We consider a general local-stochastic volatility model and an investor with exponential utility. For a European-style contingent claim, whose payoff may depend on either a traded or nontraded asset, we derive an explicit approximation for both the buyer's and seller's indifference prices. For European calls on a traded asset, we translate indifference prices into an explicit approximation of the buyer's and seller's implied volatility surfaces. For European claims on a nontraded asset, we establish rigorous error bounds for the indifference price approximation. Finally, we implement our indifference price and implied volatility approximations in two examples.

]]>We consider an investor who has access both to a traditional venue and a dark pool for liquidating a position in a single asset. While trade execution is certain on the traditional exchange, she faces linear price impact costs. On the other hand, dark pool orders suffer from adverse selection and trade execution is uncertain. Adverse selection decreases order sizes in the dark pool while it speeds up trading at the exchange. For small orders, it is optimal to avoid the dark pool completely. Adverse selection can prevent profitable round-trip trading strategies that otherwise would arise if permanent price impact were included in the model.

]]>The well-known theorem of Dybvig, Ingersoll, and Ross shows that the long zero-coupon rate can never fall. This result, which, although undoubtedly correct, has been regarded by many as surprising, stems from the implicit assumption that the long-term discount function has an exponential tail. We revisit the problem in the setting of modern interest rate theory, and show that if the long “simple” interest rate (or Libor rate) is finite, then this rate (unlike the zero-coupon rate) acts viably as a state variable, the value of which can fluctuate randomly in line with other economic indicators. New interest rate models are constructed, under this hypothesis and certain generalizations thereof, that illustrate explicitly the good asymptotic behavior of the resulting discount bond systems. The conditions necessary for the existence of such “hyperbolic” and “generalized hyperbolic” long rates are those of so-called social discounting, which allow for long-term cash flows to be treated as broadly “just as important” as those of the short or medium term. As a consequence, we are able to provide a consistent arbitrage-free valuation framework for the cost-benefit analysis and risk management of long-term social projects, such as those associated with sustainable energy, resource conservation, and climate change.

]]>We analyze the convergence of the Longstaff–Schwartz algorithm relying on only a single set of independent Monte Carlo sample paths that is repeatedly reused for all exercise time-steps. We prove new estimates on the stochastic component of the error of this algorithm whenever the approximation architecture is any uniformly bounded set of *L*^{2} functions of finite Vapnik–Chervonenkis dimension (VC-dimension), but in particular need not necessarily be either convex or closed. We also establish new overall error estimates, incorporating bounds on the approximation error as well, for certain nonlinear, nonconvex sets of neural networks.

We provide an extension of the explicit solution of a mixed optimal stopping–optimal stochastic control problem introduced by Henderson and Hobson. The problem examines whether the optimal investment problem on a local martingale financial market is affected by the optimal liquidation of an independent indivisible asset. The indivisible asset process is defined by a homogeneous scalar stochastic differential equation, and the investor's preferences are defined by a general expected utility function. The value function is obtained in explicit form, and we prove the existence of an optimal stopping–investment strategy characterized as the limit of an explicit maximizing strategy. Our approach is based on the standard dynamic programming approach.

]]>Recently, advantages of conformal deformations of the contours of integration in pricing formulas for European options have been demonstrated in the context of wide classes of Lévy models, the Heston model, and other affine models. Similar deformations were used in one-factor Lévy models to price options with barrier and lookback features and credit default swaps (CDSs). In the present paper, we generalize this approach to models, where the dynamics of the assets is modeled as , where *X* is a Lévy process, and the interest rate is stochastic. Assuming that *X* and *r* are independent, and , the infinitesimal generator of the pricing semigroup in the model for the short rate, satisfies weak regularity conditions, which hold for popular models of the short rate, we develop a variation of the pricing procedure for Lévy models which is almost as fast as in the case of the constant interest rate. Numerical examples show that about 0.15 second suffices to calculate prices of 8 options of same maturity in a two-factor model with the error tolerance and less; in a three-factor model, accuracy of order 0.001–0.005 is achieved in about 0.2 second. Similar results are obtained for quanto CDS, where an additional stochastic factor is the exchange rate. We suggest a class of Lévy models with the stochastic interest rate driven by 1–3 factors, which allows for fast calculations. This class can satisfy the current regulatory requirements for banks mandating sufficiently sophisticated credit risk models.

We derive the joint density of a Skew Brownian motion, its last visit to the origin, its local and occupation times. The result enables us to obtain explicit analytical formulas for pricing European options under both a two-valued local volatility model and a displaced diffusion model with constrained volatility.

]]>We study the problem of expected utility maximization in a large market, i.e., a market with countably many traded assets. Assuming that agents have von Neumann–Morgenstern preferences with stochastic utility function and that consumption occurs according to a stochastic clock, we obtain the “usual” conclusions of the utility maximization theory. We also give a characterization of the value function in a large market in terms of a sequence of value functions in finite-dimensional models.

]]>The growth of the exchange-traded fund (ETF) industry has given rise to the trading of options written on ETFs and their leveraged counterparts (LETFs). We study the relationship between the ETF and LETF implied volatility surfaces when the underlying ETF is modeled by a general class of local-stochastic volatility models. A closed-form approximation for prices is derived for European-style options whose payoffs depend on the terminal value of the ETF and/or LETF. Rigorous error bounds for this pricing approximation are established. A closed-form approximation for implied volatilities is also derived. We also discuss a scaling procedure for comparing implied volatilities across leverage ratios. The implied volatility expansions and scalings are tested in three settings: Heston, limited constant elasticity of variance (CEV), and limited SABR; the last two are regularized versions of the well-known CEV and SABR models.

