In high energy collisions of e.g. Pb on Pb many types of particles are produced; also antiparticles (red line, see W. Greiner, this issue, p. 564). (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

A review of the pseudo-complex theory of General Relativity will be given. The theory implies the existence of a minimal length. Modifying the variational principle did lead to a contribution of a dark energy-momentum tensor on the right hand side of the Einstein equations. A physical principle emerges from it: *Mass not only curves the space but also modifies the vacuum properties around that mass*. The dark energy contributions react back on the curvature of space, halting the collapse of any size of mass, and finally the event horizon disappears. For the dark energy contribution a model had to be used, due to the lack of a quantized quantum theory. We resumed some experimental predictions, neglecting the effects of the minimal length. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The Pierre Auger Observatory was built to help unveil the properties of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with energies from 10^{17} to 10^{20} eV. In this paper we review the latest results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory in almost ten years of continuous operation and summarize what has been learned about the energy spectrum, mass composition, and arrival directions of cosmic rays in that energy range. We also discuss some implications of these results for the full characterization of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and for assembling a consistent description of their origin, propagation, and composition. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

To explore cosmic matter in the laboratory – this fascinating research prospect becomes available in 2018 at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, FAIR. The new facility is being constructed within the next five years adjacent to the existing accelerator complex of the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research at Darmstadt/Germany, expanding the research goals and technical possibilities substantially. This includes new insights into the dynamics of supernovae depending on the properties of short-lived neutron-rich nuclei which will be investigated with intense rare isotope beams. New insights will be provided into the interior of stars by exploring dense plasmas with intense heavy-ion beams combined with a high-performance laser – or into neutron star cores by probing the highest baryon densities in relativistic nucleusnucleus collisions at unprecedented collision rates. To the latter, the properties of hadrons play an important part which will be systematically studied by high precision hadron spectroscopy with antiproton beams at unmatched intensities. The worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities of FAIR will open the way for a broad spectrum of unprecedented fore-front research supplying a large variety of experiments in hadron, nuclear, atomic and plasma physics as well as biomedical and material science which will be briefly described in this article. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We apply a recent proposal to define “gravitational entropy” to the expansion of cosmic voids within the framework of nonperturbative General Relativity. By considering CDM void configurations compatible with basic observational constraints, we show that this entropy grows from post-inflationary conditions towards a final asymptotic value in a late time fully nonlinear regime described by the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dust models. A qualitatively analogous behavior occurs if we assume a positive cosmological constant consistent with a Λ-CDM background model. However, the Λ term introduces a significant suppression of entropy growth with the terminal equilibrium value reached at a much faster rate. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

