nevertheless, both models indicate marked alterations in the upstream flow, which directly link to the turbines' power adjustments. Thus, turbines which are placed laterally relative to the prevailing wind (as seen at various test sites) have, at least numerically, a mutual effect on each other. Therefore, they might not necessarily produce the same power as a stand-alone turbine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This work investigates macro-geographic allocation as a means to improve the performance of aggregated wind power output. The focus is on the spatial smoothing effect so as to avoid periods of low output. The work applies multi-objective optimization, in which two measures of aggregated wind power output variation are minimized, whereas the average output is maximized. The results show that it is possible to allocate wind power so that the frequency of low outputs is substantially reduced, while maintaining the average output at around 30% of nameplate capacity, as compared with the corresponding output of 20% for the present allocation system. We conclude that in a future, fully electrically integrated Europe, geographic allocation can substantially reduce instances of low aggregate output, while impairing little on capacity factor and at the same time providing reduction in of short-term jumps in output. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Short-term (hours to days) probabilistic forecasts of wind power generation provide useful information about the associated uncertainty of these forecasts. Standard probabilistic forecasts are usually issued on a per-horizon-basis, meaning that they lack information about the development of the uncertainty over time or the inter-temporal correlation of forecast errors for different horizons. This information is very important for forecast end-users optimizing time-dependent variables or dealing with multi-period decision-making problems, such as the management and operation of power systems with a high penetration of renewable generation. This paper provides input to these problems by proposing a model based on stochastic differential equations that allows generating predictive densities as well as scenarios for wind power. We build upon a probabilistic model for wind speed and introduce a dynamic power curve. The model thus decomposes the dynamics of wind power prediction errors into wind speed forecast errors and errors related to the conversion from wind speed to wind power. We test the proposed model on an out-of-sample period of 1year for a wind farm with a rated capacity of 21MW. The model outperforms simple as well as advanced benchmarks on horizons ranging from 1 to 24h. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind farm power curve modeling, which characterizes the relationship between meteorological variables and power production, is a crucial procedure for wind power forecasting. In many cases, power curve modeling is more impacted by the limited quality of input data rather than the stochastic nature of the energy conversion process. Such nature may be due the varying wind conditions, aging and state of the turbines, etc. And, an equivalent steady-state power curve, estimated under normal operating conditions with the intention to filter abnormal data, is not sufficient to solve the problem because of the lack of time adaptivity. In this paper, a refined local polynomial regression algorithm is proposed to yield an adaptive robust model of the time-varying scattered power curve for forecasting applications. The time adaptivity of the algorithm is considered with a new data-driven bandwidth selection method, which is a combination of pilot estimation based on blockwise least-squares parabolic fitting and the probability integral transform. The regression model is then extended to a more robust one, in which a new dynamic forgetting factor is defined to make the estimator forget the out-of-date data swiftly and also achieve a better trade-off between robustness against noisy data and time adaptivity. A case study based on a real-world dataset validates the properties of the proposed regression method. Results show that the new method could flexibly respond to abnormal data at different lead times and has better performance than common benchmarks for short-term forecasting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents a newly developed high-fidelity fluid–structure interaction simulation tool for geometrically resolved rotor simulations of wind turbines. The tool consists of a partitioned coupling between the structural part of the aero-elastic solver HAWC2 and the finite volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver EllipSys3D. The paper shows that the implemented loose coupling scheme, despite a non-conservative force transfer, maintains a sufficient numerical stability and a second-order time accuracy. The use of a strong coupling is found to be redundant. In a first test case, the newly developed coupling between HAWC2 and EllipSys3D (HAWC2CFD) is utilized to compute the aero-elastic response of the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine (RWT) under normal operational conditions. A comparison with the low-fidelity but state-of-the-art aero-elastic solver HAWC2 reveals a very good agreement between the two approaches. In a second test case, the response of the NREL 5-MW RWT is computed during a yawed and thus asymmetric inflow. The continuous good agreement confirms the qualities of HAWC2CFD but also illustrates the strengths of a computationally cheaper blade element momentum theory (BEM) based solver, as long as the solver is applied within the boundaries of the employed engineering models. Two further test cases encompass flow situations, which are expected to exceed the limits of the BEM model. However, the simulation of the NREL 5-MW RWT during an emergency shut down situation still shows good agreements in the predicted structural responses of HAWC2 and HAWC2CFD since the differences in the computed force signals only persist for an insignificantly short time span. The considerable new capabilities of HAWC2CFD are finally demonstrated by simulating vortex-induced vibrations on the DTU 10-MW wind turbine blade in standstill. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This article investigates the aero-elastic response of the DTU 10-MW RWT blade in deep stall conditions with angles of attack in the vicinity of 90 degrees. The simulations were conducted with the high-fidelity fluid–structure interaction simulation tool HAWC2CFD employing the multi-body-based structural model of HAWC2 and the incompressible computational fluid dynamics solver EllipSys3D. The study utilizes detached eddy simulation computations and considers the three-dimensional blade geometry including blade twist and taper. A preliminary frequency analysis of the load variations on a stiff blade showed that an inclined inflow with a velocity component along the blade axis can trigger a spanwise correlated vortex shedding over large parts of the blade. Moderate wind speeds were sufficient to generate vortex shedding with frequencies close to the first edgewise eigenfrequency of the blade. Aero-elastic computations of the elastic blade confirmed the findings of the frequency analysis. Inflow conditions with inclination angles between *Ψ* = 20° and *Ψ* = 55° and relatively low to moderate wind speeds between *V* = 16 and *V* = 26ms^{−1} were sufficient to trigger severe edgewise blade vibrations with blade tip amplitudes of several metres. The investigated inflow conditions are considered realistic and might occur when the wind turbine is idling or standing still and the yaw system is unable to align the wind turbine with the incoming wind. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The objective of this paper is to assess if high penetrations of wind power influence regulating secondary reserve requirements in the Spanish power system including three different topics: (i) needed ramps of variation of regulating power, (ii) amount of total regulating power and (iii) regulating energy. The results (both technical and economical) derived in this paper are based on the net load curve, defined as the difference between the load curve of the system and the wind generation curve. Since wind power does not provide yet secondary regulating reserve, net load represents the load that must be balanced by units providing the AGC service. Thus, the comparison of the three topics (ramps, regulating power and regulating energy) required by the net load with the ones required by the load curve represents the influence of wind on AGC requirements. Historical values of total demand and wind production with a 1 min resolution of the Spanish power system, collected for 2010 (when the wind share was close to 20%), are employed to derive significant conclusions. The analysis of this paper concludes that the main impact of wind in the Spanish system lies on the secondary regulating energy, while the required ramp rate and secondary reserve nearly not affected. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Offshore wind energy is moving towards a future where the main challenge is to cope with the increasing water depth needed to access more and better wind resources. One of the first steps to be undertaken is the development of floating structures to support either wind turbines or measurement devices for the proper characterization of wind energy resources.