]]>We introduce a new stochastic volatility model that includes, as special instances, the Heston (1993) and the 3/2 model of Heston (1997) and Platen (1997). Our model exhibits important features: first, instantaneous volatility can be uniformly bounded away from zero, and second, our model is mathematically and computationally tractable, thereby enabling an efficient pricing procedure. This called for using the Lie symmetries theory for partial differential equations; doing so allowed us to extend known results on Bessel processes. Finally, we provide an exact simulation scheme for the model, which is useful for numerical applications.

]]>We study a continuous-time financial market with continuous price processes under model uncertainty, modeled via a family of possible physical measures. A robust notion of no-arbitrage of the first kind is introduced; it postulates that a nonnegative, nonvanishing claim cannot be superhedged for free by using simple trading strategies. Our first main result is a version of the fundamental theorem of asset pricing: holds if and only if every admits a martingale measure that is equivalent up to a certain lifetime. The second main result provides the existence of optimal superhedging strategies for general contingent claims and a representation of the superhedging price in terms of martingale measures.

]]>We study the Merton portfolio optimization problem in the presence of stochastic volatility using asymptotic approximations when the volatility process is characterized by its timescales of fluctuation. This approach is tractable because it treats the incomplete markets problem as a perturbation around the complete market constant volatility problem for the value function, which is well understood. When volatility is fast mean-reverting, this is a singular perturbation problem for a nonlinear Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman partial differential equation, while when volatility is slowly varying, it is a regular perturbation. These analyses can be combined for multifactor multiscale stochastic volatility models. The asymptotics shares remarkable similarities with the linear option pricing problem, which follows from some new properties of the Merton risk tolerance function. We give examples in the family of mixture of power utilities and also use our asymptotic analysis to suggest a “practical” strategy that does not require tracking the fast-moving volatility. In this paper, we present formal derivations of asymptotic approximations, and we provide a convergence proof in the case of power utility and single-factor stochastic volatility. We assess our approximation in a particular case where there is an explicit solution.

]]>We consider the fundamental theorem of asset pricing (FTAP) and the hedging prices of options under nondominated model uncertainty and portfolio constraints in discrete time. We first show that no arbitrage holds if and only if there exists some family of probability measures such that any admissible portfolio value process is a local super-martingale under these measures. We also get the nondominated optional decomposition with constraints. From this decomposition, we obtain the duality of the super-hedging prices of European options, as well as the sub- and super-hedging prices of American options. Finally, we get the FTAP and the duality of super-hedging prices in a market where stocks are traded dynamically and options are traded statically.

]]>We consider an asset whose risk-neutral dynamics are described by a general class of local-stochastic volatility models and derive a family of asymptotic expansions for European-style option prices and implied volatilities. We also establish rigorous error estimates for these quantities. Our implied volatility expansions are explicit; they do not require any special functions nor do they require numerical integration. To illustrate the accuracy and versatility of our method, we implement it under four different model dynamics: constant elasticity of variance local volatility, Heston stochastic volatility, three-halves stochastic volatility, and SABR local-stochastic volatility.

]]>We investigate the general structure of optimal investment and consumption with small proportional transaction costs. For a safe asset and a risky asset with general continuous dynamics, traded with random and time-varying but small transaction costs, we derive simple formal asymptotics for the optimal policy and welfare. These reveal the roles of the investors' preferences as well as the market and cost dynamics, and also lead to a fully dynamic model for the implied trading volume. In frictionless models that can be solved in closed form, explicit formulas for the leading-order corrections due to small transaction costs are obtained.

]]>Approximations to utility indifference prices are provided for a contingent claim in the large position size limit. Results are valid for general utility functions on the real line and semi-martingale models. It is shown that as the position size approaches infinity, the utility function's decay rate for large negative wealths is the primary driver of prices. For utilities with exponential decay, one may price like an exponential investor. For utilities with a power decay, one may price like a power investor after a suitable adjustment to the rate at which the position size becomes large. In a sizable class of diffusion models, limiting indifference prices are explicitly computed for an exponential investor. Furthermore, the large claim limit arises endogenously as the hedging error for the claim vanishes.

]]>We consider *n* risk-averse agents who compete for liquidity in an Almgren–Chriss market impact model. Mathematically, this situation can be described by a Nash equilibrium for a certain linear quadratic differential game with state constraints. The state constraints enter the problem as terminal boundary conditions for finite and infinite time horizons. We prove existence and uniqueness of Nash equilibria and give closed-form solutions in some special cases. We also analyze qualitative properties of the equilibrium strategies and provide corresponding financial interpretations.

This paper considers the pricing and hedging of a call option when liquidity matters, that is, either for a large nominal or for an illiquid underlying asset. In practice, as opposed to the classical assumptions of a price-taking agent in a frictionless market, traders cannot be perfectly hedged because of execution costs and market impact. They indeed face a trade-off between hedging errors and costs that can be solved by using stochastic optimal control. Our modeling framework, which is inspired by the recent literature on optimal execution, makes it possible to account for both execution costs and the lasting market impact of trades. Prices are obtained through the indifference pricing approach. Numerical examples are provided, along with comparisons to standard methods.