In this paper, we derive the stellar structure equations (modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations) which account for a finite value of the cosmological constant Λ for spherically symmetric mass distributions. The equations are then used to study the role that Λ may have on these mass distributions. The form of this modified TOV equation has been suggested in the literature by a few authors already, however, with disagreeing results and conclusions. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We study the effects of magnetic fields on the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and its finite temperature extension which includes a coupling to the Polyakov loop. Emphasis is laid on the phase structure and its dependence on the parameters defining the model. We consider two parameter sets showing that they lead to rather different results, especially at low temperatures. The phenomena of magnetic catalysis and its counterpart, magnetic anti-catalysis, are also discussed. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We review the basic ideas about man-made quantum mechanical black holes. We start by an overview of the proposed attempts to circumvent the hierarchy problem. We study the phenomenological implications of a strong gravity regime at the terascale and we focus on the issue of microscopic black holes. We provide the experimental bounds on relevant quantities as they emerge from major ongoing experiments. The experimental results exclude the production of black holes in collisions up to 8 TeV. We provide some possible explanations of such negative results in view of forthcoming investigations. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The dynamics of partons and hadrons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is analyzed within the novel Parton-HadronString Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for the partonic phase (DQPM) including a dynamical hadronization scheme. The PHSD approach is applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions from low SPS to LHC energies. The traces of partonic interactions are found in particular in the elliptic flow of hadrons and in their transverse mass spectra. We investigate also the equilibrium properties of strongly-interacting infinite parton-hadron matter characterized by transport coefficients such as shear and bulk viscosities and the electric conductivity in comparison to lattice QCD results. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Newly born neutron stars can present differential rotation, even if later it should be suppressed by viscosity or a sufficiently strong magnetic field. In this early stage of its life, a neutron star is expected to have a strong emission of gravitational waves, which could be influenced by the differential rotation. We present here a new formalism for modelling differentially rotating neutron stars, working on the slow rotation approximation and assuming a small degree of differential rotation. After we establish our equilibrium model, we explore the influence of the differential rotation on the f and r-modes of oscillation of the neutron star in the Cowling approximation, and we also analyze an effect of the differential rotation on the emission of gravitational radiation from the f-modes. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The properties of the extremely strong magnetic fields of neutron stars affect in a unique way their evolution and the associated phenomenology. Due to the lack of constraints from direct observations, our understanding of the magnetic field configuration in neutron star interiors depends on the progress in theoretical modelling. Here we discuss the effort in building models of magnetized neutron stars focussing on some of the recent results. In particular, we comment on the instability of purely poloidal and purely toroidal magnetic field configurations and on the evidence in favour of the so-called twisted-torus solutions. We conclude with an outlook on the present status of the field and future directions. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The direct Urca process is an extremely efficient mechanism for cooling a proto neutron star after its formation. It is believed to be the process responsible for the cooling of proto-neutron stars after the first 100 years of life. One of the most interesting kind of neutron stars are the pulsars, which are highly magnetized neutron stars with fields up to 10^{14} G at the surface. In this work we investigate the influence of strong magnetic fields on the cooling of pulsars due to the neutrino emissivity coming from the direct Urca process. The matter is described using a relativistic mean-field model at zero temperature. We calculate numerically the emissivity of neutrinos for different magnetic fields as a function of the baryon density and compare the results for the case without a magnetic field. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The aim of this work is to study Faraday rotation in the quantum relativistic limit. Starting from the photon self-energy in the presence of a constant magnetic field the rotation of the polarization vector of a plane electromagnetic wave which travels along the fermion-antifermion gas is studied. The connection between Faraday Effect and Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) is discussed. The Faraday angle shows a resonant behavior which is related with the branching points of the Hall conductivity. Possible applications to magnetospheres of compact objects are discussed. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We examine the dynamics near the collapse of a self-gravitating magnetized fermion gas at finite temperature, taken as the source of a Bianchi-I spacetime described by the Kasner metric. The set of Einstein-Maxwell field equations reduces to a complete and self-consistent system of non-linear autonomous ordinary differential equations. By considering a representative set of initial conditions, the numerical solutions of this system show the gas collapsing into both, isotropic (“point-like”) and anisotropic (“cigar-like”) singularities. We also examined the behavior during the collapse stage of all relevant state and kinematic variables: the temperature, the expansion scalar, the magnetic field, the magnetization and energy density. We notice a significant qualitative difference in the behavior of the gas for a range of temperatures: T/m ∼ 10^{–6}–10^{–3}. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

There is evidence for a spectral line at E_{γ} ≈ 130 GeV in the *Fermi* -LAT data that can be explained as dark mater particles annihilating into photons. We review a well known dark matter model that consists in a singlet Dirac fermion and a singlet scalar. The scalar implements spontaneous symmetry breaking in the dark sector, and is responsible for the communication between dark matter and standard model particles through a coupling to the Higgs. These interactions are suppressed by the mixing between the scalar and the Higgs. Therefore, the singlet fermionic dark matter is naturally a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) and can explain the observed relic density. We show that this model cannot produce the signal identified in the *Fermi* -LAT data. Thus, we propose a modification in the model by introducing a new scalar multiplet that carries electric charge and couples to the singlet scalar. It enhances the annihilation into two photons and succeeds in producing the observed signal. We also discuss the resulting increase of the branching ratio of the h γγ process, which is consistent with measurements from the CMS experiments. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

To date, the observational determination of braking indexes of magnetars is still an open question due to the lack of long-term radio emission and strong timing noise. Based on the assumption that the real ages of magnetars are the ages of their host supernova remnants (SNRs), expanding diffuse gaseous nebulae resulting from explosions of massive stars, we obtain the sizes of the braking index n for 11 magnetar candidates with SNRs. According to our calculations, the magnetar braking indexes will be constrained within the range of about 1–40, assuming the measurements of SNRs are reliable. We also investigate the frequency parameters of magnetars with associated SNRs, and estimate possible wind luminosities for magnetars with n < 3 and magnetic field decay rates for magnetars with n > 3. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The centrality dependence of spectra of identified particles in collisions between ultrarelativistic heavy ions with a center of mass energy (√s) of 39 and 11.5 AGeV is analyzed in the core-corona model. We show that at these energies the spectra can be well understood assuming that they are composed of two components whose relative fraction depends on the centrality of the interaction: The core component which describes an equilibrated quark gluon plasma and the corona component which is caused by nucleons close to the surface of the interaction zone which scatter only once and which is identical to that observed in proton-proton collisions. The success of this approach at 39 and 11.5 AGeV shows that the physics does not change between this energy and √s = 200 AGeV for which this model has been developed (Aichelin 2008). This presents circumstantial evidence that a quark gluon plasma is also created at center of mass energies as low as 11.5 AGeV. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

