1. Submission
  2. Aims and Scope
  3. Manuscript Categories and Requirements
  4. Preparing the Submission
  5. Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations
  6. Author Licensing
  7. Publication Process After Acceptance
  8. Post-Publication
  9. Journal Contact Details


Authors should note that submission implies that the content has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere except as a brief abstract in the proceedings of a scientific meeting or symposium. The Journal allows deposition of manuscript to preprint servers. More information about the journal preprint policy is available in the section on Self-Archiving Definitions and Policies.

Once the submission materials have been prepared in accordance with the Author Guidelines, manuscripts should be submitted online via the journal online editorial system

By submitting a manuscript to or reviewing for this publication, your name, email address, and affiliation, and other contact details the publication might require, will be used for the regular operations of the publication, including, when necessary, sharing with the publisher (Wiley) and partners for production and publication. The publication and the publisher recognize the importance of protecting the personal information collected from users in the operation of these services, and have practices in place to ensure the security, integrity, and privacy of the personal data collected and processed. You can learn more at

Return to Guideline Sections


The American Journal of Primatology aims to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and findings among primatologists, and to convey our increasing understanding of this Order to specialists and general readers alike. We welcome for consideration manuscripts from all areas of primatology. This includes but is not limited to the behavioral ecology, conservation, evolutionary biology, life history, nutrition, demography, paleontology, physiology, endocrinology, genetics, molecular biology, and biological psychology of the nonhuman primates. As well as publishing in established areas, we seek submissions on new and developing types of scientific primate studies.

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The Journal publishes both original research papers and review articles. Original research may be published as standard Research Articles, Commentaries, or as New Approaches.

The New Approaches manuscript category differs from other categories in that it provides the opportunity for researchers to share new methods, techniques, and protocols to facilitate more rapid scientific advances in the field of Primatology. The emphasis is on approaches that are either newly developed or modifications and improvements of established approaches in primatology and other scientific fields. Manuscripts in this category should be organized around the following four sections:  Introduction, Description, Example, and Comparison and Critique.  The Introduction sets the stage for justifying why a new approach is required; the Description describes the new approach; the Example applies the new approach to a particular experiment or problem; and the Comparison and Critique discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the new approach when compared to other available approaches. These sections should be followed by Acknowledgments and References, the final sections used in other categories of AJP manuscripts.

Return to Guideline Sections


Cover Letter

All manuscripts must be accompanied by a formal statement that explicitly confirms the following:

  • Acceptance of the provisos detailed in Section 5.
  • All research reported in this manuscript complied with the protocols approved by the appropriate Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (see Researchers outside the U.S. must confirm that their research received clearance from, and complied with, the protocols approved by the equivalent institutional animal care committees of their country and institution.
  • All research reported in this manuscript adhered to the legal requirements of the country in which the work took place.  
  • The research adhered to the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) Principles for the Ethical Treatment of Non-Human Primates ( 

Free Format submission

The Journal now offers Free Format submission for a simplified and streamlined submission process for both new and revised manuscript submissions.

Before you submit, you will need:

  • Your manuscript: this should be an editable file including text, figures, and tables, or separate files – whichever you prefer. All required sections should be contained in your manuscript, including abstract, introduction, methods, results, and conclusions, in that order. Figures and tables should have legends. Figures should be uploaded in the highest resolution possible. References may be submitted in any style or format, as long as it is consistent throughout the manuscript.
  • Supporting information should be submitted in separate files. If the manuscript, figures or tables are difficult for you to read, they will also be difficult for the editors and reviewers, and the editorial office will send it back to you for revision. Your manuscript may also be sent back to you for revision if the quality of English language is poor.
  • An ORCID ID, freely available at is this important? Your article, if accepted and published, will be attached to your ORCID profile. Institutions and funders are increasingly requiring authors to have ORCID IDs.)
  • The title page of the manuscript, including author and co-author details, including affiliation and email addresses; a short running title; and the full contact information of the corresponding author. 