The use of floating devices for measuring wind speed involves a number of uncertainties not presented by seabed fixed systems. These sources of uncertainty or error are present both in instantaneous wind measurements and averaged (10 min or hourly) values because of (i) variability in the measurement height, (ii) the tilt of the anemometer and (iii) the relative velocity between the anemometer and the wind, among others.

In this paper, a methodology for assessing the error in the wind measurement characterization because of the movement of a floating meteorological mast is presented. By the numerical simulation of a floating mast, the short- and long-term error in the characterization of the wind at different heights has been evaluated. In general, the error because of the tilt can reach up to 80% of the total error; the error because of the variation of the vertical position of the anemometer reaches values of up to 15% in some cases; moreover, the error associated with the relative velocity between the anemometer and the wind, for averaged values, is significantly less. Finally, it can be concluded that the total error is lower than 0.5% for 10 min averaged wind speed of up to 24 m/s. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper a 1.5 kW flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM) generator is presented for direct drive small scale wind turbine applications. For maximizing induced voltage and the output torque while minimizing cogging torque and unbalanced radial magnetic force (UMF), the proposed machine exhibits a new 6/19 stator pole/rotor teeth number and an outer rotor configuration. At first, in the paper an analytical design has been developed, then a finite element method (FEM) analysis is carried out for validating the analytical procedure and for design improvement. The simulation results extracted by FEM confirm the theoretical analysis procedure and help in the understanding of the performance analysis of the machine against the variations of the design variables. Furthermore, an experimental laboratory prototype of the proposed FSPM is implemented to confirm the analytical design and FEM modelling approaches. A comparison of induced voltage, torque, UMF and cogging torque produced by different FSPM configurations present in literature respect to the proposed generator has been developed. The results show the goodness of the adopted methodology and prove that, because of suitable electromagnetic performance of the proposed FSPM generator, it could be counted as a proper candidate for small scale wind turbine applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper presents the development of a computational aeroelastic tool for the analysis of performance, response and stability of horizontal-axis wind turbines. A nonlinear beam model for blades structural dynamics is coupled with a state-space model for unsteady sectional aerodynamic loads, including dynamic stall effects. Several computational fluid dynamics structural dynamics coupling approaches are investigated to take into account rotor wake inflow influence on downwash, all based on a Boundary Element Method for the solution of incompressible, potential, attached flows. Sectional steady aerodynamic coefficients are extended to high angles of attack in order to characterize wind turbine operations in deep stall regimes. The Galerkin method is applied to the resulting aeroelastic differential system. In this context, a novel approach for the spatial integration of additional aerodynamic states, related to wake vorticity and dynamic stall, is introduced and assessed. Steady-periodic blade responses are evaluated by a harmonic balance approach, whilst a standard eigenproblem is solved for aeroelastic stability analyses. Drawbacks and potentialities of the proposed model are investigated through numerical and experimental comparisons, with particular attention to rotor blades unsteady aerodynamic modelling issues. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This work investigates the behaviour of the high-speed stage of a wind turbine gearbox during a transient grid loss event. Dynamometer testing on a full-scale wind turbine nacelle is used. A combination of external and internal gearbox measurements are analysed. Particular focus is on the characterization of the high-speed shaft tapered roller bearing slip behaviour. This slipping behaviour is linked to dynamic events by many researchers and described as a potential bearing failure initiator; however, only limited full-scale dynamic testing is documented. Strain gauge bridges in grooves along the circumference of the outer ring are used to characterize the bearing behaviour in detail. It is shown that during the transient event the high-speed shaft experiences a combined torsional and bending deformation. These unfavourable loading conditions induce roller slip in the bearings during the torque reversals, indicating the potential of the applied load case to go beyond the preload of the tapered roller bearing. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Several factors cause lidars to measure different values of turbulence than an anemometer on a tower, including volume averaging, instrument noise and the use of a scanning circle to estimate the wind field. One way to avoid the use of a scanning circle is to deploy multiple scanning lidars and point them toward the same volume in space to collect velocity measurements and extract high-resolution turbulence information. This paper explores the use of two multi-lidar scanning strategies, the tri-Doppler technique and the virtual tower technique, for measuring 3-D turbulence. In summer 2013, a vertically profiling Leosphere WindCube lidar and three Halo Photonics Streamline lidars were operated at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site to test these multi-lidar scanning strategies. During the first half of the field campaign, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every second. Next, all three scanning lidars were used to build a ‘virtual tower’ above the WindCube lidar. Results indicate that the tri-Doppler technique measures higher values of horizontal turbulence than the WindCube lidar under stable atmospheric conditions, reduces variance contamination under unstable conditions and can measure high-resolution profiles of mean wind speed and direction. The virtual tower technique provides adequate turbulence information under stable conditions but cannot capture the full temporal variability of turbulence experienced under unstable conditions because of the time needed to readjust the scans. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Assessing potential costs and benefits of siting wind turbines on escarpments is challenging, particularly when the upstream fetch is offshore leading to more persistent wind speeds in power producing classes, but an increased importance of stable stratification under which terrain impacts on the flow may be magnified. In part because of a lack of observational data, critical knowledge gaps remain and there is currently little consensus regarding optimal models for flow characterization and turbine design calculations. We present a unique dataset comprising measurements of flow parameters conducted over a 10–14 m escarpment at turbine relevant heights (from 9 to 200 m) and use them to evaluate model simulations. The results indicate good agreement in terms of the wind speed decrease before the terrain feature and the increase at (and downwind of) the escarpment of ~3–5% at turbine hub-heights. However, the horizontal extent of the region, in which the impact of the escarpment on the mean flow is evident, is larger in the models than the measurements. A region of high turbulence was indicated close to the escarpment that extended through the nominal rotor plane, but the horizontal extent of this region was narrow (<10 times the escarpment height, H) in both models and observations. Moving onshore the profile of turbulence was more strongly influenced by higher roughness of a small forest. While flow angles close to the escarpment were very complex, by a distance of 10 H, flow angles were <3° and thus well within limits indicated by design standards. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This paper aims at improving dynamic stall predictions on the S809 aerofoil under 2D flow conditions. The method is based on the well-known Beddoes–Leishman model; however, a new flow separation model and a noise generator are integrated to improve the predictions in the load fluctuations, including those induced by vortex shedding on the aerofoil upper surface. The flow separation model was derived from a unique approach based on the combined use of unsteady aerodynamic loads measurements, the Beddoes–Leishman model and a trial-and-error technique. The new flow separation model and random noise generator were integrated in the Beddoes–Leishman model through a new solution algorithm. The numerical predictions of the unsteady lift and drag coefficients were then compared with the Ohio State University measurements for the oscillating S809 aerofoil at several reduced frequencies and angles of attack. The results using the proposed models showed improved correlation with the experimental data. Hysteresis loops for the aerodynamic coefficients are in good agreement with measurements. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The magnitude of tower vibrations of offshore wind turbines is a key design driver for the feasibility of the monopile support structure. A novel control concept for the damping of these tower vibrations is proposed, where viscous-type hybrid dampers are installed at the bottom of the wind turbine tower. The proposed hybrid damper consists of a passive viscous dashpot placed in series with a load cell and an active actuator. By integrated force feedback control of the actuator motion, the associated displacement amplitude over the viscous damper can be increased compared with the passive viscous case, hereby significantly increasing the feasibility of viscous dampers acting at the bottom of the wind turbine tower. To avoid drift in the actuator displacement, a filtered time integration of the measured force signal is introduced. Numerical examples demonstrate that the filtered time integration control leads to performance similar to that of passive viscous damping and substantial amplification of the damper deformation without actuator drift. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Fatigue is a critical factor in structures such as wind turbines exposed to harsh operating conditions, both in the design stage and in the control during their operation. In the present paper, the most recognized approaches to estimate the damage caused by fatigue in the component level are discussed and compared. The aim of this paper is to address the applicability of those fatigue damage estimation methods to control of wind turbines. Accordingly, for our discussion and comparison, we categorize fatigue estimation methods in a macroscopic scale as counting, spectral, stochastic and hysteresis operator methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We describe a generalization of the coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model for wind farms that can be used to evaluate the performance of wind farms under arbitrary wind inflow directions, whereas the original CWBL model (Stevens *et al.*, J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy **7**, 023115 (2015)) focused on aligned or staggered wind farms. The generalized CWBL approach combines an analytical Jensen wake model with a ‘top-down’ boundary layer model coupled through an iterative determination of the wake expansion coefficient and an effective wake coverage area for which the velocity at hub-height obtained using both models converges in the ‘deep-array’ portion (fully developed region) of the wind farm. The approach accounts for the effect of the wind direction by enforcing the coupling for each wind direction. Here, we present detailed comparisons of model predictions with large eddy simulation results and field measurements for the Horns Rev and Nysted wind farms operating over a wide range of wind inflow directions. Our results demonstrate that two-way coupling between the Jensen wake model, and a ‘top-down’ model enables the generalized CWBL model to predict the ‘deep-array’ performance of a wind farm better than the Jensen wake model alone. The results also show that the new generalization allows us to study a much larger class of wind farms than the original CWBL model, which increases the utility of the approach for wind farm designers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In above-rated wind speeds, the goal of a wind turbine blade pitch controller is to regulate rotor speed while minimizing structural loads and pitch actuation. This controller is typically feedback only, relying on a generator speed measurement, and sometimes strain gages and accelerometers. A preview measurement of the incoming wind speed (from a turbine-mounted lidar, for example) allows the addition of feedforward control, which enables improved performance compared with feedback-only control. The performance improvement depends both on the amount of preview time available in the wind speed measurement and the coherence between the wind measurement and the wind that is actually experienced by the turbine. We show how to design a collective-pitch optimal controller that takes both of these factors into account. Simulation results show significant improvement compared with baseline controllers and are well correlated with linear model-based results. Linear model-based results show the benefit of preview measurements for various preview times and measurement coherences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind turbine upscaling is motivated by the fact that larger machines can achieve lower levelized cost of energy. However, there are several fundamental issues with the design of such turbines, and there is little public data available for large wind turbine studies. To address this need, we develop a 20 MW common research wind turbine design that is available to the public. Multidisciplinary design optimization is used to define the aeroservoelastic design of the rotor and tower subject to the following constraints: blade-tower clearance, structural stresses, modal frequencies, tip-speed and fatigue damage at several sections of the tower and blade. For the blade, the design variables include blade length, twist and chord distribution, structural thicknesses distribution and rotor speed at the rated. The tower design variables are the height, and the diameter distribution in the vertical direction. For the other components, mass models are employed to capture their dynamic interactions. The associated cost of these components is obtained by using cost models. The design objective is to minimize the levelized cost of energy. The results of this research show the feasibility of a 20 MW wind turbine and provide a model with the corresponding data for wind energy researchers to use in the investigation of different aspects of wind turbine design and upscaling. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, an aerodynamic model consisting of a lifting line-based trailed vorticity model and a blade element momentum (BEM) model is described. The focus is on the trailed vorticity model, which is based on the near wake model (NWM) by Beddoes and has been extended to include the effects of downwind convection and to enable a faster and more accurate computation of the induction, especially close to the blade root and tip. The NWM is introduced to model the detailed steady and unsteady induction from the first part of the trailed vorticity behind the individual rotor blades. The model adds a radial coupling between the blade sections and provides a computation of tip loss effects that depends on the actual blade geometry and the respective operating point. Moreover, the coupling of the NWM with a BEM theory-based far wake model is presented. To avoid accounting for the near wake induction twice, the induction from the BEM model is reduced by a coupling factor, which is continuously updated during the computation to ensure a good behavior of the model in varying operating conditions. The coupled near and far wake model is compared with a simple prescribed wake lifting line model, a BEM model and full rotor computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evaluate the steady-state results in different cases. The model is shown to deliver good results across the whole operation range of the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind energy technology is evolving towards larger machines (longer blades, taller towers and more powerful generators). Scaling up wind turbines is a challenging task, which requires innovative solutions as well as new configurations and designs. The size of wind turbines (in terms of rotor diameter, hub height and rated power) has increased extraordinary from 30 m rotor diameter, 30 m of hub height and 300 kW rated power, usual in the late 1980s, to 92.7 m rotor diameter, 87.7 m of height and 2.1 MW on average at the end of 2014. However, technological evolution has not only been focused on the scaling up process but also on developing innovative solutions that minimize costs at the same time as they deal with aspects of different nature, such as grid code requirements, reliability, quality of the wind resource or prices and availability of certain commodities, among others.