In this contribution we study the effects of strong magnetic fields on the particle population of neutron stars with hyperon degrees of freedom in their composition. The star matter is described by a multi-component model with parameterized baryon-meson interaction couplings. We study the magnetic effects on the equation of state (EoS) due to the Landau quantization, assuming a density dependent static magnetic field that reaches about 10^{19} G in the center of the star. The Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are solved in order to understand the dependence of the mass-radius relation and hyperon population on the magnetic field intensity assuming different interaction coupling schemes. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

In this paper, we study the consequences of extending dual symmetry (DuSy) to include a generic C_{µ} vector field as a dual partner of the photon A_{µ}. A new combined field, the complex Z^{′}_{µ}, is obtained from C_{µ} and A_{µ}. The promotion of dual symmetry to a local symmetry for Z^{′}_{µ} implies the inclusion of an extra complex vector field W_{µ} with a complex gauge transformation. A dual dark matter (DM) Lagrangian LDDM is obtained from the general DuSy invariant Lagrangian LDuSy. Our tentative conjecture is to interpret W^{±}_{µ} as the actual weak interaction charged gauge boson W μ ±, which leads us to speculate about a possible extra CP violation scenarios for future calculations. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The pseudo-complex General Relativity, which includes a minimal length, is resumed and similarities to other theories are pointed out. For a zero minimal length the theory exhibits a remnant contribution, which is associated to a dark energy. It suggests the principle that a mass not only curves the space around it but also changes the vacuum properties, which in turn affect the metric. Some experimental predictions are shortly mentioned. The consequences of the presence of a dark energy are investigated for the case of neutron stars. It is shown that large masses of neutron stars are possible. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We investigate the effects of the anomalous magnetic moment (AMM) in the EoS of a fermion system in the presence of a magnetic field. In the region of strong magnetic fields (B > m^{2}) the AMM is found from the one-loop fermion selfenergy. In contrast to the weak-field AMM found by Schwinger, in the strong magnetic field case, the AMM depends on the Landau level (LL) and decreases with it. The effects of the AMM in the EoS at intermediate-to-large fields can be found introducing the one-loop, LL-dependent AMM in the effective Lagrangian that is then used to find the thermodynamical potential of the system. We compare the plots of the parallel and perpendicular pressures versus the magnetic field in the strong field region considering the LL-dependent AMM, the Schwinger AMM, and no AMM at all. The results clearly show a separation between the physical magnitudes found using the Schwinger AMM and the LL-dependent AMM. This is an indication of the inconsistency of considering the Schwinger AMM beyond the weak field region B < m^{2} where it was originally found. The curves for the EoS, pressures and magnetization at different fields give rise to the well-known de Haas van Alphen oscillations, associated to the change in the number of LL contributing at different fields. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The extremely high X-ray luminosity of non-nuclear Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) may be evidence of the existence of black holes with masses intermediate between those produced by stellar evolution and those encountered in active galactic nuclei. Alternatively, they may reflect the existence of stellar mass black holes undergoing steady super-Eddington accretion. In this short review, we will describe the main X-ray and optical observational properties of these ULXs and discuss their likely accretion regimes. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We determine the minimum fluctuations in the cosmological QCD phase transition that could be detectable by the eLISA/NGO gravitational wave observatory. To this end, we performed several hydrodynamical simulations using a stateof-the-art equation of state derived from lattice QCD simulations. Based on the fact that the viscosity per entropy density of the quark gluon plasma obtained from heavy-ion collision experiments at the RHIC and the LHC is extremely small, we considered a non-viscous fluid in our simulations. Several previous works about this transition considered a first order transition that generates turbulence which follows a Kolmogorov power law. We show that for the QCD crossover transition the turbulent spectrum must be very different because there is no viscosity and no source of continuous energy injection. As a consequence, a large amount of kinetic energy accumulates at the smallest scales. From the hydrodynamic simulations, we have obtained the spectrum of the gravitational radiation emitted by the motion of the fluid, finding that, if typical velocity and temperature fluctuations have an amplitude Δv/c 10^{–2} and/or ΔT/T_{c} 10^{–3}, they would be detected by eLISA/NGO at frequencies larger than ∼10^{–4} Hz. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Driven by the loss of energy, isolated rotating neutron stars (pulsars) are gradually slowing down to lower frequencies, which increases the tremendous compression of the matter inside of them. This increase in compression changes both the global properties of rotating neutron stars as well as their hadronic core compositions. Both effects may register themselves observationally in the thermal evolution of such stars, as demonstrated in this work. The rotation-driven particle process which we consider here is the direct Urca (DU) process, which is known to become operative in neutron stars if the number of protons in the stellar core exceeds a critical limit of around 11 % to 15 %. We find that neutron stars spinning down from moderately high rotation rates of a few hundred Hertz may be creating just the right conditions where the DU process becomes operative, leading to an observable effect (enhanced cooling) in the temperature evolution of such neutron stars. We will also study the thermal evolution of neutron stars whose spherical symmetry has been broken due to non-zero rotation. For this we will derive the energy balance and transport equations, taking into account the metric of a rotating fluid distribution and solve these equations numerically. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We study the influence of a strong magnetic field on the behavior of the symmetry of an electrically neutral electroweak plasma. We analyze the case of a strong field compared with the W boson rest energy, and very low temperature. It is shown that the charged vector bosons play the most important role, leading to a modification of the symmetry breaking parameter. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The magnetic field strength at birth is arguably one of the most important properties to determine the evolutionary path of a neutron star. Objects with very high fields, collectively known as magnetars, are characterized by high X-ray quiescent luminosities, occurrence of outbursts, and, for some of them, sporadic giant flares. While the magnetic field strength is believed to drive their collective behaviour, however, the diversity of their properties, and, especially, the observation of magnetar-like bursts from “low-field” pulsars, has been a theoretical puzzle. In this review, we discuss results of long-term simulations following the coupled evolution of the X-ray luminosity and the timing properties for a large, homogeneous sample of X-ray emitting isolated neutron stars, accounting for a range of initial magnetic field strengths, envelope compositions, and neutron star masses. In addition, by following the evolution of magnetic stresses within the neutron star crust, we can also relate the observed magnetar phenomenology to the physical properties of neutron stars, and in particular to their age and magnetic field strength and topology. The dichotomy of “high-B” field pulsars versus magnetars is naturally explained, and occasional outbursts from old, low B-field neutron stars are predicted. We conclude by speculating on the fate of old magnetars, and by presenting observational diagnostics of the neutron star crustal field topology. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