To submit, login at and create a new submission. Follow the submission steps as required and submit the manuscript.

Should a revision be requested, please follow all formatting requirements as described below.

Parts of the Manuscript

The manuscript submission consists of files including: 1) research highlights; 2) graphical abstract; 3) cover photo submission (optional); 4) main text file including tables; 5) figure files; and 6) supporting information.  Manuscripts must be submitted in English (American-style), and must be double-spaced, except for tables, with no less than 12 cpi font and 3-cm margins throughout. Lines should be numbered consecutively from the title through the references. Number all pages in sequence beginning with the title page, placing the first author's surname and the page number in the upper right-hand corner of each page.

Page limits: The American Journal of Primatology no longer has strict page limits.  However, writing should be as concise as possible to accurately convey meaning.  The following are guidelines: a Research Article should not exceed a total of 35 pages, and a Review Article should not exceed 45 pages. Commentaries should fall within the range of 10-15 pages and New Approaches within 35 pages.  Counted pages include the abstract, main text, references, tables, and figures.

Research Highlights and Graphical Abstract: Research Highlights summarize the most important findings and/or conclusions of the article (or review), stated concisely. They should include consideration of the implications, relevance, potential impact of the findings from a complete consideration of the study (i.e. from study design to actual data and inferences from data). Upon publication, Research Highlights will be displayed online immediately below the article's title. Research Highlights should consist of 2 to 3 short sentences (provided as bullet points), each of which do not exceed 250 characters (including spaces). These highlights are required for all manuscripts published in AJP and must be submitted at the time of the manuscript submission in ScholarOne.

The Graphical Abstract provides readers with a visual representation of the conclusions and an efficient way to appreciate the key findings and main message of the work. This feature, part of the online article format, will appear in the online Table of Contents of each issue of the journal. Please upload an illustration describing the context and implications of the findings for the broader AJP readership to attract the attention of non-specialists. The image should be a single image not containing multiple panels. It is meant to represent one key aspect of the results. To prepare the image, select an image or graphic that is easy to read and, as much as possible, devoid of cluttering items, and that conveys clear, non-speculative, visual information about the key findings of the study. Labels, while useful, must be kept to a minimum. The image should be provided in one of the following height and width configurations: 400 x 300 pixel, 300 x 400 pixel, or 400 x 400 pixel, and at a minimum resolution of 300 dpi. Please use Arial or Helvetica font with a size of 10–12 points; preferred file types are EPS and TIFF (these file types are required for the final version; draft versions can be PDF).

The Graphical Abstract is mandatory for all manuscripts published in AJP. When uploading, please designate the image as Graphical Abstract Image in ScholarOne Manuscripts.

Tweetable Summary: If your manuscript is accepted, Wiley’s marketing and social media team may decide to Tweet or blog about it or otherwise promote your work. For this purpose, you will be asked to provide at the submission stage a Tweetable Summary of no more than 95 characters that conveys the essential message of your paper which we will review and post through the AJP Twitter Account to promote your article if published.

Main Text File

The main file contains three elements: the title page, the abstract and keywords, and the main text (including tables).

  1. Title Page: The Title Page should include the complete title of the paper (an informative title that contains the major key words, without abbreviations (see Wiley's best practice SEO )); the names of authors and their affiliations; a short running title (not more than 40 characters including spaces); and name, postal address, E-mail address, and phone number of person to whom editorial correspondence, page proofs, and reprint requests should be sent. If the present affiliation of one or more of the authors is different from where the work was conducted, indicate that with a footnote.
  2. Abstract and Keywords: The Abstract must be a factual condensation of the entire work, including a statement of its purpose, a succinct statement of research design, a clear description of the most important results, and a concise presentation of the conclusions. Abstracts should not exceed 300 words. Three to six key words for use in indexing should be listed immediately below the abstract, ideally words not included in the title and abstract. Following the abstract and keywords, please include a list of all discipline-specific abbreviations used in the document. 
All abstracts should be written in English. However, we invite authors to provide a second abstract in Spanish, Portuguese, or French if they wish. The second abstract will be published with the online version of the article and will not be included in the PDF. Second abstracts will not be copyedited and will be published as provided by the authors. Authors who wish to take advantage of this option should provide the second abstract in the main document below the English language version.
  1. Manuscript Text: The text should be divided in the following sub-sections: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, and References; followed by Tables and Figure Legends. Figures and supporting information should be supplied as separate file types. Do not use footnotes except for tables and figures.