]]>We study a problem of optimal investment/consumption over an infinite horizon in a market with two possibly correlated assets: one liquid and one illiquid. The liquid asset is observed and can be traded continuously, while the illiquid one can be traded only at discrete random times, corresponding to the jumps of a Poisson process with intensity λ, is observed at the trading dates, and is partially observed between two different trading dates. The problem is a nonstandard mixed discrete/continuous optimal control problem, which we solve by a dynamic programming approach. When the utility has a general form, we prove that the value function is the unique viscosity solution of the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and characterize the optimal allocation in the illiquid asset. In the case of power utility, we establish the regularity of the value function needed to prove the verification theorem, providing the complete theoretical solution of the problem. This enables us to perform numerical simulations, so as to analyze the impact of time illiquidity and how this impact is affected by the degree of observation.

]]>In a financial market with a continuous price process and proportional transaction costs, we investigate the problem of utility maximization of terminal wealth. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a shadow price process, i.e., a least favorable frictionless market leading to the same optimal strategy and utility as in the original market under transaction costs. The crucial ingredients are the continuity of the price process and the hypothesis of “no unbounded profit with bounded risk.” A counterexample reveals that these hypotheses cannot be relaxed.

]]>This paper studies the problem of option replication in general stochastic volatility markets with transaction costs, using a new specification for the volatility adjustment in Leland's algorithm. We prove several limit theorems for the normalized replication error of Leland's strategy, as well as that of the strategy suggested by Lépinette. The asymptotic results obtained not only generalize the existing results, but also enable us to fix the underhedging property pointed out by Kabanov and Safarian. We also discuss possible methods to improve the convergence rate and to reduce the option price inclusive of transaction costs.

]]>We generalize the primal–dual methodology, which is popular in the pricing of early-exercise options, to a backward dynamic programming equation associated with time discretization schemes of (reflected) backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). Taking as an input some approximate solution of the backward dynamic program, which was precomputed, e.g., by least-squares Monte Carlo, this methodology enables us to construct a confidence interval for the unknown true solution of the time-discretized (reflected) BSDE at time 0. We numerically demonstrate the practical applicability of our method in two 5-dimensional nonlinear pricing problems where tight price bounds were previously unavailable.

]]>An investor trades a safe and several risky assets with linear price impact to maximize expected utility from terminal wealth. In the limit for small impact costs, we explicitly determine the optimal policy and welfare, in a general Markovian setting allowing for stochastic market, cost, and preference parameters. These results shed light on the general structure of the problem at hand, and also unveil close connections to optimal execution problems and to other market frictions such as proportional and fixed transaction costs.

]]>In a companion paper, we studied a control problem related to swing option pricing in a general non-Markovian setting. The main result there shows that the value process of this control problem can uniquely be characterized in terms of a first-order backward stochastic partial differential equation (BSPDE) and a pathwise differential inclusion. In this paper, we additionally assume that the cash flow process of the swing option is left-continuous in expectation. Under this assumption, we show that the value process is continuously differentiable in the space variable that represents the volume in which the holder of the option can still exercise until maturity. This gives rise to an existence and uniqueness result for the corresponding BSPDE in a classical sense. We also explicitly represent the space derivative of the value process in terms of a nonstandard optimal stopping problem over a subset of predictable stopping times. This representation can be applied to derive a dual minimization problem in terms of martingales.

]]>We derive the process followed by trading volume, in a market with finite depth and constant investment opportunities, where a large investor, with a long horizon and constant relative risk aversion, trades a safe and a risky asset. Trading volume approximately follows a Gaussian, mean-reverting diffusion, and increases with depth, volatility, and risk aversion. Unlike the frictionless theory, finite depth excludes leverage and short sales because such positions may not be solvent even with continuous trading.

]]>This paper provides a coherent method for scenario aggregation addressing model uncertainty. It is based on divergence minimization from a reference probability measure subject to scenario constraints. An example from regulatory practice motivates the definition of five fundamental criteria that serve as a basis for our method. Standard risk measures, such as value-at-risk and expected shortfall, are shown to be robust with respect to minimum divergence scenario aggregation. Various examples illustrate the tractability of our method.

]]>In this paper, we study the pricing and hedging of typical life insurance liabilities for an insurance portfolio with dependent mortality risk by means of the well-known risk-minimization approach. As the insurance portfolio consists of individuals of different age cohorts in order to capture the cross-generational dependency structure of the portfolio, we introduce affine models for the mortality intensities based on Gaussian random fields that deliver analytically tractable results. We also provide specific examples consistent with historical mortality data and correlation structures. Main novelties of this work are the explicit computations of risk-minimizing strategies for life insurance liabilities written on an insurance portfolio composed of primary financial assets (a risky asset and a money market account) and a family of longevity bonds, and the simultaneous consideration of different age cohorts.

]]>The discrete-time mean-variance portfolio selection formulation, which is a representative of general dynamic mean-risk portfolio selection problems, typically does not satisfy time consistency in efficiency (TCIE), i.e., a truncated precommitted efficient policy may become inefficient for the corresponding truncated problem. In this paper, we analytically investigate the effect of portfolio constraints on the TCIE of convex cone-constrained markets. More specifically, we derive semi-analytical expressions for the precommitted efficient mean-variance policy and the minimum-variance signed supermartingale measure (VSSM) and examine their relationship. Our analysis shows that the precommitted discrete-time efficient mean-variance policy satisfies TCIE if and only if the conditional expectation of the density of the VSSM (with respect to the original probability measure) is nonnegative, or once the conditional expectation becomes negative, it remains at the same negative value until the terminal time. Our finding indicates that the TCIE property depends only on the basic market setting, including portfolio constraints. This motivates us to establish a general procedure for constructing TCIE dynamic portfolio selection problems by introducing suitable portfolio constraints.