In this talk, I give a short general introduction to Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG), beginning with some motivations for quantizing General Relativity, listing various attempts and then focusing on the case of LQG. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

In this contribution I will make a critical comparison among viable inflationary, and bouncing models for the primordial Universe which I will describe, and I will discuss how the usual problems and features of the standard cosmological model are addressed by them in order to investigate if they can be distinguished by future observations. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We investigate the role of many-body correlations in the maximum mass of neutron stars using the effective relativistic QHD-model with parameterized couplings which represents an extended compilation of other effective models found in the literature. Our model exhausts the whole fundamental baryon octet (*n*, *p*, Σ^{–}, Σ^{0}, Σ^{+}, Λ, Ξ^{–}, Ξ^{0}) and simulates corrections to the minimal Yukawa couplings by considering many-body nonlinear self-couplings and meson-meson interaction terms involving scalar-isoscalar (σ, σ^{*}), vector-isoscalar (*ω*, *ϕ*), vector-isovector (**ρ**) and scalar-isovector (**δ**). Following recent experimental results, we consider in our calculations the extreme case where the Σ^{–} experiences such a strong repulsion that it does not appear at all in nuclear matter. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

A new constraint on the equation of state and composition of the matter on neutron stars has been provided by the measurement of the mass 2.01 ± 0.04 M_{⊙} for PSR J0348 +0432. In this contribution we investigate the role of many-body correlations in the maximum mass of neutron stars using the effective relativistic QHD-model with parameterized couplings. The complete expression of our QHD interaction Lagrangian exhausts the whole fundamental baryon octet (*n*, *p*, Σ^{–}, Σ^{0}, Σ^{+}, Λ, Ξ^{–}, Ξ^{0}) and includes many-body forces simulated by nonlinear self-couplings and meson-meson interaction terms involving scalar-isoscalar (σ, σ^{*}), vector-isoscalar (ω, ϕ), vector-isovector (**∼**), and scalar-isovector (**δ**). We study the behavior of the asymmetry parameter, which describes the relative neutron excess in the system as well as the behavior of the strangeness asymmetry parameter, which specifies the strangeness content in the system and is strictly connected with the appearance of a particular hyperon species in the extreme case where the Σ^{–} experiences such a strong repulsion that it does not appear at all in nuclear matter. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The baryonic properties of neutron stars within the theory of pseudo-complex General Relativity (pc-GR) are studied. The pc-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations are numerically integrated in order to understand the structure of these objects. The pc-component energy density ϵ_{Λ} has been linearly coupled to the respective baryonic quantity ϵ_{m}. Solutions have been presented for different values of the coupling parameter. It is shown that accumulation of the Λ-component allows the theoretical existence of larger and more massive neutron stars. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