Sub-section requirements:

i. Introduction.

This section should include necessary background information for the contextualization of the research questions presented, including the state of knowledge on the topic (previous works), the conceptual framework, and a rationale for the present study.

ii. Methods.

This section should provide detailed information on the methods followed, the data sets obtained, and the way in which the data were analyzed.  It will often be convenient to have separate sub-sections for Study population, Data Collection, and Data Analysis, and these may be further sub-sectioned for clarity as appropriate.

For Study population, please include: species (scientific and common name), specific location(s) (e.g., for field studies, latitude and longitude, elevation; for captive studies, the name and location of the facility where the study was conducted), and characteristics of the natural environment (e.g. rainfall, predominant vegetation type) or of the captive study population as appropriate. All studies conducted on captive primates must explicitly state the social housing condition and duration under which animals were housed during the course of the study. Social housing conditions include: Continuous Full Contact (pair) – two animals are housed in one space, enabling complete tactile interaction; Single Housing – an animal is housed alone in a cage without tactile contact but within sight and sound of other animals; Protected Contact (pair) – two animals are separated by bars or grate that enables limited tactile contact; Intermittent Contact (pair) – animals frequently and routinely alternate between Continuous Full Contact and Single Housing; Continuous Full Contact (group) – more than two animals are housed in one space, enabling complete tactile contact; and Isolation Housing – an animal is housed alone in a cage without sight or sound of other animals. 

For Data collection, include the study start date and end dates. If the study included collection of behavioral or biological samples, indicate explicitly the population of reference. Describe the sampling schedule and sampling methods comprehensively. The sampling strategy should include the dates, time of day, and frequency of sampling, including storage duration and conditions for biological samples. It also includes the criteria used to choose subjects for sampling, and for assigning them to treatments or observations, where relevant.  If animals were captured for the study, please indicate and justify capture methods and number of individuals captured. Methods that include laboratory procedures (ex. hormone assays, gene expression assays) should include all relevant quality control information.

The first paragraph of the Methods section must also include an ethics statement that the research complied with protocols approved by the appropriate institutional animal care committee (provide the name of the committee); adhered to the American Society of Primatologists (ASP) Principles for the Ethical Treatment of Non-Human Primates (; followed the American Society of Primatologists Code of Best Practices for Field Primatology ( if relevant; and adhered to the legal requirements of the country/countries in which the research was conducted.

For Data Analysis, provide information on how collected data were processed (when relevant) to assemble the data set used in analyses.  Describe analytical approach/es comprehensively, including detailed information on a-priori considerations used in making decisions on which approach to apply. Clearly distinguish dependent and independent variables (predictors) where relevant.

If programming code was written to run the analyses and is made available, it needs to be properly annotated.

If the manuscript includes meta-analyses, a specific section should provide details on the methodological considerations for searching and selecting the literature.

iii. Results.

This section should include all details of the analyses conducted, as described below.

The Results must include the essential values from all statistical tests that are used to support the study’s conclusions, in addition to summarizing key data using tables and figures where possible. For each result, this should include:

  • Descriptive statistics to summarize the data, including measures of central tendency (e.g., median, mean), dispersion/uncertainty (range, SD, SEM, confidence intervals), and sample size.
  • Test statistics derived from statistical models or procedures (e.g., regression or correlation coefficients, odds ratios).
  • Numerical or graphical summaries of data, showing the full distribution of the data, rather than summary statistics, for small sample sizes.
  • Effect sizes (correlation coefficients, Cohen’s d, odds ratios, partial eta-squared, etc.).

