The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) is a primary focus of attention for many stakeholders' (e.g., teachers, district mathematics leaders, and curriculum developers) intent on improving mathematics education. This article reports on specific content shifts related to the geometry domain in the middle grades (6–8) mathematics curriculum. The methodology employed allows for comparisons of content across multiple standards documents. We report on some dramatic changes with regards to the geometry content taught in the middle grades. We found 52% of the middle grades geometry CCSSM learning expectations will be new to the respective grade level at which they are taught in at least six of the eight states analyzed in this study (57% in grade 6, 50% in grade 7, and 50% in grade 8). We also highlight three areas that represent “new” geometry content at the middle grades based on our analysis of CCSSM and pre-CCSSM state standards.

]]>This article addresses the current state of the mathematics education system in the United States and provides a possible solution to the contributing issues. As a result of lower performance in primary mathematics, American students are not acquiring the necessary quantitative literacy skills to become successful adults. This study analyzed the impact of the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Intermediate curriculum on fourth-grade students' mathematics knowledge. The curriculum is a part of the FoodMASTER Initiative, which is a compilation of programs utilizing food, a familiar and necessary part of everyday life, as a tool to teach mathematics and science. Students exposed to the curriculum completed a 20-item researcher-developed mathematics knowledge exam (intervention *n* = 288; control *n* = 194). Overall, the results showed a significant increase in mathematics knowledge from pretest to posttest. These findings suggest that the food-based science activities provided the students with the context in which to apply mathematical concepts to an everyday experience. Therefore, the FoodMASTER approach was successful at improving students' mathematics knowledge while building a foundation for becoming quantitatively literate adults.

The recent trend to unite mathematically related disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) under the broader umbrella of STEM education has advantages. In this new educational context of integration, however, STEM teachers need to be able to distinguish between sufficient proof and reasoning across different disciplines, particularly between the status of inductive and deductive modes of reasoning in mathematics. Through a specific set of mathematical conjectures, researchers explored differences between mathematics (*n* = 24) and science (*n* = 23) teachers' reasoning schemes, as well as the confidence they had in their justifications. Results from the study indicate differences between the two groups in terms of their levels of mathematical proof, as well as correlational trends that inform their confidence across these levels. Implications particularly for teacher training and preparation within the context of an integrated STEM education model are discussed.

Nine years of results on 4.2 million of Indiana's Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) mathematics (math) exams (grades 3–10) taken after the implementation of No Child Left Behind have been used to determine gender gaps and their associated trends. Sociocultural factors were investigated by comparing math gender gaps and gap trends for (a) state public schools, (b) state nonpublic schools, (c) a low-performing metropolitan school, and (d) a high-performing suburban school. To control for changing sociocultural factors, multiregression analyses were conducted to predict grade-level (3–10) gender gaps and math scale scores using socioeconomic and ethnicity variables. The underrepresentation of females in earning advanced STEM degrees was investigated by determining the gender of the highest performer on the ISTEP math exams in grades 3–10 for each of state's 292 school corporations. Boys' percentages were higher across all grades by about a 2:1 ratio, similar to high-end results on Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) math exams. Simulations of distributions for d = .27 and variance ratio = 1.13 fitted 2013 college-bound SAT math empirical data. Results of the analyses of the state's ISTEP math exam data and the 2013 SAT math scores of college-bound seniors support the arguments that girls and young women possess the abilities to pursue STEM careers that require advanced mathematical skills.

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