This paper analyses the evolution of wind technology from a market-based perspective by identifying trends in the most relevant technological indicators at the same time as stressing the key differentiating aspects between regions/markets. Evolution and trends in indicators such as rated power, rotor diameter, hub height, specific power, wind class, drive train configuration and power control systems are presented and analysed, showing an intense and fast technological development, which is enabling wind energy to reduce costs and becoming increasingly more competitive with conventional fuel-based generating technologies. © 2016 The Authors Wind Energy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Wind turbines are complex systems where component-level changes can have significant system-level effects. Effective wind turbine optimization generally requires an integrated analysis approach with a large number of design variables. Optimizing across large variable sets is orders of magnitude more efficient with gradient-based methods as compared with gradient-free method, particularly when using exact gradients. We have developed a wind turbine analysis set of over 100 components where 90% of the models provide numerically exact gradients through symbolic differentiation, automatic differentiation, and adjoint methods. This framework is applied to a specific design study focused on downwind land-based wind turbines.

Downwind machines are of potential interest for large wind turbines where the blades are often constrained by the stiffness required to prevent a tower strike. The mass of these rotor blades may be reduced by utilizing a downwind configuration where the constraints on tower strike are less restrictive. The large turbines of this study range in power rating from 5–7MW and in diameter from 105m to 175m. The changes in blade mass and power production have important effects on the rest of the system, and thus the nacelle and tower systems are also optimized. For high-speed wind sites, downwind configurations do not appear advantageous. The decrease in blade mass (10%) is offset by increases in tower mass caused by the bending moment from the rotor-nacelle-assembly. For low-wind speed sites, the decrease in blade mass is more significant (25–30%) and shows potential for modest decreases in overall cost of energy (around 1–2%). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind energy is a rapidly growing field of renewable energy, and as such, intensive scientific and societal interest has been already attracted. Research on wind turbine structures has been mostly focused on the structural analysis, design and/or assessment of wind turbines mainly against normal (environmental) exposures while, so far, only marginal attention has been spent on considering extreme natural hazards that threat the reliability of the lifetime-oriented wind turbine's performance. Especially, recent installations of numerous wind turbines in earthquake prone areas worldwide (e.g., China, USA, India, Southern Europe and East Asia) highlight the necessity for thorough consideration of the seismic implications on these energy harnessing systems. Along these lines, this state-of-the-art paper presents a comparative survey of the published research relevant to the seismic analysis, design and assessment of wind turbines. Based on numerical simulation, either deterministic or probabilistic approaches are reviewed, because they have been adopted to investigate the sensitivity of wind turbines' structural capacity and reliability in earthquake-induced loading. The relevance of seismic hazard for wind turbines is further enlightened by available experimental studies, being also comprehensively reported through this paper. The main contribution of the study presented herein is to identify the key factors for wind turbines' seismic performance, while important milestones for ongoing and future advancement are emphasized. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The relation between power performance and turbulence intensity for a VAWT H-rotor is studied using logged data from a 14 month (discontinuous) period with the H-rotor operating in wind speeds up to 9 m/s. The turbine, designed originally for a nominal power of 200 kW, operated during this period mostly in a restricted mode due to mechanical concerns, reaching power levels up to about 80 kW. Two different approaches are used for presenting results, one that can be compared to power curves consistent with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard and one that allows isolating the effect of turbulence from the cubic variation of power with wind speed. Accounting for this effect, the turbine still shows slightly higher efficiency at higher turbulence, proposing that the H-rotor is well suited for wind sites with turbulent winds. The operational data are also used to create a *C _{p}*(

The power curve of a wind turbine can be measured, according to IEC 61400-12-2 with a nacelle-mounted anemometer. Typically, a sonic anemometer or a cup anemometer and a wind vane are mounted on the back of the nacelle roof. Another option is to use a spinner anemometer.

The measurement principle of the spinner anemometer is based on the flow distortion caused by the wind turbine spinner. The flow on the spinner surface is measured by means of three 1D sonic sensors mounted on the spinner and a conversion algorithm to convert the wind velocity components measured by the three sonic sensors to horizontal wind speed, yaw misalignment and flow inclination angle. The algorithm utilizes two calibration constants that are specific to the spinner shape, blade root design and to the mounting positions of the sonic sensors on the spinner.

The present analysis describes methods to determine the calibration constant related to wind speed measurements. The first and preferred method is based on the definition of the calibration constant and uses wind speed measurements during the stopped condition of the wind turbine. Two alternative methods that did not require the turbine to be stopped were investigated: one used relatively high wind speed measurements during normal operation of the wind turbine, while the other one used a CFD simulation of the flow over the spinner. The method that entails stopping the turbine in good wind conditions showed the best results and is recommended. The evaluation of uncertainty was not included in the present analysis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors Wind Energy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Reliability of wind turbines is analyzed with the use of an easily interpretable mathematical model based on a Poisson process, which takes into account jointly observable differences between turbines described by covariates (type of turbine, size of turbine, harshness of environment, installation date and seasonal effects) as well as unobservable differences modeled by a standard frailty approach known from survival analysis. The introduced model is applied to failure data from the WMEP database, and the fit of the model is checked. The paper demonstrates the usefulness of the model for determination of critical factors of wind turbine reliability, with potential for prediction for future installations. In particular, the model's ability to take into account unobserved heterogeneity is demonstrated. The model can easily be adapted for use with different datasets or for analysis of other repairable systems than wind turbines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

From large-eddy simulations of atmospheric turbulence, a representation of Gaussian turbulence is constructed by randomizing the phases of the individual modes of variability. Time series of Gaussian turbulence are constructed and compared with its non-Gaussian counterpart. Time series from the two types of turbulence are then used as input to wind turbine load simulations under normal operations with the HAWC2 software package. A slight increase in the extreme loads of the tower base fore-aft moment is observed for high wind speeds when using non-Gaussian turbulence but is insignificant when taking into account the safety factor for extreme moments. Other extreme load moments as well as the fatigue loads are not affected because of the use of non-Gaussian turbulent inflow. It is suggested that the turbine thus acts like a low-pass filter that averages out the non-Gaussian behaviour, which is mainly associated with the fastest and smallest scales. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Large offshore wind energy projects are being planned and installed in the North Sea, and there is an urgent demand for high-resolution atmospheric statistics to assess potential power production and revenue. Meteorological observations are too sparse to obtain those statistics, and global reanalyses like ERA-Interim have a resolution too coarse in space and time to capture important small-scale and terrain-driven features of the atmospheric flow. We therefore dynamically downscale ERA-Interim with the mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecasting to a 3 km grid to capture those unresolved features, for the period 1999–2008. The large-scale flow is conditioned by spectral nudging, and we make use of observation nudging towards QuikSCAT near-surface winds. The downscaling results in 100 m wind-speed distributions and mean wind speeds, which are closer to the observations than ERA-Interim, while the accuracy in terms of root-mean-square error decreases. The observation nudging partially counteracts this latter effect, improving the root-mean-square error of wind speed and direction by 0.5 m s^{−1} and ~10°, respectively. We also introduce the power skill score, specifically designed to evaluate model performance within wind resource mapping. The power skill score confirms that the dynamical downscaling improves the distribution of wind speed in ranges where high accuracy is important for wind resource assessment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

