The subgroup structure of the hyperoctahedral group in six dimensions is investigated. In particular, the subgroups isomorphic to the icosahedral group are studied. The orthogonal crystallographic representations of the icosahedral group are classified and their intersections and subgroups analysed, using results from graph theory and their spectra.

]]>Symmetric Bragg-case reflections from a thick, ideally imperfect, crystal slab are studied mostly by analytical means. The scattering transfer function of a thin mosaic layer is derived and brought into a form that allows for analytical approximations or easy quadrature. The Darwin–Hamilton equations are generalized, lifting the restriction of wavevectors to a two-dimensional scattering plane. A multireflection expansion shows that wavevector diffusion can be studied independently of the real-space coordinate. Combining analytical arguments and Monte Carlo simulations, multiple Bragg reflections are found to result in a minor correction of the reflected intensity, a moderate broadening of the reflected azimuth angle distribution, a considerable modification of the polar angle distribution, and a noticeable shift and distortion of rocking curves.

]]>A low-discrepancy cubic variant of β-Mn is presented exhibiting local octagonal symmetry upon projection along any of the three mutually perpendicular 〈100〉 axes. Ideal structural parameters are derived to be and for the *P*4_{1}32 enantiomorph. A comparison of the actual and ideal structure models of β-Mn is made in terms of the newly devised concept of geometrical discrepancy maps. Two-dimensional maps of both the geometrical star discrepancy *D*^{*} and the minimal interatomic distance *d*_{min} are calculated over the combined structural parameter range and of generalized β-Mn type structures, showing that the `octagonal' variant of β-Mn is almost optimal in terms of globally minimizing *D*^{*} while at the same time globally maximizing *d*_{min}. Geometrical discrepancy maps combine predictive and discriminatory powers to appear useful within a wide range of structural chemistry studies.

The full quantitative characterization of nanopowders using transmission electron microscopy scattering patterns is shown. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the application of so-called combined analysis, a global approach for phase identification, structure refinement, characterization of anisotropic crystallite sizes and shapes, texture analysis and texture variations with the probed scale, using electron diffraction patterns of TiO_{2} and Mn_{3}O_{4} nanocrystal aggregates and platinum films. Electron diffraction pattern misalignments, positioning, and slight changes from pattern to pattern are directly integrated and refined within this approach. The use of a newly developed full-pattern search–match methodology for phase identification of nanopowders and the incorporation of the two-wave dynamical correction for diffraction patterns are also reported and proved to be efficient.

Diffraction profiles for different models of dislocation arrangements are calculated directly by the Monte Carlo method and compared with the strain distributions for the same arrangements, which corresponds to the Stokes–Wilson approximation. It is shown that the strain distributions and the diffraction profiles are in close agreement as long as long-range order is absent. Analytical calculation of the strain distribution for uncorrelated defects is presented. For straight dislocations, the Stokes–Wilson and the Krivoglaz–Wilkens approximations give the same diffraction profiles, with the Gaussian central part and ∝*q*^{−3} power law at the tails.

This paper explores the radial projection method for locally finite planar point sets and provides numerical examples for different types of order. The main question is whether the method is suitable to analyse order in a quantitative way. The findings indicate that the answer is affirmative. In this context, local visibility conditions are also studied for certain types of aperiodic point sets.

]]>High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of *Z*′ > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O—H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (*SHADE*) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, *e.g.* the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

In order to detect and graphically visualize the absence or presence of systematic errors in fit data, conditional probabilities are employed to analyze the statistical independence or dependence of fit residuals. This concept is completely general and applicable to all scientific fields in which model parameters are fitted to experimental data. The applications presented in this work refer to published charge-density data.

]]>The RATIO method in time-resolved crystallography [Coppens *et al.* (2009). *J. Synchrotron Rad.***16**, 226–230] was developed for use with Laue pump–probe diffraction data to avoid complex corrections due to wavelength dependence of the intensities. The application of the RATIO method in processing/analysis prior to structure refinement requires an appropriate ratio model for modeling the light response. The assessment of the accuracy of pump–probe time-resolved structure refinements based on the observed ratios was discussed in a previous paper. In the current paper, a detailed ratio model is discussed, taking into account both geometric and thermal light-induced changes.