Treatment dose is an understudied aspect of treatment effectiveness. This study compared the frequency with which a small-group mathematics intervention was delivered weekly (i.e., four times, twice, once) with a control condition while controlling for total duration. 101 at-risk students in grades 2–4 were randomly assigned to a condition following universal screening and skill-based assessments. Multilevel modeling was used to evaluate final score and growth on three measures. Results suggested that for the most proximal computation measure, treatment sessions occurring four times weekly produced clear benefits. On the application measure, students in all treatment groups outperformed students in the control condition. For the most complex computation measure, frequency was not a useful predictor. Grade was a moderating variable.

]]>This review documents the learning disabilities (LD) identification criteria and procedures utilized in empirical research including students with LD published from 2001 to 2013 in three journals dedicated to the study of LD. Results reveal several troublesome findings related to transparency in reporting and the coherence of the LD construct. Nearly one-third of all empirical studies investigating LD did not describe who identified the participants as having LD or how they were identified. Information on the specific area of LD was similarly lacking. Across studies, identification criteria varied widely. Moving forward, we contend that greater transparency and consistency with regard to the definition and operationalization of the construct of LD in empirical research is necessary if solidification of the scientific construct of LD is to be achieved.

]]>Educators use curriculum-based measurement of oral reading (CBM-R) to measure student response to instruction. Current decision-making frameworks assume students demonstrate linear growth across a school year. However, growth appears nonlinear for at least a subgroup of students. We assessed the degree to which grade two (*n* = 800) and grade three (*n* = 800) students receiving intensive interventions experienced discontinuous growth. We also explored when discontinuous growth tended to occur, and whether students improved or regressed afterward. Results indicate linear patterns were adequate for most students (80 percent). Students who showed discontinuous growth early tended to improve afterward. Conversely, students who showed discontinuous growth later tended to plateau. Findings suggest multilevel models may obscure variability in growth patterns. Practice and research implications are discussed.

Legislations mandates that educators use evidence-based practices (EBPs) that are supported by scientifically based research. EBPs have demonstrated a likelihood to work for students with disabilities. EBPs should match targeted needs of the student receiving the instruction, which sometimes requires educators to search for the best intervention to meet specific student needs. This article discusses the impetus for practices supported by evidence, where to find interventions and strategies, and what to do when targeted interventions do not exist. Additionally, this article emphasizes the need to evaluate effectiveness of intervention at the student level.

]]>Problem solving represents a salient deficit in students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD) primarily caused by difficulties with informal and formal mathematical competencies. This study proposes a computerized intervention tool, the integrated dynamic representation (IDR), for enhancing the early learning of basic mathematical competencies and word problem solving skills. The goal was to compare and contrast the effects of IDR on the acquisition of informal and formal mathematical competencies in students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and MLD. Participants were 216 students (6–9 years), who were classified into three groups: ADHD (*n* = 72), MLD (*n* = 82), ADHD and MLD (*n* = 62). They completed the *Test of Early Mathematics Ability* (Third Edition). The results showed that all three diagnosed groups improved significantly postintervention in all mathematical competencies, with the MLD-only group benefiting the most at posttest.

This article quantitatively summarizes experimental and quasi-experimental studies on teaching students with mathematics difficulties (MD) published between 2000 and 2014, research that was available following earlier syntheses. It reports the analysis of effect sizes of 25 intervention studies on participant characteristics, intervention parameters, domains of mathematics interventions, and instructional approaches and components. Results indicate that several participant characteristics (e.g., grade level and level of mathematics difficulties) and intervention parameters (e.g., methodological soundness, intervention agent, and grouping) mediated the treatment effects. In addition, different types of instructional approaches and several instructional components contributed to the improvements in mathematics performance in students with MD.

]]>Requirements for reasoning, explaining, and generalizing mathematical concepts increase as students advance through the educational system; hence, improving overall mathematical proficiency is critical. Mathematical proficiency requires students to interpret quantities and their corresponding relationships during problem-solving tasks as well as generalizing to different contexts; both requirements are particularly challenging for many students with learning disabilities. An in-depth review of research was completed to (1) demonstrate how interventions targeting mathematical problem solving are categorized into heuristic, semantic, or authentic approaches; (2) explore the degree to which generalization is presented in each approach; and (3) determine the efficacy of each intervention approach. Experimental studies (*n* = 17) demonstrating the effects of interventions designed to enhance mathematical problem solving for secondary students with or at risk of learning disabilities were analyzed. Findings indicate that the efficacy of the three intervention approaches varies, and that the real-world connections differ. Implications for research and practice are discussed.