As wind energy penetration increases, wind power plants may be required to regulate their power production according to the load-balancing needs of the power system. This presents an opportunity: when a wind farm tracks a power set-point, its wind turbines are free to continuously vary their power production as long as the sum of their productions meets the power demand. Here, we present an intuitive wind turbine coordination policy that uses this flexibility to minimize the aggregate fatigue load on the turbines. An important property is that the policy is scalable enough to be applied to any wind farm size. Specifically, the computational effort required to compute and reconfigure the optimal coordination policy is the same as that of a single stand-alone turbine, and the only centralized information processing needed to implement it is a single averaging operation. The efficiency of the coordination policy is illustrated in a simulation study based on real wind farm data. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest by the wind energy community to assess the impact of atmospheric stability on wind turbine performance; however, up to now, typically, stability is considered in several distinct arbitrary stability classes. As a consequence, each stability class considered still covers a wide range of conditions. In this paper, wind turbine fatigue loads are studied as a function of atmospheric stability without a classification system, and instead, atmospheric conditions are described by a continuous joint probability distribution of wind speed and stability. Simulated fatigue loads based upon this joint probability distribution have been compared with two distinct different cases, one in which seven stability classes are adopted and one neglecting atmospheric stability by following International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. It is found that for the offshore site considered in this study, fatigue loads of the blade root, rotor and tower loads significantly increase if one follows the IEC standards (by up to 28% for the tower loads) and decrease if one considers several stability classes (by up to 13% for the tower loads). The substantial decrease found for the specific stability classes can be limited by considering one stability class that coincides with the mean stability of a given hub height wind speed. The difference in simulated fatigue loads by adopting distinct stability classes is primarily caused by neglecting strong unstable conditions for which relatively high fatigue loads occur. Combined, it is found that one has to carefully consider all stability conditions in wind turbine fatigue load simulations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind turbine gearbox bearings (WTGBs) are failing prematurely, leading to increased operational costs of wind energy. Bearing failure by white structure flaking (WSF) and axial cracking may both be caused by the propagation of white etching cracks (WECs) and have been observed to cause premature failures; however, their damage mechanism is currently not well understood. Crack initiation has been found to occur at subsurface material defects in bearing steel, which may develop into WECs. One hypothesis for WEC formation at these defects, such as non-metallic inclusions, is that repetitive impact loading of a rolling element on a bearing raceway, due to torque reversals and transient loading during operation, leads to high numbers of stress-concentrating load cycles at defects that exceed the material yield strength. In this study, a number of tests were carried out using a reciprocating hammer-type impact rig. Tests were designed to induce subsurface yielding at stress concentrating manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions. The effects of increasing surface contact stress and number of impact cycles, with and without surface traction, were investigated. Damage adjacent to MnS inclusions, similar to that observed in a failed WTGB raceway, was recreated on bearing steel test specimens. It has been found that increasing the subsurface equivalent stresses and the number of impact cycles both led to increased damage levels. Damage was observed at subsurface equivalent stresses of above 2.48 GPa after at least 50,000 impact cycles. WECs were recreated during tests that applied surface traction for 1,000,000 impacts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Advanced testing methods are becoming more and more prevalent to increase the reliability of wind turbines. In this field, dynamometers that allow for system level tests of full-scale nacelles will play an important role. Operating these test benches in a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) set-up that emulates realistic drive train modes is challenging because of the relatively low stiffness of the load machines' drive trains. This paper proposes a control method for enabling the said operation mode. It is based on the idea that the HiL-controller overrides the present unrealistic dynamics and directly imposes desired realistic dynamics on the test bench. A solution for the control problem is given and applied in a design study with a generic wind turbine and a test bench model obtained from construction data of a real test bench. In the design study, the HiL-controller robustly imposes desired drive train dynamics on the test bench model. Despite measurement noise, unmodelled parametric uncertainty, and unmodelled delays, the first drive train mode is correctly reproduced. This is confirmed by a comparison with simulation results from a full servo-aero-elastic code. Furthermore, an implementation of the test bench model on a programmable logic controller showed the real-time feasibility of the proposed method. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind turbine rotor blades are sophisticated, multipart, lightweight structures whose aeroelasticity-driven geometrical complexity and high strength-to-mass utilization lend themselves to the application of glass-fibre or carbon-fibre composite materials. Most manufacturing techniques involve separate production of the multi-material subcomponents of which a blade is comprised and which are commonly joined through adhesives. Adhesive joints are known to represent a weak link in the structural integrity of blades, where particularly, the trailing-edge joint is notorious for its susceptibility to damage. Empiricism tells that adhesive joints in blades often do not fulfil their expected lifetime, leading to considerable expenses because of repair or blade replacement. Owing to the complicated structural behaviour—in conjunction with the complex loading situation—literature about the root causes for adhesive joint failure in blades is scarce. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical investigation of energy release rates at the tip of a transversely oriented crack in the trailing edge of a 34m long blade for a 1.5MW wind turbine. First, results of a non-linear finite element analysis of a 3D blade model, compared with experimental data of a blade test conducted at Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU) Wind Energy (Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark), showed to be in good agreement. Subsequently, the effects of geometrical non-linear cross-section deformation and trailing-edge wave formation on the energy release rates were investigated based on realistic aeroelastic load simulations. The paper concludes with a discussion about critical loading directions that trigger two different non-linear deformation mechanisms and their potential impact on adhesive trailing-edge joint failure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Floating vertical-axis wind turbines (FVAWTs) provide the potential for utilizing offshore wind resources in moderate and deep water because of their economical installation and maintenance. Therefore, it is important to assess the performance of the FVAWT concept. This paper presents a stochastic dynamic response analysis of a 5 MW FVAWT based on fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations. The studied FVAWT, which is composed of a Darrieus rotor and a semi-submersible floater, is subjected to various wind and wave conditions. The global motion, structural response and mooring line tension of the FVAWT are calculated using time domain simulations and studied based on statistical analysis and frequency-domain analysis. The response of the FVAWT is compared under steady and turbulent wind conditions to investigate the effects of turbulent wind. The advantage of the FVAWT in reducing the 2P effect on the response is demonstrated by comparing the floating wind turbine with the equivalent land-based wind turbine. Additionally, by comparing the behaviour of FVAWTs with flexible and rigid rotors, the effect of rotor flexibility is evaluated. Furthermore, the FVAWT is also investigated in the parked condition. The global motions and structural responses as a function of the azimuthal angle are studied. Finally, the dynamic response of the FVAWT in selected misaligned wind and wave conditions is analysed to determine the effects of wind-wave misalignment on the dynamic response. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ice accretion on wind turbines' blades is one of the main challenges of systems installed in cold climate locations, resulting in power performance deterioration and excessive nacelle oscillation. In this work, consistent detection of icing events is achieved utilizing indications from the nacelle accelerometers and power performance analysis. Features extracted from these two techniques serve as inputs in a decision-making scheme, allowing early activation of de-icing systems or shut down of the wind turbine. An additional parameter is the month of operation, assuring consistent outcomes in both winter and summer seasons. The amplitude of lateral nacelle vibration at rotor speed is the used condition indicator from vibration standpoint, which is verified by the presence of sinusoidal shape in high-resolution time waveforms. Employment of k-nearest neighbour on wind speed - power production data sets leads to successful recognition of power performance deterioration. Results from one wind park consisting of 13 turbines operating under icing are presented, where similar patterns on both vibration and power curve data validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on the reliable detection of icing formation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A data set consisting of one-year vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed obtained with lidar at Braunschweig Airport, North German Plain, is analyzed with respect to the low-level jet (LLJ). The observations reveal a typical LLJ altitude between 80 and 360 m, a frequency of occurrence up to almost 9% for some altitudes, and a typical wind speed between 4 and 9 m s^{−1}. LLJ events occurred most frequently in summer during the night. In the winter, LLJs were observed both during day and night. The Weibull distribution for wind speed is presented for different heights. The most probable wind speed of the Weibull distribution increases from 4 m s^{−1} at 40 m altitude to values exceeding 7 m s^{−1} for altitudes above 240 m. There is a significant difference for the Weibull parameters determined with a monthly, seasonal and annual data set. The contribution of the LLJ to the overall wind speed distribution is analyzed. An LLJ event occurred on 52% of the days over the year, with a total measurement time of 739 h. As the typical rated speed for onshore wind turbines is in the range from 11.5 to 14.5 m s^{−1} and the typical hub height is in the range of 100 to 150 m, it can be expected that wind turbines are affected by the LLJ. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Simulations of a model wind turbine at various tip-speed-ratios were carried out using *Tenasi*, a node-centered, finite volume unstructured flow solver. The simulations included the tunnel walls, tower, nacelle, hub and the blades. The effect of temporal convergence on the predicted thrust and power coefficients is evaluated and guidelines for best practices are established. The results presented here are for tip-speed-ratios of 3, 6 and 10, with 6 being the design point. All simulations were carried out at a freestream velocity of 10 m s^{−1} with an incoming boundary layer present and the wind turbine RPM was varied to achieve the desired tip-speed-ratio. The performance of three turbulence models is evaluated. The models include a one-equation model (Spalart–Allmaras), a two-equation model (Menter SST) and the DES version of the Menter SST. Turbine performance as well as wake data at various locations is compared to experiment. All the turbulence models performed well in terms of predicting power and thrust coefficients. The DES model was significantly better than the other two turbulence models for predicting the mean and fluctuating components of the velocity in the wake. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In most places in the world, the load center and the best wind resources are located far away from each other. Therefore, electricity generated from wind farms has to be transmitted to the load center over lengthy transmission lines. However, in some cases, lower quality wind resources also available close to load centers. Therefore, decision makers are sometime faced with competing alternatives: building wind farms in areas with higher wind speeds far away from load centers and or building wind farms in areas with lower wind speeds close to load centers. This paper proposes a methodology to help policy makers to develop wind resources cost effectively, balancing wind power generation from best wind resources and transmission of electricity over long distance. The methodology is applied to China, to compare development of high-quality wind resources in the Three-North region (north, northwest and northeast) and transmission of electricity to Southeast load centers to the development of lower quality resources closer to the same load centers. The results would help decision makers at the national and provincial levels to optimally develop the country's resources and assess the benefits of renewable energy trade between provinces. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Variance stabilizing transformations are often used in statistical analysis to support simple graphical analysis and also a variety of statistical tests. We describe a variance-stabilizing transformation popular in bioinformatics and demonstrate its application to wide-area wind power data, where indeed it helps to reduce the dependence of the variance of the errors on the power level because it stabilizes the variance of the historic forecasts and observations. The stabilization occurs even in an environment where the forecast process itself is not stationary. We also demonstrate that the method seems to be robust with respect to the value of its control parameter, which can be estimated from wind power data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Buoyant gravity-based foundations (GBFs) have been proposed as an alternative to conventional lifted GBFs, with the objective to negate the need for costly transportation vessels and thereby provide a more cost-effective foundation option. However, in order for the foundation to remain stable during float-out, towing and ballasting, the floatability and hydrodynamic stability of the foundation has to be proven. Maintaining hydrodynamic stability depends on many parameters, most importantly the foundation configuration, geometry and total weight, as well as water depth and ballasting sequence among other factors. This study investigates the performance of GBFs with various geometrical attributes during float-out and ballasting operations, using a parametric study with water depths ranging from 30 to 50 m. The impact of each parameter on the variation of metacentric height of the foundation during ballasting and the initial drafts at float-out was studied. The most suitable geometries for each water depth were investigated based on a preliminary analysis of the hydrodynamic stability. One limitation of this work is that the hydrodynamic wave forces acting on the foundation have not been considered—this is the subject of an ongoing experimental programme, which will be published in a follow-on paper. However, this paper does consider the geotechnical stability of gravity-based foundations and the potential modes of failure because of soil-structure interaction. Upper and lower ballast limits were quantified in order to satisfy the geotechnical stability requirements of the foundation for various combinations of water depth/ base diameter. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Complex mechanical systems, such as wind turbines, often include safety constraints which should not be violated in order to avoid high risk of structural damage. Adherence to the safety constraints is ensured with a well-designed operating envelope protection. In this paper, we present an invariant set-based protection concept with the application to the wind turbine overspeed protection. The approach is model-based and operates without wind-preview measurements. Instead, it is based on the evolution model of the wind disturbance in the worst-case scenario manner. Accurate system estimation utilizing the blade root in-plane measurement is proposed, along with the efficient algorithm for the hard real-time operation of the protection system. The overspeed protection system is validated in extensive simulations on extreme turbulent wind, performed in GH Bladed. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed concept compared with the baseline controller performance. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

