The generalized Marcum functions appear in problems of technical and scientific areas such as, for example, radar detection and communications. In mathematical statistics and probability theory these functions are called the noncentral gamma or the noncentral chi-squared cumulative distribution functions. In this paper, we describe a new asymptotic method for inverting the generalized Marcum *Q*-function and for the complementary Marcum *P*-function. Also, we show how monotonicity and convexity properties of these functions can be used to find initial values for reliable Newton or secant methods to invert the function. We present details of numerical computations that show the reliability of the asymptotic approximations.

A dynamical model equation for interfacial gravity-capillary (GC) waves between two semi-infinite fluid layers, with a lighter fluid lying above a heavier one, is derived. The model proposed is based on the fourth-order truncation of the kinetic energy in the Hamiltonian of the full problem, and on weak transverse variations, in the spirit of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvilli equation. It is well known that for the interfacial GC waves in deep water, there is a critical density ratio where the associated cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equations changes type. Our numerical results reveal that, when the density ratio is below the critical value, the bifurcation diagram of plane solitary waves behaves in a way similar to that of the free-surface GC waves on deep water. However, the bifurcation mechanism in the vicinity of the minimum of the phase speed is essentially similar to that of free-surface gravity-flexural waves on deep water, when the density ratio is in the supercritical regime. Different types of lump solitary waves, which are fully localized in both transverse and longitudinal directions, are also computed using our model equation. Some dynamical experiments are carried out via a marching-in-time algorithm.

]]>Wave packet ansätze are introduced into an -dimensional Manakov-type system and key invariants are isolated. Reduction is made to a novel coupled Ermakov–Painlevé II system and an algorithm presented for the derivation of wave packet representations via the classical Ermakov nonlinear superposition principle. Application of the procedure in the context of certain transverse wave motions in a generalized Mooney–Rivlin hyperelastic material is likewise shown to lead an Ermakov–Painlevé II reduction.

]]>The patterning of many developing tissues is orchestrated by gradients of signaling morphogens. Included among the molecular events that drive the formation of morphogen gradients are a variety of elaborate regulatory interactions. Such interactions are thought to make gradients robust, i.e., insensitive to change in the face of genetic or environmental perturbations. However just how this is accomplished is a major unanswered question. Recently extensive numerical simulations suggest that robustness of signaling gradients can be achieved through morphogen degradation mediated by cell surface bound nonsignaling receptor molecules (or *nonreceptors* for short) such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The present paper provides a mathematical validation of the results from the aforementioned numerical experiments. Extension of a basic extracellular model to include reversible binding with nonreceptors synthesized at a prescribed rate and mediated morphogen degradation shows that the signaling gradient diminishes with increasing concentration of cell-surface nonreceptors. Perturbation and asymptotic solutions obtained for (i) low (receptor and nonreceptor) occupancy, and (ii) high nonreceptor concentration permit more explicit delineation of the effects of nonreceptors on signaling gradients and facilitate the identification of scenarios in which the presence of nonreceptors may or may not be effective in promoting robustness.

The Miyata–Choi–Camassa (MCC) system of equations describing long internal nonhydrostatic and nonlinear waves at the interface between two layers of inviscid fluids of different densities bounded by top and bottom walls is mathematically ill-posed despite the fact that physically stable internal waves are observed matching closely those of MCC. A regularization to the MCC equations that yields a computationally simple well-posed system for time-dependent evolution is proposed here. The regularization is accomplished by keeping the full hyperbolic part of MCC and exchanging spatial and temporal derivatives in one of the linearized dispersive terms. Solitary waves of MCC over a wide range of parameters are used as a benchmark to check the accuracy of the model. Our model includes the possibility of a background shear, and we show that, contrary to the no shear case, solitary waves can cross the midlevel between the top and the bottom walls and may have different polarity from the case with no background shear. Time-dependent solutions of the regularization stable model are presented, including interactions of its solitary waves, and classical and modified Korteweg-de Vries equations for small amplitude waves with the inclusion of background shear are derived. Throughout the paper, the Boussinesq approximation is taken, although the results can be extended to the non-Boussinesq case.