It is necessary to refer to each statistical analysis in sufficient detail so that that it could be replicated.

We encourage authors to look beyond dichotomous statistical thinking (i.e. significant/non-significant) and address the scientific significance of their results with regard to the field of primatology. Avoid the dichotomization of p values as indicating “significance” or “non-significance” based on the threshold of p = 0.05. P-values may still be reported but should be reported fully when possible (not just less than or more than a certain percent), unless reporting too many digits would imply false precision.  

Bayesian analyses should, at a minimum, include information on choice of priors and MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) settings (e.g. burn-in, the number of iterations, and thinning intervals).

For hierarchical and other more complex experimental designs, full information on the design and analysis, including identification of the appropriate level for tests (e.g. identifying the denominator used for split-plot experiments) and full reporting of outcomes (e.g. including blocking in the analysis if it was used in the design).

Post hoc analyses need to be explicitly identified. When hypotheses were formulated after data analysis, this should be acknowledged as well, given the potential to bias interpretations.

All a-priori models (model selection approaches) need to be reported fully, not only the “best” one.

iv. Discussion. This section should include an interpretation of the findings, including an elaboration of the scientific meaning (i.e. biological significance; psychological significance; etc.) of the reported findings, their relation to prior knowledge, and a clear conclusion.

The discussion should have consideration of the limitations of the study. This text should thoughtfully consider how conclusions could have been different under different circumstances related to study design, choice of analytical tools, inferential approach, and any other consideration that would help interpreting the results.  This includes constraints on generalization (to other individuals of the same species; to other primate species; etc.). We invite authors to reflect uncompromisingly on the quality of the data they use and embrace acknowledging the various imperfections and limitations that characterize virtually all studies and data sets.

v. Acknowledgments. Authors should include funding sources; names of those who contributed, but are not authors, and any further statements of recognition appropriate to the study. Authors may also consider adding acknowledgements for the communities in which they worked and the indigenous peoples on whose lands or ancestral lands their institutions are located.

vi. References (see guidelines below). 

As of 2021, the references of the journal should be prepared according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) (7th edition). This means in-text citations should follow the author-date method whereby the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998). Note that the APA style requires the use of parentheses instead of brackets for in-text citations. Use of et al. is determined by the number of authors and whether it is the first time a reference has been cited in the paper. Specifically, articles with one or two authors include all names in every in-text citation; articles with three or more authors are abbreviated to the first author name plus et al. for all in-text citations.

The complete reference list should appear alphabetically by name at the end of the paper.  DOI should be provided for all references where available. For more information about APA referencing style, please refer to the APA FAQ.

Reference examples follow:

Journal article (Two authors)

Seiler, N., & Robbins, M.M. (2020). Ecological correlates of space use patterns in wild western lowland gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, 82(9), e23168. 10.1002/AJP.23168

Three to 20 authors

Charpentier, M. J. E., Harte, M., Ngoubangoye, B., Herbert, A., & Kappeler, P. M. (2017). Visual discrimination of kin in mandrills. Ethology, 123(3), 251-259. 0.1111/eth.12596

More than 20 authors

Gokhman, D., Nissim-Rafinia, M., Agranat-Tamir, L., Housman, G., García-Pérez, R., Lizano, E., Chernot, O., Mallik, S., Nieves-Colón, M.A., Li, H., Alpaslan-Roodenberg, S., Novak, M., Gu, H., Osinski, J.M., Ferrando-Bernal, M., Gelabert, P., Lipende, I., Mjungu, D., Kondova, I., …Carmel, L. (2020). Differential DNA methylation of vocal and facial anatomy genes in modern humans. Nature Communications, 11(1), 1189. 10.1038/s41467-020-15020-6In press or forthcoming

In press

Bandini, E. (in press). Implementing long-term baselines into primate tool-use studies. American Journal of Primatology. 10.1002/ajp.23224


Hopper, L.M., & Ross, S.R. (2020). Chimpanzees in context: A comparative perspective on chimpanzee behavior, cognition, conservation, and welfare.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in Edited Book

Garber, P. A. (1984). Use of habitat and positional behavior in a neotropical primate, Saguinus oedipus. In P. S. Rodman & J. G. H. Cant (Eds.), Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates (pp. 112–133). New York, USA: Columbia University Press.