In this paper, the impact of atmospheric stability on a wind turbine wake is studied experimentally and numerically. The experimental approach is based on full-scale (nacelle based) pulsed lidar measurements of the wake flow field of a stall-regulated 500 kW turbine at the DTU Wind Energy, Risø campus test site. Wake measurements are averaged within a mean wind speed bin of 1 m s^{−1} and classified according to atmospheric stability using three different metrics: the Obukhov length, the Bulk–Richardson number and the Froude number. Three test cases are subsequently defined covering various atmospheric conditions. Simulations are carried out using large eddy simulation and actuator disk rotor modeling. The turbulence properties of the incoming wind are adapted to the thermal stratification using a newly developed spectral tensor model that includes buoyancy effects. Discrepancies are discussed, as basis for future model development and improvement. Finally, the impact of atmospheric stability on large-scale and small-scale wake flow characteristics is presently investigated. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The use of brushless doubly-fed induction generator has been recently proposed for wind turbines because of its variable speed operation with fractional size converter without the need to brush and slip ring. This paper introduces a control scheme to improve low voltage ride-through capability of doubly-fed induction generator considering grid code requirements. The proposed control strategy is based on analysis of flux linkages and back electromotive forces and intends to retain the control-winding current below the safety limit (typically 2 pu) during severe voltage dips. The time-domain simulations validate effectiveness of the proposed scheme to protect the converter against failure as well as support reactive power required by German grid code. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This letter describes some essential features of the publicly available mesoscale wind farm parameterization of Fitch *et al.* (2012) in the Weather Research and Forecasting model. It highlights the importance of using turbine manufacturer data with the parameterization and the spatial scales to which it is applicable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Planetary gearboxes (PGBs) are widely used in the drivetrain of wind turbines. Any PGB failure could lead to a significant breakdown or major loss of a wind turbine. Therefore, PGB fault diagnosis is very important for reducing the downtime and maintenance cost and improving the safety, reliability, and lifespan of wind turbines. The wind energy industry currently utilizes vibratory analysis as a standard method for PGB condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. Among them, the vibration separation is considered as one of the well-established vibratory analysis techniques. However, the drawbacks of the vibration separation technique as reported in the literature include the following: potential sun gear fault diagnosis limitation, multiple sensors and large data requirement, and vulnerability to external noise. This paper presents a new method using a single vibration sensor for PGB fault diagnosis using spectral averaging. It combines the techniques of enveloping, Welch's spectral averaging, and data mining-based fault classifiers. Using the presented approach, vibration fault features for wind turbine PGB are extracted as condition indicators for fault diagnosis and condition indicators are used as inputs to fault classifiers for PGB fault diagnosis. The method is validated on a set of seeded localized faults on all gears: sun gear, planetary gear, and ring gear. The results have shown a promising PGB fault diagnosis performance with the presented method. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The use of wind energy is growing around the world, and its growth is set to continue into the foreseeable future. Estimates of the wind speed and power are helpful to assess the potential of new sites for development and to facilitate electric grid integration studies. In the present paper, wind speed and power resource mapping analyses are performed. These resource mappings are produced on a 13 km, hourly model grid over the entire continental USA for the years of 2006–2014. The effects of the rotor equivalent wind speed (REWS) along with directional shear are investigated. The total dataset (wind speed and power) contains ≈152,000 model grid points, with each location containing ≈78,000 hourly time steps. The resource mapping and dataset are created from analysis fields, which are output from an advanced weather assimilation model. Two different methods were used to estimate the wind speed over the rotor swept area (with rotor diameter of 100 m). First, using a single wind speed at hub height (80 m) and, second, the REWS with directional shear. The demonstration study shows that in most locations the incorporation of the REWS reduces the average available wind power. In addition, the REWS technique estimates more wind power production at night and less production in the day compared with the hub height technique; potentially critical for siting new wind turbines and plants. However, the wind power estimate differences are dependent on seasonality, diurnal cycle and geographic location. More research is warranted into these effects to determine the level at which these features are observed at actual wind plants.© 2015 The Authors. Wind Energy published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This study draws from a concept from green accounting, lifecycle assessment, and industrial ecology known as 'environmental profit and loss” (EP&L) to determine the extent of externalities across the manufacturing lifecycle of wind energy. So far, no EP&Ls have involved energy companies and none have involved wind energy or wind turbines. We perform an EP&L for three types of wind turbines sited and built in Northern Europe (Denmark and Norway) by a major manufacturer: a 3.2 MW onshore turbine with a mixed concrete steel foundation, a 3.0 MW offshore turbine with a steel foundation, and a 3.0 MW offshore turbine with a concrete foundation. For each of these three turbine types, we identify and monetize externalities related to carbon dioxide emissions, air pollution, and waste. We find that total environmental losses range from €1.1 million for the offshore turbine with concrete foundation to €740,000 for onshore turbines and about €500,000 for an offshore turbine with steel foundation—equivalent to almost one-fifth of construction cost in some instances. We conclude that carbon dioxide emissions dominate the amount of environmental damages and that turbines need to work for 2.5 to 5.5 years to payback their carbon debts. Even though turbines are installed in Europe, China and South Korea accounted for about 80% of damages across each type of turbine. Lastly, two components, foundations and towers, account for about 90% of all damages. We conclude with six implications for wind energy analysts, suppliers, manufacturers, and planners. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

