In this paper, we use the local influence method to study a vector autoregressive model under Student^{′}s *t*-distributions. We present the maximum likelihood estimators and the information matrix. We establish the normal curvature diagnostics for the vector autoregressive model under three usual perturbation schemes for identifying possible influential observations. The effectiveness of the proposed diagnostics is examined by a simulation study, followed by our data analysis using the model to fit the weekly log returns of Chevron stock and the Standard & Poor's 500 Index as an application.

Datasets examining periodontal disease records current (disease) status information of tooth-sites, whose stochastic behavior can be attributed to a multistate system with state occupation determined at a single inspection time. In addition, the tooth-sites remain clustered within a subject, and the number of available tooth-sites may be representative of the true periodontal disease status of that subject, leading to an ‘informative cluster size’ scenario. To provide insulation against incorrect model assumptions, we propose a non-parametric regression framework to estimate state occupation probabilities at a given time and state exit/entry distributions, utilizing weighted monotonic regression and smoothing techniques. We demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed weighted estimators over the unweighted counterparts via a simulation study and illustrate the methodology using a dataset on periodontal disease.

]]>We consider kernel smoothed Grenander-type estimators for a monotone hazard rate and a monotone density in the presence of randomly right censored data. We show that they converge at rate *n*^{2/5} and that the limit distribution at a fixed point is Gaussian with explicitly given mean and variance. It is well known that standard kernel smoothing leads to inconsistency problems at the boundary points. It turns out that, also by using a boundary correction, we can only establish uniform consistency on intervals that stay away from the end point of the support (although we can go arbitrarily close to the right boundary).

Spatial autoregressive models are powerful tools in the analysis of data sets from diverse scientific areas of research such as econometrics, plant species richness, cancer mortality rates, image processing, analysis of the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data, and many more. An important class in the host of spatial autoregressive models is the class of spatial error models in which spatially lagged error terms are assumed. In this paper, we propose efficient shrinkage and penalty estimators for the regression coefficients of the spatial error model. We carry out asymptotic as well as simulation analyses to illustrate the gain in efficiency achieved by these new estimators. Furthermore, we apply the new methodology to housing prices data and provide a bootstrap approach to compute prediction errors of the new estimators.

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Penalized splines are used in various types of regression analyses, including non-parametric quantile, robust and the usual mean regression. In this paper, we focus on the penalized spline estimator with general convex loss functions. By specifying the loss function, we can obtain the mean estimator, quantile estimator and robust estimator. We will first study the asymptotic properties of penalized splines. Specifically, we will show the asymptotic bias and variance as well as the asymptotic normality of the estimator. Next, we will discuss smoothing parameter selection for the minimization of the mean integrated squares error. The new smoothing parameter can be expressed uniquely using the asymptotic bias and variance of the penalized spline estimator. To validate the new smoothing parameter selection method, we will provide a simulation. The simulation results show that the consistency of the estimator with the proposed smoothing parameter selection method can be confirmed and that the proposed estimator has better behavior than the estimator with generalized approximate cross-validation. A real data example is also addressed.

]]>We consider the estimation and hypothesis testing problems for the partial linear regression models when some variables are distorted with errors by some unknown functions of commonly observable confounding variable. The proposed estimation procedure is designed to accommodate undistorted as well as distorted variables. To test a hypothesis on the parametric components, a restricted least squares estimator is proposed under the null hypothesis. Asymptotic properties for the estimators are established. A test statistic based on the difference between the residual sums of squares under the null and alternative hypotheses is proposed, and we also obtain the asymptotic properties of the test statistic. A wild bootstrap procedure is proposed to calculate critical values. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed procedure, and a real example is analyzed for an illustration.

]]>In a seminal paper, Mak, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 55, 1993, 945, derived an efficient algorithm for solving non-linear unbiased estimation equations. In this paper, we show that when Mak's algorithm is applied to biased estimation equations, it results in the estimates that would come from solving a bias-corrected estimation equation, making it a consistent estimator if regularity conditions hold. In addition, the properties that Mak established for his algorithm also apply in the case of biased estimation equations but for estimates from the bias-corrected equations. The marginal likelihood estimator is obtained when the approach is applied to both maximum likelihood and least squares estimation of the covariance matrix parameters in the general linear regression model. The new approach results in two new estimators when applied to the profile and marginal likelihood functions for estimating the lagged dependent variable coefficient in the dynamic linear regression model. Monte Carlo simulation results show the new approach leads to a better estimator when applied to the standard profile likelihood. It is therefore recommended for situations in which standard estimators are known to be biased.

]]>This paper considers the location-scale quantile autoregression in which the location and scale parameters are subject to regime shifts. The regime changes in lower and upper tails are determined by the outcome of a latent, discrete-state Markov process. The new method provides direct inference and estimate for different parts of a non-stationary time series distribution. Bayesian inference for switching regimes within a quantile, via a three-parameter asymmetric Laplace distribution, is adapted and designed for parameter estimation. Using the Bayesian output, the marginal likelihood is readily available for testing the presence and the number of regimes. The simulation study shows that the predictability of regimes and conditional quantiles by using asymmetric Laplace distribution as the likelihood is fairly comparable with the true model distributions. However, ignoring that autoregressive coefficients might be quantile dependent leads to substantial bias in both regime inference and quantile prediction. The potential of this new approach is illustrated in the empirical applications to the US inflation and real exchange rates for asymmetric dynamics and the S&P 500 index returns of different frequencies for financial market risk assessment.

]]>This paper presents a method for fitting a copula-driven generalized linear mixed models. For added flexibility, the skew-normal copula is adopted for fitting. The correlation matrix of the skew-normal copula is used to capture the dependence structure within units, while the fixed and random effects coefficients are estimated through the mean of the copula. For estimation, a Monte Carlo expectation–maximization algorithm is developed. Simulations are shown alongside a real data example from the Framingham Heart Study.

]]>Time series data arise in many medical and biological imaging scenarios. In such images, a time series is obtained at each of a large number of spatially dependent data units. It is interesting to organize these data into model-based clusters. A two-stage procedure is proposed. In stage 1, a mixture of autoregressions (MoAR) model is used to marginally cluster the data. The MoAR model is fitted using maximum marginal likelihood (MMaL) estimation via a minorization–maximization (MM) algorithm. In stage 2, a Markov random field (MRF) model induces a spatial structure onto the stage 1 clustering. The MRF model is fitted using maximum pseudolikelihood (MPL) estimation via an MM algorithm. Both the MMaL and MPL estimators are proved to be consistent. Numerical properties are established for both MM algorithms. A simulation study demonstrates the performance of the two-stage procedure. An application to the segmentation of a zebrafish brain calcium image is presented.

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