Book Edition

Fleagle, J.G. (2013). Primate adaptation and evolution (3rd ed.). San Diego: Academic Press.

Scientific or Technical Reports

United States Government Accountability Office. (2019). Performance and accountability report: Fiscal year 2019


Arias del Razo, R. (2020). Long-term effects of developmental experiences in two animal models: Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and titi monkeys (Plecturocebus cupreus) [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of California, Davis.


Tables should be self-contained and should complement, not duplicate, information contained in the text. They should be included in the main body of the text, not pasted as images. Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the table, legend, and footnotes must be understandable with minimal reference to the text. All abbreviations must be defined in footnotes. Footnote symbols: †, ‡, §, ¶, should be used (in that order). Statistical measures such as SD or SEM should be identified in the headings.

Figure Legends

Legends should be concise but comprehensive – the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols and shading, and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.


Authors are encouraged to send the highest-quality figures possible, for peer-review purposes.  You should review the basic figure requirements for manuscripts for peer review, as well as the more detailed post-acceptance figure requirements. For post acceptance articles, only EPS and TIF files are accepted.

Figures submitted in color will be published in color online free of charge.

Additional Files

Supporting Information

Supporting information (SI) is information that is not essential to the article, but provides greater depth and background. It is hosted online and appears without editing or typesetting. It may include text, tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc.

If your manuscript is related to SI, ensure that the text refers to the individual elements of the SI explicitly and specifically. For example, if the SI includes Table S1 and Figure S1, the text should include at least one reference to each of these items, typically in parentheses (as for tables/figures that appear in the main text). References to textual components of the SI are likely to simply reference “Supporting Information.” Bundle SI document elements (text, tables, figures) together in a single file as much as possible. Long data tables may, however, be presented more effectively as MS Excel files, separate from figures and text.  If references are cited in SI, they must be included in a separate reference list within the SI, even if some references duplicate the reference list in the main manuscript.

Click here for Wiley’s FAQs on supporting information.

Note: if data or scripts used to generate the analyses presented in the paper are available via a publicly available data repository, authors should include a reference to the location of the material within their paper.

General Style Points

The following points provide general advice on formatting and style.

  • Species Names: Upon its first use in the title, abstract, and text, the common name (and local names if applicable) of a species should be followed by the scientific name (genus, species) in parentheses and italicized. If no common name exists in English, use only the scientific name.
  • Voice:Please use active voice whenever possible.  For example, “the monkey bit the man” is active voice, whereas “the man was bitten by the monkey” is passive voice.
  • Abbreviations:In general, do not abbreviate terms unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Initially, use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.
  • Units of measurement: Measurements should be given in SI or SI-derived units. Visit the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) websitefor more information about SI units.
  • Numbers: numbers under 10 are spelled out, except for: measurements with a unit (8 mmol/l); age (6 weeks old), or lists with other numbers (11 adults, 9 juveniles, 4 infants). When beginning a sentence, numbers 10 and greater are also spelled out.
  • Trade Names: Chemical substances/drugs should be referred to by the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name and the name and location of the manufacturer in parentheses.


Wiley Author Resources

Manuscript Preparation Tips: Wiley has a range of resources for authors preparing manuscripts for submission available here. In particular, authors may benefit from referring to Wiley’s best practice tips on Writing for Search Engine Optimization.

Article Preparation Support

Wiley Editing Services offers expert help with English Language Editing, as well as translation, manuscript formatting, figure illustration, figure formatting, and graphical abstract design – so you can submit your manuscript with confidence.