No abstract is available for this article.

]]>This paper presents a simple and robust direct current control based predictive approach for rotor side converter (RSC) of the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), which operates at a constant switching frequency and has a fast dynamic response. First, sector of required rotor voltage vector is predicted in this strategy, and according to this predicted sector, two active vectors and two zero vectors are elected in each switching period. Derivatives of rotor current in the synchronous frame are determined for each predicted voltage vector in every period. These derivatives are used to compute the duration of the vectors in such a way that the current error at the end of the switching period gets minimized. The accuracy of the proposed control strategy under variation of rotor speed is evaluated in Matlab/Simulink environment for a 2 MW DFIG. Moreover, the impact of parameter variations on the system is examined for this suggested technique. Furthermore, the dynamic response and stator current total harmonic distortion (THD) of proposed strategy is compared with traditional vector control (VC), direct power control (DPC) and predictive direct power control (PDPC) methods. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated under disturbance voltage. The results demonstrate that suggested control technique has the lowest stator current THD and operates perfectly near the synchronous speed and under grid voltage dip. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Load calculation is a very important part in the development of wind turbines. Prototype testing over the whole product life cycle is not possible. Accurate load calculations are necessary to ensure that the wind turbine withstands the loads during the expected lifetime. During the last 20years, Flex5 developed at the Danish Technical University has been used as standard tool for load calculation. Ongoing development leads to a more detailed simulation of wind turbines. A lot of general purpose multibody programs are available providing packages for load calculation of wind turbines. Within this contribution, the multibody codes Flex5, MSC.Adams, alaska/Wind and SIMPACK are compared with measurements on a prototype of a 2.05MW wind turbine developed by W2E Wind to Energy. The aim of this work is not to set one simulation package as reference but to validate all simulation packages by measurements on a physical wind turbine. A statistical and dynamical evaluation of simulation results and measurements by means of maximum, minimum, mean value, standard deviation and rainflow matrix has been performed to compare the simulation packages. The comparison of the values of wind turbine behaviour such as generated electrical power or rotor speed shows a good agreement between simulations and measurements. This could be expected because of the use of the same controller software as used on the physical wind turbine. Considering the interface loads of the wind turbine, differences occur between the simulation packages caused by different kinds of modelling. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind energy is susceptible to global climate change because it could alter the wind patterns. Then, improvement of our knowledge of wind field variability is crucial to optimize the use of wind resources in a given region.

Here, we quantify the effects of climate change on the surface wind speed field over the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands using an ensemble of four regional climate models driven by a global climate model.

Regions of the Iberian Peninsula with coherent temporal variability in wind speed in each of the models are identified and analysed using cluster analysis. These regions are continuous in each model and exhibit a high degree of overlap across the models. The models forced by the European Reanalysis Interim (ERA-Interim) reanalysis are validated against the European Climate Assessment and Dataset wind. We find that regional models are able to simulate with reasonable skill the spatial distribution of wind speed at 10 m in the Iberian Peninsula, identifying areas with common wind variability.

Under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B climate change scenario, the wind speed in the identified regions for 2031–2050 is up to 5% less than during the 1980–1999 control period for all models. The models also agree on the time evolution of spatially averaged wind speed in each region, showing a negative trend for all of them. These tendencies depend on the region and are significant at *p* = 5% or slightly more for annual trends, while seasonal trends are not significant in most of the regions and seasons. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A simple engineering model for predicting wind farm performance is presented, which is applicable to wind farms of arbitrary size and turbine layout. For modeling the interaction of wind farm with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), the wind farm is represented as added roughness elements. The wind speed behind each turbine is calculated using a kinematic model, in which the friction velocity and the wind speed outside the turbine wake, constructed based on the wind farm-ABL interaction model, are employed to estimate the wake expansion rate in the crosswind direction and the maximum wind speed that can be recovered within the turbine wake, respectively. Validation of the model is carried out by comparing the model predictions with the measurements from wind tunnel experiments and the Horns Rev wind farm. For all validation cases, satisfactory agreement is obtained between model predictions and experimental data. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An experimental study is conducted to investigate the flow dynamics within the near-wake region of a horizontal axis wind turbine using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Measurements were performed in the horizontal plane in a row of four radially distributed measurement windows (tiles), which are then patched together to obtain larger measurement field. The mean and turbulent components of the flow field were measured at various blade phase angles. The mean velocity and turbulence characteristics show high dependency on the blade phase angle in the near-wake region closer to the blade tip and become phase independent further downstream at a distance of about one rotor diameter. In the near-wake region, both the mean and turbulent characteristics show a systemic variation with the phase angle in the blade tip region, where the highest levels of turbulence are observed. The streamlines of the instantaneous velocity field at a given phase allowed to track a tip vortex which showed wandering trend. The tip vortices are mostly formed at *r*/*R* > 1, which indicates the wake expansion. Results also show the gradual movement of the vortex region in the axial direction, which can be attributed to the dynamics of the helical tip vortices which after being generated from the tip, rotate with respect to the blade and move in the axial direction because of the axial momentum of the flow. The axial velocity deficit was compared with other laboratory and field measurements. The comparison shows qualitative similarity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nacelle lidars are attractive for offshore measurements since they can provide measurements of the free wind speed in front of the turbine rotor without erecting a met mast, which significantly reduces the cost of the measurements. Nacelle-mounted pulsed lidars with two lines of sight (LOS) have already been demonstrated to be suitable for use in power performance measurements. To be considered as a professional tool, however, power curve measurements performed using these instruments require traceable calibrated measurements and the quantification of the wind speed measurement uncertainty. Here we present and demonstrate a procedure fulfilling these needs.