]]>This paper is concerned with the axiomatic foundation and explicit construction of a general class of optimality criteria that can be used for investment problems with multiple time horizons, or when the time horizon is not known in advance. Both the investment criterion and the optimal strategy are characterized by the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation on a semi-infinite time interval. In the case where this equation can be linearized, the problem reduces to a time-reversed parabolic equation, which cannot be analyzed via the standard methods of partial differential equations. Under the additional uniform ellipticity condition, we make use of the available description of all minimal solutions to such equations, along with some basic facts from potential theory and convex analysis, to obtain an explicit integral representation of all positive solutions. These results allow us to construct a large family of the aforementioned optimality criteria, including some closed-form examples in relevant financial models.

]]>In this paper, we obtain a recursive formula for the density of the two-sided Parisian stopping time. This formula does not require any numerical inversion of Laplace transforms, and is similar to the formula obtained for the one-sided Parisian stopping time derived in Dassios and Lim. However, when we study the tails of the two distributions, we find that the two-sided stopping time has an exponential tail, while the one-sided stopping time has a heavier tail. We derive an asymptotic result for the tail of the two-sided stopping time distribution and propose an alternative method of approximating the price of the two-sided Parisian option.

]]>We develop an option pricing model based on a tug-of-war game. This two-player zero-sum stochastic differential game is formulated in the context of a multidimensional financial market. The issuer and the holder try to manipulate asset price processes in order to minimize and maximize the expected discounted reward. We prove that the game has a value and that the value function is the unique viscosity solution to a terminal value problem for a parabolic partial differential equation involving the nonlinear and completely degenerate infinity Laplace operator.

]]>The classic approach to modeling financial markets consists of four steps. First, one fixes a currency unit. Second, one describes in that unit the evolution of financial assets by a stochastic process. Third, one chooses in that unit a numéraire, usually the price process of a positive asset. Fourth, one divides the original price process by the numéraire and considers the class of admissible strategies for trading. This approach has one fundamental drawback: Almost all concepts, definitions, and results, including no-arbitrage conditions like NA, NFLVR, and NUPBR depend *by their very definition*, at least formally, on initial choices of a currency unit and a numéraire. In this paper, we develop a new framework for modeling financial markets, *which is not based on ex-ante choices of a currency unit and a numéraire*. In particular, we introduce a “numéraire-independent” notion of no-arbitrage and derive its dual characterization. This yields a numéraire-independent version of the fundamental theorem of asset pricing (FTAP). We also explain how the classic approach and other recent approaches to modeling financial markets and studying no-arbitrage can be embedded in our framework.

In this paper, we examine irreversible investment decisions in duopoly games with a variable economic climate. Integrating timing flexibility, competition, and changes in the economic environment in the form of a cash flow process with regime switching, the problem is formulated as a stopping-time game under Stackelberg leader-follower competition, in which both players determine their respective optimal market entry time. By extending the variational inequality approach, we solve for the free boundaries and obtain optimal investment strategies for each player. Despite the lack of regularity in the leader's obstacle and the cash flow regime uncertainty, the regime-dependent optimal policies for both the leader and the follower are obtained. In addition, we perform comprehensive numerical experiments to demonstrate the properties of solutions and to gain insights into the implications of regime switching.

]]>We consider an optimal investment problem with intermediate consumption and random endowment, in an incomplete semimartingale model of the financial market. We establish the key assertions of the utility maximization theory, assuming that both primal and dual value functions are finite in the interiors of their domains and that the random endowment at maturity can be dominated by the terminal value of a self-financing wealth process. In order to facilitate the verification of these conditions, we present alternative, but equivalent conditions, under which the conclusions of the theory hold.

]]>We consider the portfolio choice problem for a long-run investor in a general continuous semimartingale model. We combine the decision criterion of pathwise growth optimality with a flexible specification of attitude toward risk, encoded by a linear drawdown constraint imposed on admissible wealth processes. We define the constrained numéraire property through the notion of expected relative return and prove that drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio exists and is unique, but may depend on the investment horizon. However, when sampled at the times of its maximum and asymptotically as the time-horizon becomes distant, the drawdown-constrained numéraire portfolio is given explicitly through a model-independent transformation of the unconstrained numéraire portfolio. The asymptotically growth-optimal strategy is obtained as limit of numéraire strategies on finite horizons.

]]>When the planning horizon is long, and the safe asset grows indefinitely, isoelastic portfolios are nearly optimal for investors who are close to isoelastic for high wealth, and not too risk averse for low wealth. We prove this result in a general arbitrage-free, frictionless, semimartingale model. As a consequence, optimal portfolios are robust to the perturbations in preferences induced by common option compensation schemes, and such incentives are weaker when their horizon is longer. Robust option incentives are possible, but require several, arbitrarily large exercise prices, and are not always convex.

]]>In some options markets (e.g., commodities), options are listed with only a single maturity for each underlying. In others (e.g., equities, currencies), options are listed with multiple maturities. In this paper, we analyze a special class of pure jump Markov martingale models and provide an algorithm for calibrating such models to match the market prices of European options with multiple strikes and maturities. This algorithm matches option prices exactly and only requires solving several one-dimensional root-search problems and applying elementary functions. We show how to construct a time-homogeneous process which meets a single smile, and a piecewise time-homogeneous process which can meet multiple smiles.