Also, check out our resources for Preparing Your Article for general guidance about writing and preparing your manuscript.       

Return to Guideline Sections



All manuscripts submitted to the American Journal of Primatology (AJP) must be submitted solely to this journal, and may not have been published in any substantial form in any other publication, professional or lay. The Journal allows deposition of manuscript to preprint servers. Submission is taken to mean that each of the co-authors acknowledges their participation in conducting the research leading to this manuscript and that all agree to its submission to be considered for publication by AJP. The Editorial Office cannot be responsible for returning any materials submitted for review. The publisher reserves copyright, and no published material may be reproduced or published elsewhere without the written permission of the publisher and the author. The journal will not be responsible for the loss of manuscripts at any time. All statements in, or omissions from, published manuscripts are the responsibility of the authors who will assist the editors by reviewing proofs before publication.

Conflict of Interest Statement

Authors will be asked to provide a conflict of interest statement during the submission process. For details on what to include in this section, see the section ‘Conflict of Interest’ in the Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations section below. Submitting authors should ensure they liaise with all co-authors to confirm agreement with the final statement.

Peer Review and Acceptance

The acceptance criteria for all papers are the quality and originality of the research and its significance to journal readership. Papers will be sent to review only if the Editor-in-Chief determines that the paper meets the appropriate quality and relevance requirements. 

Wiley's policy on the confidentiality of the review process is available here.

Refer and Transfer Program

Wiley believes that no valuable research should go unshared. This journal participates in Wiley’s Refer & Transfer program. If your manuscript is not accepted, you may receive a recommendation to transfer your manuscript to another suitable Wiley journal, either through a referral from the journal’s editor or through our Transfer Desk Assistant.

Bias Free Language

Authors using APA Style must strive to use language that is free of bias and avoid perpetuating prejudicial beliefs or demeaning attitudes in their writing. Please see link for further details:

Data Sharing and Data Accessibility

Please review Wiley’s policy here. This journal expects data sharing.

The American Journal of Primatology recognizes the many benefits of archiving research data.  American Journal of Primatology expects you to archive all the data from which your published results are derived in a public repository. The repository that you choose should offer you guaranteed preservation (see the registry of research data repositories at and should help you make it findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-useable, according to FAIR Data Principles ( 

All accepted manuscripts are required to publish a data availability statement to confirm the presence or absence of shared data. If you have shared data, this statement will describe how the data can be accessed, and include a persistent identifier (e.g., a DOI for the data, or an accession number) from the repository where you shared the data. Authors will be required to confirm adherence to the policy. If you cannot share the data described in your manuscript, for example for legal or ethical reasons, or do not intend to share the data then you must provide the appropriate data availability statement. The American Journal Primatology notes that FAIR data sharing allows for access to shared data under restrictions (e.g., to protect confidential or proprietary information) but notes that the FAIR principles encourage you to share data in ways that are as open as possible (but that can be as closed as necessary). 

Sample statements are available here. If published, all statements will be placed in the heading of your manuscript.

Open Science Initiatives

Recognizing the importance of research transparency and data sharing to cumulative research, the American Journal of Primatology encourages the following open science practices.

Sharing of data, materials, research instruments and their accessibility. The American Journal of Primatology encourages authors to share the data, materials, research instruments, etc., supporting the results in their study by archiving them in an appropriate public repository. Qualifying public, open-access repositories are committed to preserving data, materials, and/or registered analysis plans and keeping them publicly accessible via the web into perpetuity. Examples include the Open Science Framework (OSF) and the various Dataverse networks. Hundreds of other qualifying data/materials repositories are listed at the Registry of Research Data Repositories ( Personal websites and most departmental websites do not qualify as repositories.

Open Science badges. In partnership with the non-profit Center for Open Science (COS), the American Journal of Primatology offers all submitting authors access to the following two open science practices — Open Materials and Open Data. We also award all qualifying authors open science badges recognizing their contributions to the open science movement. The open science practices and associated award badges, as implemented by the Center for Open Science and supported by the American Journal of Primatology, are the following:

The Open Materials badge recognizes researchers who share their research instruments and materials in a publicly-accessible format, providing sufficient information for researchers to reproduce procedures and analyses of published research studies.