A nacelle lidar went through a comprehensive calibration procedure. This calibration took place in two stages. First with the lidar on the ground, the tilt and roll readings of the inclinometers in the nacelle lidar were calibrated. Then the lidar was installed on a 9m high platform in order to calibrate the wind speed measurement. The lidar's radial wind speed measurement along each LOS was compared with the wind speed measured by a calibrated cup anemometer, projected along the LOS direction. The various sources of uncertainty in the lidar wind speed measurement have been thoroughly determined: uncertainty of the reference anemometer, the horizontal and vertical positioning of the beam, the lack of homogeneity of the flow within the probe volume, lidar measurement mean deviation and standard uncertainty. The resulting uncertainty lies between 1 and 2% for the wind speed range between cut-in and rated wind speed.

Finally, the lidar was mounted on the nacelle of a wind turbine in order to perform a power curve measurement. The wind speed was simultaneously measured with a mast-top mounted cup anemometer placed two rotor diameters upwind of the turbine. The wind speed uncertainty related to the lidar tilting was calculated based on the tilt angle uncertainty derived from the inclinometer calibration and the deviation of the measurement height from hub height. The resulting combined uncertainty in the power curve using the nacelle lidar was less than 10% larger on average than that obtained with the mast mounted cup anemometer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wind turbine multidisciplinary design optimization is currently the focus of several investigations because it has showed potential in reducing the cost of energy. This design approach requires fast methods to evaluate wind turbine loads with a sufficiently high level of fidelity. This paper presents a method to estimate wind turbine fatigue damage suited for optimization design applications. The method utilizes a high-order linear wind turbine model. The model comprehends a detailed description of the wind turbine and the controller. The fatigue is computed with a spectral method applied to power spectral densities of wind turbine sensor responses to turbulent wind. In this paper, the model is validated both in time domain and frequency domain with a nonlinear aeroservoelastic model. The approach is compared quantitatively against fatigue damage obtained from the power spectra of time series evaluated with nonlinear aeroservoelastic simulations and qualitatively against rainflow counting. Results are presented for three cases: load evaluation at normal operation in the full wind speed range, load change evaluation due to two different controller tunings at normal operation at three different wind speeds above rated and load dependency on the number of turbulence seeds used for their evaluation. For the full-range normal operation, the maximum difference between the two frequency domain-based estimates of the tower base lateral fatigue moments is 36%, whereas the differences for the other sensors are less than 15%. For the load variation evaluation, the maximum difference of the tower base longitudinal bending moment variation is 22%. Such large difference occurs only when the change in controller tuning has a low effect on the loads. Furthermore, results show that loads evaluated with the presented method are less dependent on the turbulent wind realization; therefore, less turbulence seeds are required compared with time-domain simulations to remove the dependency on the wind realization used to estimate loads. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Joukowski introduced in 1912 a helical vortex model to represent the vorticity of a rotor and its wake. For an infinite number of blades but finite tip-speed ratio, the model consists of a vortex cylinder of longitudinal and tangential vorticity, a root vortex and a bound vortex disk. A superposition of cylinders is used in this paper to model rotors of radially varying circulation. The relations required to form a consistent system of cylinders are derived. The model contains a term which is not accounted for in the standard blade element momentum (BEM) algorithm. This term is identified as the contribution from the pressure drop due to the wake rotation. The BEM algorithm can be corrected to account for this effect. Unlike previous work on the topic, the contribution is derived for a radially varying circulation. A high-thrust correction is also presented to extend the model. The optimal power coefficient obtained with this model for the constant circulation rotor is assessed and compared with that of existing solutions. Results from prescribed thrust distributions are compared with that of actuator disk simulations. Steady simulations are performed to compare with the BEM algorithm. The model is also applied to compute the velocity field in the entire domain and perform unsteady simulations. Results for an unsteady simulation corresponding to a pitch change of the rotor is used to compare the model with measurements and a BEM code with a dynamic inflow model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of airfoils fitted with morphing trailing edges are investigated using a coupled structure/fluid/noise model. The control of the flow over the surface of an airfoil using shape optimization techniques can significantly improve the load distribution along the chord and span lengths whilst minimising noise generation. In this study, a NACA 63-418 airfoil is fitted with a morphing flap and various morphing profiles are considered with two features that distinguish them from conventional flaps: they are conformal and do not rely on conventional internal mechanisms. A novel design of a morphing flap using a zero Poisson's ratio honeycomb core with tailored bending stiffness is developed and investigated using the finite element model. Whilst tailoring the bending stiffness along the chord of the flap yields large flap deflections, it also enables profile tailoring of the deformed structure which is shown to significantly affect airfoil noise generation. The aeroacoustic behaviour of the airfoil is studied using a semi-empirical airfoil noise prediction model. Results show that the morphing flap can effectively reduce the airfoil trailing edge noise over a wide range of flow speeds and angles of attack. It is also shown that appropriate morphing profile tailoring improves the effect of morphing trailing edge on the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performance of the airfoil. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The effects of spatial and temporal resolution of wind inflows generated using large eddy simulations (LES) on the scales of turbulence present in the wind inflow, and the resulting changes in wind turbine performance were investigated for neutral atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Wind inflows with four different spatial resolutions and five different temporal resolutions were used to produce different turbine responses. An aero-elastic code assessed the dynamic response of two wind turbines to the different inflows. Auto-spectral density functions (ASDF) of turbine responses, such as blade deflection and bending moment, that are representative of the turbine response were used to assess the effect of the inflow. The results indicated that, as additional turbulence scales were resolved, the wind turbines showed a similar increased response that was evident in both the ASDF and variance of the different wind turbine performance parameters. As a result, the amount to which turbulence is resolved in the inflow, particularly using tools such as LES, will be important to consider when using these inflows for wind turbine design and performance prediction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

We propose a dynamic model for the squared norm of the wind speed which is a Markov diffusion process. It presents several advantages. Since the transition probability densities are in closed form, it can be calibrated with the maximum likelihood method. It presents nice modeling features both in terms of marginal probability density function and temporal correlation. We have tested the model with real wind speed data set provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The model fits very well with the data. Besides, we obtained a very good performance in forecasting wind speed at short term. This is an interesting perspective for operational use in industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.