]]>Lions and Musiela give sufficient conditions to verify when a stochastic exponential of a continuous local martingale is a martingale or a uniformly integrable martingale. Blei and Engelbert and Mijatović and Urusov give necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of perfect correlation (). For financial applications, such as checking the martingale property of the stock price process in correlated stochastic volatility models, we extend their work to the arbitrary correlation case (). We give a complete classification of the convergence properties of both perpetual and capped integral functionals of time-homogeneous diffusions and generalize results in Mijatović and Urusov with direct proofs avoiding the use of *separating times* (concept introduced by Cherny and Urusov and extensively used in the proofs of Mijatović and Urusov).

It is well known that, under a continuity assumption on the price of a stock *S*, the realized variance of *S* for maturity *T* can be replicated by a portfolio of calls and puts maturing at *T*. This paper assumes that call prices on *S* maturing at *T* are known for all strikes but makes no continuity assumptions on *S*. We derive semiexplicit expressions for the supremum lower bound on the hedged payoff, at maturity *T*, of a long position in the realized variance of *S*. Equivalently, is the supremum strike *K* such that an investor with a long position in a variance swap with strike *K* can ensure a nonnegative payoff at *T*. We study examples with constant implied volatilities and with a volatility skew. In our examples, is close to the fair variance strike obtained under the continuity assumption.

We develop two novel approaches to solving for the Laplace transform of a time-changed stochastic process. We discard the standard assumption that the background process () is Lévy. Maintaining the assumption that the business clock () and the background process are independent, we develop two different series solutions for the Laplace transform of the time-changed process . In fact, our methods apply not only to Laplace transforms, but more generically to expectations of smooth functions of random time. We apply the methods to introduce stochastic time change to the standard class of default intensity models of credit risk, and show that stochastic time-change has a very large effect on the pricing of deep out-of-the-money options on credit default swaps.

]]>Since risky positions in multivariate portfolios can be offset by various choices of capital requirements that depend on the exchange rules and related transaction costs, it is natural to assume that the risk measures of random vectors are set-valued. Furthermore, it is reasonable to include the exchange rules in the argument of the risk measure and so consider risk measures of set-valued portfolios. This situation includes the classical Kabanov's transaction costs model, where the set-valued portfolio is given by the sum of a random vector and an exchange cone, but also a number of further cases of additional liquidity constraints. We suggest a definition of the risk measure based on calling a set-valued portfolio acceptable if it possesses a selection with all individually acceptable marginals. The obtained selection risk measure is coherent (or convex), law invariant, and has values being upper convex closed sets. We describe the dual representation of the selection risk measure and suggest efficient ways of approximating it from below and from above. In the case of Kabanov's exchange cone model, it is shown how the selection risk measure relates to the set-valued risk measures considered by Kulikov (, *Theory Probab. Appl*. 52, 614–635), Hamel and Heyde (, *SIAM J. Financ. Math*. 1, 66–95), and Hamel, Heyde, and Rudloff (, *Math. Financ. Econ*. 5, 1–28).

This paper studies the price-setting problem of market makers under risk neutrality and perfect competition in continuous time. The classic approach of Glosten–Milgrom is followed. Bid and ask prices are defined as conditional expectations of a true value of the asset given the market makers' partial information that includes the customers' trading decisions. The true value is modeled as a Markov process that can be observed by the customers with some noise at Poisson times. A mathematically rigorous analysis of the price-setting problem is carried out, solving a filtering problem with endogenous filtration that depends on the bid and ask price processes quoted by the market maker. The existence and uniqueness of the bid and ask price processes is shown under some conditions.

]]>In this paper, we propose a sensitivity-based analysis to study the nonlinear behavior under nonexpected utility with probability distortions (or “distorted utility” for short). We first discover the “monolinearity” of distorted utility, which means that after properly changing the underlying probability measure, distorted utility becomes locally linear in probabilities, and the derivative of distorted utility is simply an expectation of the sample path derivative under the new measure. From the monolinearity property, simulation algorithms for estimating the derivative of distorted utility can be developed, leading to gradient-based search algorithms for the optimum of distorted utility. We then apply the sensitivity-based approach to the portfolio selection problem under distorted utility with complete and incomplete markets. For the complete markets case, the first-order condition is derived and optimal wealth deduced. For the incomplete markets case, a dual characterization of optimal policies is provided; a solvable incomplete market example with unhedgeable interest rate risk is also presented. We expect this sensitivity-based approach to be generally applicable to optimization problems involving probability distortions.

]]>The risk of a financial position is usually summarized by a risk measure. As this risk measure has to be estimated from historical data, it is important to be able to verify and compare competing estimation procedures. In statistical decision theory, risk measures for which such verification and comparison is possible, are called elicitable. It is known that quantile-based risk measures such as value at risk are elicitable. In this paper, the existing result of the nonelicitability of expected shortfall is extended to all law-invariant spectral risk measures unless they reduce to minus the expected value. Hence, it is unclear how to perform forecast verification or comparison. However, the class of elicitable law-invariant coherent risk measures does not reduce to minus the expected value. We show that it consists of certain expectiles.

]]>We propose a fast and accurate numerical method for pricing European swaptions in multifactor Gaussian term structure models. Our method can be used to accelerate the calibration of such models to the volatility surface. The pricing of an interest rate option in such a model involves evaluating a multidimensional integral of the payoff of the claim on a domain where the payoff is positive. In our method, we approximate the exercise boundary of the state space by a hyperplane tangent to the maximum probability point on the boundary and simplify the multidimensional integration into an analytical form. The maximum probability point can be determined using the gradient descent method. We demonstrate that our method is superior to previous methods by comparing the results to the price obtained by numerical integration.