A first approach towards a geometric formulation of pseudo-complex General Relativity is presented. We review the mathematics of pseudo-complex numbers and functions and show how several concepts from real differential geometry can be generalized to the pseudo-complex case. It is shown that the main feature of such a pseudo-complex geometry is a product structure, which allows a separate treatment of all mathematical objects in two different sectors, respectively. In order to obtain a new theory, one needs new principles to connect both sectors and to define a real physical space-time embedded into the pseudo-complex manifold. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

Magnetars are proposed to be peculiar neutron stars powered by their super-strong magnetic field. Observationally, anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma-ray repeaters are believed to be magnetar candidates. While more and more multiwave observations of magnetars are available, we see unfortunately an accumulation of failed predictions of the traditional magnetar model. These challenges urge a reconsidering of the magnetar phenomenon. Wind braking of magnetars is one of the alternative modelings. The release of magnetic energy may generate a particle outflow (i.e., particle wind) which results in both an anomalous X-ray luminosity (LX) and a significantly high spindown rate (Ṗ). In this wind braking scenario, *only* a strong multipole field is necessary for a magnetar (a strong dipole field is no longer needed). Wind braking of magnetars may help us to understand their multiwave radiation properties, including (1) non-detection of magnetars in the *Fermi* -LAT observations, (2) timing behaviors of low magnetic field magnetars, (3) nature of anti-glitches, (4) criterion for magnetar radio emission, etc. In the wind braking model of magnetars, timing events of magnetars should always be accompanied by radiative events. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The aim of our contribution is to shed some light on open questions facing the high density nuclear many-body problem. We focus our attention on the conceptual issue of naturalness and its role for the baryon-meson coupling for nuclear matter at high densities. As a guideline for the strengths of the various couplings the concept of naturalness has been adopted. In order to encourage possible new directions of research, we discuss relevant aspects of a relativistic effective theory for nuclear matter with “natural” parametric couplings and genuine many-body forces. Among other topics, we discuss in this work the connection of this theory with other known effective Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD) models found in literature and how we can potentially use our approach to describe new physics for neutron stars. We also show some preliminary results for the equation of state, population profiles and mass-radius relation for neutron stars assuming local charge neutrality and beta equilibrium. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

We investigate the effect of color superconductivity on the non-radial oscillations of pure self-bound quark stars using an equation of state in the framework of the MIT bag model. The equations of non-radial oscillations are integrated within the Cowling approximation in order to determine the frequency of the fundamental mode and of the first and second pressure modes. We employ several parametrizations of the equation of state that result in a maximum mass larger than the mass of the recently observed PSR J1614–2230 and PSR J0348–0432 with M ≈ 2 M_{⊙}. The pulsation frequencies are compared with the corresponding modes of quark stars without pairing. For the fundamental mode, the oscillation frequency is typically 2–3 kHz. Parametrizations of the equations of state with larger values of the pairing gap Δ tend to give smaller values of the frequency. For the first and second pressure modes, the frequencies lie in the range 5–10 kHz for stars with masses above 1.5 M_{⊙} and diverge as the mass of the star tends to zero. From the numerical results we obtain parabolic fittings of the frequency of the fundamental mode as a function of the gravitational redshift at the surface of the star. For the p1 and p2 modes we find power law fittings that are rather independent of the parametrization of the equations of state. The here obtained results can be used to extract details about the internal composition of compact stars from observed modes of pulsation. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

The observed long-term spin-down evolution of isolated radio pulsars cannot be explained by the standard magnetic dipole radiation with a constant braking torque. However, how and why the torque varies remains still controversial, an outstanding problem in our understanding of neutron stars. We have constructed a phenomenological model of the evolution of surface magnetic fields of pulsars which contains a long-term decay modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its magnetic field evolution. The predictions of this model agree with the precisely measured spin evolution of several individual pulsars. The derived parameters suggest that the Hall drift and Hall waves in neutron star crusts are probably responsible for the long-term change and short-term quasi-periodical oscillations, respectively. Many statistical properties of the timing noise of pulsars can well be reproduced with this model, including correlations and the distributions of the observed braking indices of the pulsars which span over a range of more than 100 millions. We have also presented a phenomenological model for the recovery processes of classical and slow glitches which can successfully model the observed slow and classical glitch events without biases. (© 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)