The Open Data badge recognizes researchers who make their data publicly available, providing sufficient description of the data to allow researchers to reproduce research findings of published research studies. An example of a qualifying public, open-access database for data sharing is the Open Science Framework repository. Numerous other data-sharing repositories are available through various Dataverse networks (e.g., and hundreds of other databases available through the Registry of Research Data Repositories ( There are, of course, circumstances in which it is not possible or advisable to share data publicly. For example, there are cases in which sharing participant data could violate confidentiality. 

Authors will have an opportunity at the time of manuscript submission and at the time of acceptance to inform themselves of this initiative and to determine whether they wish to participate. Applying and qualifying for Open Science badges is not a requirement for publishing with the American Journal of Primatology, but these badges are further incentive for authors to participate in the open science movement and thus to increase the visibility and transparency of their research.

More information about the Open Practices badges is available from the Open Science Framework wiki.


Human Studies and Subjects

For manuscripts reporting studies that involve human participants, a statement identifying the ethics committee that approved the study and confirmation that the study conforms to recognized standards is required, for example: Declaration of HelsinkiUS Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects; or European Medicines Agency Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice. The text should also state clearly that all persons gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

Human subject anonymity should be preserved. Photographs must be cropped sufficiently, or include an eyebar, to prevent recognition of human subjects. Images and information from individual participants will only be published where the authors have obtained the individual's prior informed consent. Authors do not need to provide a copy of the consent form to the publisher; however, in signing the author license to publish, authors are required to confirm that they have obtained consent. Wiley has a standard patient consent form available for use.

Animal Studies

A statement indicating that the protocol and procedures employed were ethically reviewed and approved, as well as the name of the body giving approval, must be included in the Methods section of the . Please refer to the Methods section for further instruction.  

Research Reporting Guidelines

Accurate and complete reporting enables readers to fully appraise research, replicate it, and use it. Authors are encouraged to adhere to recognized research reporting standards. The EQUATOR Network collects more than 370 reporting guidelines for many study types, including Animal pre-clinical studiesARRIVE

We also encourage authors to refer to and follow guidelines from:

Guidelines on Publishing and Research Ethics in Journal Articles 

Please review Wiley’s policies surrounding human studies, animal studies, clinical trial registration, biosecurity, and research reporting guidelines here. 

Conflict of Interest

The journal requires that all authors disclose any potential sources of conflict of interest. Any interest or relationship, financial or otherwise that might be perceived as influencing an author's objectivity is considered a potential source of conflict of interest. These must be disclosed when directly relevant or directly related to the work that the authors describe in their manuscript. Potential sources of conflict of interest include, but are not limited to: patent or stock ownership, membership of a company board of directors, membership of an advisory board or committee for a company, involvement in on-going legal action, and consultancy for or receipt of speaker's fees from a company. The existence of a conflict of interest does not preclude publication. If the authors have no conflict of interest to declare, they must also state this at submission. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to review this policy with all authors and collectively to disclose with the submission ALL pertinent commercial and other relationships.


Authors should list all funding sources in the Acknowledgments section. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of their funder designation. If in doubt, please check the Open Funder Registry for the correct nomenclature:



Author Contributions

For all articles, the journal mandates the CRediT (Contribution Roles Taxonomy), for more information please see Author Services

The list of authors should accurately illustrate who contributed to the work. All those listed as authors should qualify for authorship according to the following criteria:

  1. Have made substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; and
    2. Been involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and
    3. Given final approval of the version to be published. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content; and
    4. Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Contributions from anyone who does not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgments section (for example, to recognize contributions from people who provided technical help, collation of data, writing assistance, acquisition of funding, or a department chairperson who provided general support). Prior to submitting the article all authors should agree on the order in which their names will be listed in the manuscript.