]]>The subjects of the work are pairs of linearly coupled -symmetric dimers. Two different settings are introduced, namely, *straight-coupled dimer*s, where each gain site is linearly coupled to one gain and one loss site, and *cross-coupled dimers*, with each gain site coupled to two lossy ones. The latter pair with equal coupling coefficients represents a -*hypersymmetric* quadrimer. We find symmetric and antisymmetric solutions in these systems, chiefly in an analytical form, and explore the existence, stability, and dynamical behavior of such solutions by means of numerical methods. We thus identify bifurcations occurring in the systems, including spontaneous symmetry breaking and saddle-center bifurcations. Simulations demonstrate that evolution of unstable branches typically leads to blowup. However, in some cases, unstable modes rearrange into stable ones.

For the classical Stirling numbers of the second kind, asymptotic formulae are derived in terms of a local central limit theorem. The underlying probabilistic approach also applies to the Chebyshev–Stirling numbers, a special case of the Jacobi–Stirling numbers. Essential features are uniformity properties and the fact that the leading terms of the asymptotics are given explicitly and they contain elementary expressions only. Thereby supplements of the asymptotic analysis of these numbers are established.

]]>The patterning of many developing tissues is orchestrated by gradients of morphogens through a variety of elaborate regulatory interactions. Such interactions are thought to make gradients robust, that is, resistant to changes induced by genetic or environmental perturbations; but just how this might be done is a major unanswered question. Recently extensive numerical simulations suggest that robustness of signaling gradients cannot be attained by negative feedback (of the Hill's function type) on signaling receptors but can be achieved through binding with nonsignaling receptors (or nonreceptors for short) such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans with the resulting complexes degrading after endocytosis. These were followed by a number of analytical and numerical studies in support of the aforementioned observations. However, evidence of feedback regulating signaling gradients has been reported in literature. The present paper undertakes a different approach to the role of feedback in robust signaling gradients. The overall goal of the project is to investigate the effectiveness of feedback mechanisms on ligand synthesis, receptor synthesis, nonreceptor synthesis, and other regulatory processes in the morphogen gradient system. As a first step, we embark herein a proof-of-concept examination of a new spatially uniform feedback process that is distinctly different from the conventional spatially nonuniform Hill function approach.

]]>We consider the initial-value problem for the regularized Boussinesq-type equation in the class of periodic functions. Validity of the weakly nonlinear solution, given in terms of two counterpropagating waves satisfying the uncoupled Ostrovsky equations, is examined. We prove analytically and illustrate numerically that the improved accuracy of the solution can be achieved at the timescales of the Ostrovsky equation if solutions of the linearized Ostrovsky equations are incorporated into the asymptotic solution. Compared to the previous literature, we show that the approximation error can be controlled in the energy space of periodic functions and the nonzero mean values of the periodic functions can be naturally incorporated in the justification analysis.

]]>A class of multicomponent integrable systems associated with Novikov algebras, which interpolate between Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) and Camassa–Holm-type equations, is obtained. The construction is based on the classification of low-dimensional Novikov algebras by Bai and Meng. These multicomponent bi-Hamiltonian systems obtained by this construction may be interpreted as Euler equations on the centrally extended Lie algebras associated with the Novikov algebras. The related bilinear forms generating cocycles of first, second, and third order are classified. Several examples, including known integrable equations, are presented.

]]>Conditional Lie-Bäcklund symmetry (CLBS) method is developed to study system of evolution equations. It is shown that reducibility of a system of evolution equations to a system of ordinary differential equations can be fully characterized by the CLBS of the considered system. As an application of the approach, a class of two-component nonlinear diffusion equations is studied. The governing system and the admitted CLBS can be identified. As a consequence, exact solutions defined on the polynomial, exponential, trigonometric, and mixed invariant subspaces are constructed due to the corresponding symmetry reductions.

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