In this paper, we study international river pollution problems. We introduce a model in which countries located along a river from upstream to downstream derive benefits from causing pollution, but also incur environmental costs from experiencing its own pollution and the pollution of all its upstream countries. The total welfare, being the sum of all benefits minus the sum of all costs, is maximized when all countries cooperate. Several principles from international water law are applied to find reasonable and fair distributions of the total welfare that can be obtained under full cooperation. Such a distribution of the welfare at efficient pollution levels can be implemented by monetary compensations.

Land transformation from grassland to cropland in the Northern Great Plains (NGP) has become a growing concern among many stakeholders. A growing body of work has sought to determine the amount and rate of land use change with less emphasis on the systemic structures or feedback processes of land use decisions. This paper presents the development of a system dynamics simulation model to integrate ecological, economic, and social components influencing land use decisions, including cattle ranching, cropland production, rural communities, land quality, and public policies. Evaluation indicated that the model satisfactorily predicted historical land, agricultural commodity, and rural community data from the model structure. Reference modes for key variables, including the farmland area, were characterized by a bias correction of 0.999, root mean squared error of prediction of 0.053, *R*^{2} of 0.921, and concordance correlation coefficient of 0.0959. The model was robust under extreme and varying sensitivity tests, as well as adequately predicting land use under changing system context. The model's major contributions were the inclusion of decision-making feedbacks from economic and social signals with connectivity to land quality and elasticity values that drive land transformation. Limitations include lack of spatial input and output capabilities useful for visual interfacing.

We consider an infinite time horizon spatially distributed optimal harvesting problem for a vegetation and soil water reaction diffusion system, with rainfall as the main external parameter. By Pontryagin's maximum principle, we derive the associated four-component canonical system (CS), and numerically analyze this and hence the optimal control problem in two steps. First, we numerically compute a rather rich bifurcation structure of flat (spatially homogeneous) canonical steady states and *patterned* canonical steady states (FCSS and PCSS, respectively), in 1D and 2D. Then, we compute time-dependent solutions of the CS that connect to some FCSS or PCSS. The method is efficient in dealing with nonunique canonical steady states, and thus also with multiple local maxima of the objective function. It turns out that over wide parameter regimes the FCSS, i.e., spatially uniform harvesting, are not optimal. Instead, controlling the system to a PCSS yields a higher profit. Moreover, compared to (a simple model of) private optimization, the social control gives a higher yield, and vegetation survives for much lower rainfall. In addition, the computation of the optimal (social) control gives an optimal tax to incorporate into the private optimization.

The waterborne diseases cause millions of deaths across the globe. It was a preconceived notion since years that ingestion of contaminated water is the only possible way for the spread of waterborne infectious diseases. But some recent studies have shown that waterborne disease can also spread as a result of human to human transmission. The use of disinfectants is a common practice to prevent a waterborne disease. We assume that the inclusion of the disinfectant, although helpful in prevention of disease, caused negative effect on individuals. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model has been proposed to analyze the negative effects caused by disinfectant of water on individuals. Our study shows that if the mixing of disinfectant has not been performed in a controlled manner, then it results in an increase in human to human transmission of disease. The equilibrium and stability analysis have been performed to study the nature of the model system. An extensive numerical experiment has been performed to support the analytical findings.

We compute the effects on the Alaska economy of reduced pollock harvests from rising sea surface temperature using a regional dynamic computable general equilibrium model coupled with a stochastic stock-yield projection model for eastern Bering Sea walleye pollock. We show that the effects of decreased pollock harvest are offset to some extent by increased pollock price, and that fuel costs and the world demand for the fish, as well as the reduced supply of the fish from rising sea surface temperature, are also important factors that determine the economic and welfare effects.