Additional Authorship Options.

Joint first or senior authorship: In the case of joint first authorship, a footnote may be added to the author listing, e.g. ‘X and Y should be considered joint first author’ or ‘X and Y should be considered joint senior author.’

Wiley’s Author Name Change

In cases where authors wish to change their name following publication, Wiley will update and republish the paper and redeliver the updated metadata to indexing services. Our editorial and production teams will use discretion in recognizing that name changes may be of a sensitive and private nature for various reasons including (but not limited to) alignment with gender identity, or as a result of marriage, divorce, or religious conversion. Accordingly, to protect the author’s privacy, we will not publish a correction notice to the paper, and we will not notify co-authors of the change. Authors should contact the journal’s Editorial Office with their name change request.


Publication Ethics

This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Note this journal uses iThenticate’s CrossCheck software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Read Wiley'sTop 10 Publishing Ethics Tips for Authors here. Wiley’s Publication Ethics Guidelines can be found here.


As part of the journal’s commitment to supporting authors at every step of the publishing process, the journal requires the submitting author (only) to provide an ORCID iD when submitting a manuscript. This takes around 2 minutes to complete. Find more information here.


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If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author will receive an email prompting them to log in to Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be required to complete a copyright license agreement on behalf of all authors of the paper.

For authors signing the copyright transfer agreement

If the Open Access option (which involves a fee) is not selected the corresponding author will be presented with the copyright transfer agreement (CTA) to sign. The terms and conditions of the CTA can be previewed in the samples associated with the Copyright FAQs.

For authors choosing Open Access

If the Open Access option is selected the corresponding author will have a choice of the following Creative Commons License Open Access Agreements (OAA):

Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY) OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (CC-BY-NC) OAA

Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License (CC-BY-NC-ND) OAA

General information regarding licensing and copyright is available on the Wiley Author Services and the Wiley Open Access websites. 

Note to NIH, The Wellcome Trust and the Research Councils UK Grantees 

Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. Please click here for further information. If you select the Open Access option and your research is funded by The Wellcome Trust or the Research Councils UK (RCUK) you will be given the opportunity to publish your article under a CC-BY license supporting you in complying with The Wellcome Trust and Research Councils UK requirements.

Self-Archiving Definitions and Policies

Note that the journal’s standard copyright agreement allows for self-archiving of different versions of the article under specific conditions. Please click here for more detailed information about self-archiving definitions and policies.

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Accepted Articles

All accepted manuscripts are subject to editing. Authors have final approval of changes prior to publication.


Authors will receive an e-mail notification with a link and instructions for accessing HTML page proofs online. Page proofs should be carefully proofread for any copyediting or typesetting errors. Online guidelines are provided within the system. No special software is required, all common browsers are supported. Authors should also make sure that any renumbered tables, figures, or references match text citations and that figure legends correspond with text citations and actual figures. Proofs must be returned within 48 hours of receipt of the email. Return of proofs via e-mail is possible in the event that the online system cannot be used or accessed. 

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Access and sharing

When the article is published online:

  • The author receives an email alert (if requested).
    • The link to the published article can be shared through social media.
    • The author will have free access to the paper (after accepting the Terms & Conditions of use, they can view the article).
    • The corresponding author and co-authors can nominate up to ten colleagues to receive a publication alert and free online access to the article.

Article Promotion Support

Wiley Editing Services offers professional video, design, and writing services to create shareable video abstracts, infographics, conference posters, lay summaries, and research news stories for your research – so you can help your research get the attention it deserves.

Measuring the Impact of an Article

Wiley also helps authors measure the impact of their research through specialist partnerships with Kudos and Altmetric.

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For queries about submissions, please contact

Editor: Karen L. Bales, University of California, Davis, [email protected]

Editorial Office: Subhasri Thiagarajan, [email protected]

Journal Production: Kamlesh Joshi, [email protected]

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Author Guidelines last updated: January 2024