]]>To assure price admissibility—that all bond prices, yields, and forward rates remain positive—we show how to control the state variables within the class of arbitrage-free linear price function models for the evolution of interest rate yield curves over time. Price admissibility is necessary to preclude cash-and-carry arbitrage, a market imperfection that can happen even with a risk-neutral diffusion process and positive bond prices. We assure price admissibility by (i) defining the state variables to be scaled partial sums of weighted coefficients of the exponential terms in the bond pricing function, (ii) identifying a simplex within which these state variables remain price admissible, and (iii) choosing a general functional form for the diffusion that selectively diminishes near the simplex boundary. By assuring that prices, yields, and forward rates remain positive with tractable diffusions for the physical and risk-neutral measures, an obstacle is removed from the wider acceptance of interest rate methods that are linear in prices.

]]>Many investment models in discrete or continuous-time settings boil down to maximizing an objective of the quantile function of the decision variable. This quantile optimization problem is known as the quantile formulation of the original investment problem. Under certain monotonicity assumptions, several schemes to solve such quantile optimization problems have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a change-of-variable and relaxation method to solve the quantile optimization problems without using the calculus of variations or making any monotonicity assumptions. The method is demonstrated through a portfolio choice problem under rank-dependent utility theory (RDUT). We show that this problem is equivalent to a classical Merton's portfolio choice problem under expected utility theory with the same utility function but a different pricing kernel explicitly determined by the given pricing kernel and probability weighting function. With this result, the feasibility, well-posedness, attainability, and uniqueness issues for the portfolio choice problem under RDUT are solved. It is also shown that solving functional optimization problems may reduce to solving probabilistic optimization problems. The method is applicable to general models with law-invariant preference measures including portfolio choice models under cumulative prospect theory (CPT) or RDUT, Yaari's dual model, Lopes' SP/A model, and optimal stopping models under CPT or RDUT.

]]>We consider the optimal portfolio problem of a power investor who wishes to allocate her wealth between several credit default swaps (CDSs) and a money market account. We model contagion risk among the reference entities in the portfolio using a reduced-form Markovian model with interacting default intensities. Using the dynamic programming principle, we establish a lattice dependence structure between the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equations associated with the default states of the portfolio. We show existence and uniqueness of a classical solution to each equation and characterize them in terms of solutions to inhomogeneous Bernoulli type ordinary differential equations. We provide a precise characterization for the directionality of the CDS investment strategy and perform a numerical analysis to assess the impact of default contagion. We find that the increased intensity triggered by default of a very risky entity strongly impacts size and directionality of the investor strategy. Such findings outline the key role played by default contagion when investing in portfolios subject to multiple sources of default risk.

]]>We propose a tractable framework for quantifying the impact of loss-triggered fire sales on portfolio risk, in a multi-asset setting. We derive analytical expressions for the impact of fire sales on the realized volatility and correlations of asset returns in a fire sales scenario and show that our results provide a quantitative explanation for the spikes in volatility and correlations observed during such deleveraging episodes. These results are then used to develop an econometric framework for the forensic analysis of fire sales episodes, using observations of market prices. We give conditions for the identifiability of model parameters from time series of asset prices, propose a statistical test for the presence of fire sales, and an estimator for the magnitude of fire sales in each asset class. Pathwise consistency and large sample properties of the estimator are studied in the high-frequency asymptotic regime. We illustrate our methodology by applying it to the forensic analysis of two recent deleveraging episodes: the Quant Crash of August 2007 and the Great Deleveraging following the default of Lehman Brothers in Fall 2008.

]]>This paper studies stability of the exponential utility maximization when there are small variations on agent's utility function. Two settings are considered. First, in a general semimartingale model where random endowments are present, a sequence of utilities defined on converges to the exponential utility. Under a uniform condition on their marginal utilities, convergence of value functions, optimal payoffs, and optimal investment strategies are obtained, their rate of convergence is also determined. Stability of utility-based pricing is studied as an application. Second, a sequence of utilities defined on converges to the exponential utility after shifting and scaling. Their associated optimal strategies, after appropriate scaling, converge to the optimal strategy for the exponential hedging problem. This complements Theorem 3.2 in [Nutz, M. (): Risk aversion asymptotics for power utility maximization. *Probab. Theory & Relat. Fields* 152, 703–749], which establishes the convergence for a sequence of power utilities.

This paper develops the procedure of multivariate subordination for a collection of independent Markov processes with killing. Starting from *d* independent Markov processes with killing and an independent *d*-dimensional time change , we construct a new process by time, changing each of the Markov processes with a coordinate . When is a *d*-dimensional Lévy subordinator, the time changed process is a time-homogeneous Markov process with state-dependent jumps and killing in the product of the state spaces of . The dependence among jumps of its components is governed by the *d*-dimensional Lévy measure of the subordinator. When is a *d*-dimensional additive subordinator, *Y* is a time-inhomogeneous Markov process. When with forming a multivariate Markov process, is a Markov process, where each plays a role of stochastic volatility of . This construction provides a rich modeling architecture for building multivariate models in finance with time- and state-dependent jumps, stochastic volatility, and killing (default). The semigroup theory provides powerful analytical and computational tools for securities pricing in this framework. To illustrate, the paper considers applications to multiname unified credit-equity models and correlated commodity models.

In this paper we ask whether, given a stock market and an illiquid derivative, there exists arbitrage-free prices at which a utility-maximizing agent would always want to buy the derivative, irrespectively of his own initial endowment of derivatives and cash. We prove that this is false for any given investor if one considers *all* initial endowments with finite utility, and that it can instead be true if one restricts to the endowments in the interior. We show, however, how the endowments on the boundary can give rise to very odd phenomena; for example, an investor with such an endowment would choose not to trade in the derivative even at prices arbitrarily close to some arbitrage price.

This paper deals with multidimensional dynamic risk measures induced by conditional *g*-expectations. A notion of multidimensional *g*-expectation is proposed to provide a multidimensional version of nonlinear expectations. By a technical result on explicit expressions for the comparison theorem, uniqueness theorem, and viability on a rectangle of solutions to multidimensional backward stochastic differential equations, some necessary and sufficient conditions are given for the constancy, monotonicity, positivity, and translatability properties of multidimensional conditional *g*-expectations and multidimensional dynamic risk measures; we prove that a multidimensional dynamic *g*-risk measure is nonincreasingly convex if and only if the generator *g* satisfies a quasi-monotone increasingly convex condition. A general dual representation is given for the multidimensional dynamic convex *g*-risk measure in which the penalty term is expressed more precisely. It is shown that model uncertainty leads to the convexity of risk measures. As to applications, we show how this multidimensional approach can be applied to measure the insolvency risk of a firm with interacting subsidiaries; optimal risk sharing for -tolerant *g*-risk measures, and risk contribution for coherent *g*-risk measures are investigated. Insurance *g*-risk measure and other ways to induce *g*-risk measures are also studied at the end of the paper.

This paper discusses the problem of hedging not perfectly replicable contingent claims using the numéraire portfolio. The proposed concept of benchmarked risk minimization leads beyond the classical no-arbitrage paradigm. It provides in incomplete markets a generalization of the pricing under classical risk minimization, pioneered by Föllmer, Sondermann, and Schweizer. The latter relies on a quadratic criterion, requests square integrability of claims and gains processes, and relies on the existence of an equivalent risk-neutral probability measure. Benchmarked risk minimization avoids these restrictive assumptions and provides symmetry with respect to all primary securities. It employs the real-world probability measure and the numéraire portfolio to identify the minimal possible price for a contingent claim. Furthermore, the resulting benchmarked (i.e., numéraire portfolio denominated) profit and loss is only driven by uncertainty that is orthogonal to benchmarked-traded uncertainty, and forms a local martingale that starts at zero. Consequently, sufficiently different benchmarked profits and losses, when pooled, become asymptotically negligible through diversification. This property makes benchmarked risk minimization the least expensive method for pricing and hedging diversified pools of not fully replicable benchmarked contingent claims. In addition, when hedging it incorporates evolving information about nonhedgeable uncertainty, which is ignored under classical risk minimization.

We provide conditions on a one-period-two-date pure exchange economy with rank-dependent utility agents under which Arrow–Debreu equilibria exist. When such an equilibrium exists, we show that the state-price density is a weighted marginal rate of intertemporal substitution of a representative agent, where the weight depends on the differential of the probability weighting function. Based on the result, we find that asset prices depend upon agents' subjective beliefs regarding overall consumption growth, and we offer a direction for possible resolution of the equity premium puzzle.

This paper discusses the gambling contest introduced in Seel and Strack (, Gambling in Contests, *Journal of Economic Theory*, 148(5), 2033–2048) and considers the impact of adding a penalty associated with failure to follow a winning strategy. The Seel and Strack model consists of *n*-agents each of whom privately observes a transient diffusion process and chooses when to stop it. The player with the highest stopped value wins the contest, and each player's objective is to maximize her probability of winning the contest. We give a new derivation of the results of Seel and Strack based on a Lagrangian approach. Moreover, we consider an extension of the problem to a behavioral finance context in the sense of regret theory. In particular, an agent is penalized when her chosen strategy does not win the contest, but there existed an alternative strategy that would have resulted in victory.

The short-time asymptotic behavior of option prices for a variety of models with jumps has received much attention in recent years. In this work, a novel second-order approximation for at-the-money (ATM) option prices is derived for a large class of exponential Lévy models with or without Brownian component. The results hereafter shed new light on the connection between both the volatility of the continuous component and the jump parameters and the behavior of ATM option prices near expiration. In the presence of a Brownian component, the second-order term, in time-*t*, is of the form , with *d*_{2} only depending on *Y*, the degree of jump activity, on σ, the volatility of the continuous component, and on an additional parameter controlling the intensity of the “small” jumps (regardless of their signs). This extends the well-known result that the leading first-order term is . In contrast, under a pure-jump model, the dependence on *Y* and on the separate intensities of negative and positive small jumps are already reflected in the leading term, which is of the form . The second-order term is shown to be of the form and, therefore, its order of decay turns out to be independent of *Y*. The asymptotic behavior of the corresponding Black–Scholes implied volatilities is also addressed. Our method of proof is based on an integral representation of the option price involving the tail probability of the log-return process under the share measure and a suitable change of probability measure under which the pure-jump component of the log-return process becomes a *Y*-stable process. Our approach is sufficiently general to cover a wide class of Lévy processes, which satisfy the latter property and whose Lévy density can be closely approximated by a stable density near the origin. Our numerical results show that the first-order term typically exhibits rather poor performance and that the second-order term can significantly improve the approximation's accuracy, particularly in the absence of a Brownian component.

Classical put–call symmetry relates the price of puts and calls under a suitable dual market transform. One well-known application is the semistatic hedging of path-dependent barrier options with European options. This, however, in its classical form requires the price process to observe rather stringent and unrealistic symmetry properties. In this paper, we develop a general self-duality theorem to develop valuation schemes for barrier options in stochastic volatility models with correlation.

We study an optimal control problem related to swing option pricing in a general non-Markovian setting in continuous time. As a main result we uniquely characterize the value process in terms of a first-order nonlinear backward stochastic partial differential equation and a differential inclusion. Based on this result we also determine the set of optimal controls and derive a dual minimization problem.

We consider the problem facing a risk-averse agent who seeks to liquidate or exercise a portfolio of (infinitely divisible) perpetual American-style options on a single underlying asset. The optimal liquidation strategy is of threshold form and can be characterized explicitly as the solution of a calculus of variations problem. Apart from a possible initial exercise of a tranche of options, the optimal behavior involves liquidating the portfolio in infinitesimal amounts, but at times which are singular with respect to calendar time. We consider a number of illustrative examples involving CRRA and CARA utility, stocks, and portfolios of options with different strikes, and a model where the act of exercising has an impact on the underlying asset price.

]]>We propose a rank-dependent portfolio choice model in continuous time that captures the role in decision making of three emotions: hope, fear, and aspirations. Hope and fear are modeled through an inverse-S shaped probability weighting function and aspirations through a probabilistic constraint. By employing the recently developed approach of quantile formulation, we solve the portfolio choice problem both thoroughly and analytically. These solutions motivate us to introduce a fear index, a hope index, and a lottery-likeness index to quantify the impacts of three emotions, respectively, on investment behavior. We find that a sufficiently high level of fear endogenously necessitates portfolio insurance. On the other hand, hope is reflected in the agent's perspective on good states of the world: a higher level of hope causes the agent to include more scenarios under the notion of good states and leads to greater payoffs in sufficiently good states. Finally, an exceedingly high level of aspirations results in the construction of a lottery-type payoff, indicating that the agent needs to enter into a pure gamble in order to achieve his goal. We also conduct numerical experiments to demonstrate our findings.

]]>We consider a sequence of financial markets that converges weakly in a suitable sense and maximize a behavioral preference functional in each market. For expected *concave* utilities, it is well known that the maximal expected utilities and the corresponding final positions converge to the corresponding quantities in the limit model. We prove similar results for nonconcave utilities and distorted expectations as employed in behavioral finance, and we illustrate by a counterexample that these results require a stronger notion of convergence of the underlying models compared to the *concave* utility maximization. We use the results to analyze the stability of behavioral portfolio selection problems and to provide numerically tractable methods to solve such problems in complete continuous-time models.

We study a class of optimization problems involving linked recursive preferences in a continuous-time Brownian setting. Such links can arise when preferences depend directly on the level or volatility of wealth, in principal–agent (optimal compensation) problems with moral hazard, and when the impact of social influences on preferences is modeled via utility (and utility diffusion) externalities. We characterize the necessary first-order conditions, which are also sufficient under additional conditions ensuring concavity. We also examine applications to optimal consumption and portfolio choice, and applications to Pareto optimal allocations.

]]>Motivated by analytical valuation of timer options (an important innovation in realized variance-based derivatives), we explore their novel mathematical connection with stochastic volatility and Bessel processes (with constant drift). Under the Heston (1993) stochastic volatility model, we formulate the problem through a first-passage time problem on realized variance, and generalize the standard risk-neutral valuation theory for fixed maturity options to a case involving random maturity. By time change and the general theory of Markov diffusions, we characterize the joint distribution of the first-passage time of the realized variance and the corresponding variance using Bessel processes with drift. Thus, explicit formulas for a useful joint density related to Bessel processes are derived via Laplace transform inversion. Based on these theoretical findings, we obtain a Black–Scholes–Merton-type formula for pricing timer options, and thus extend the analytical tractability of the Heston model. Several issues regarding the numerical implementation are briefly discussed.

]]>We analyze the behavior of the implied volatility smile for options close to expiry in the exponential Lévy class of asset price models with jumps. We introduce a new renormalization of the strike variable with the property that the implied volatility converges to a nonconstant limiting shape, which is a function of both the diffusion component of the process and the jump activity (Blumenthal–Getoor) index of the jump component. Our limiting implied volatility formula relates the jump activity of the underlying asset price process to the short-end of the implied volatility surface and sheds new light on the difference between finite and infinite variation jumps from the viewpoint of option prices: in the latter, the wings of the limiting smile are determined by the jump activity indices of the positive and negative jumps, whereas in the former, the wings have a constant model-independent slope. This result gives a theoretical justification for the preference of the infinite variation Lévy models over the finite variation ones in the calibration based on short-maturity option prices.

]]>In this paper, we investigate a method based on risk minimization to hedge observable but nontradable source of risk on financial or energy markets. The optimal portfolio strategy is obtained by minimizing dynamically the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) using three main tools: a stochastic approximation algorithm, optimal quantization, and variance reduction techniques (importance sampling and linear control variable), as the quantities of interest are naturally related to rare events. As a first step, we investigate the problem of CVaR regression, which corresponds to a static portfolio strategy where the number of units of each tradable assets is fixed at time 0 and remains unchanged till maturity. We devise a stochastic approximation algorithm and study its a.s. convergence and weak convergence rate. Then, we extend our approach to the dynamic case under the assumption that the process modeling the nontradable source of risk and financial assets prices is Markovian. Finally, we illustrate our approach by considering several portfolios in connection with energy markets.

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