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Cell Biochemistry & FunctionLast update: September 2023
Sections1. Aims and Scope
2. Submission and Peer Review
3. After Acceptance
The primary remit of the journal is on mammalian biology both in vivo and in vitro but studies on the biochemistry and function of cells in situ are especially encouraged. Observational and pathological studies will be considered providing they include a rational discussion of the possible molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the results and their immediate impact on our understanding of mammalian biology.
Areas of particular interest include:
• Dysregulation of cellular function in disease
• Cell cycle control with respect to cell proliferation, differentiation and death
• DNA and RNA processing and the effects on cellular activity
• Regulation of stem cells and regenerative medicine
• Intra-cellular organelles, cellular metabolism and the control of cell biochemistry
• Local niches and cell function
• Cell-cell communication
• Nutrition and cell biochemistry
Cell Biochemistry and Function currently does not publish research in specific areas that are better served by specialist journals. This includes studies that are exclusively clinical. Cell Biochemistry & Function also discourages submission of research based exclusively on analysis of publically available transcriptomic and proteomic datasets, although the acceptability of specific manuscripts in this particular area can be discussed with the Editor-in-Chief.
Once the submission materials have been prepared in accordance with the Author Guidelines, new submissions should be made via the Research Exchange submission portal https://submission.wiley.com/journal/cbf. Should your manuscript proceed to the revision stage, you will be directed to make your revisions via the same submission portal. You may check the status of your submission at any time by logging on to submission.wiley.com and clicking the “My Submissions” button. For technical help with the submission system, please review our FAQs or contact [email protected]. For help with submissions, please contact the Editorial Office: [email protected].
This journal does not charge submission fees.
Article Preparation SupportWiley Editing Services offers expert help with English Language Editing, as well as translation, manuscript formatting, figure illustration, figure formatting, and graphical abstract design – so you can submit your manuscript with confidence.
Also, check out our resources for Preparing Your Article for general guidance about writing and preparing your manuscript.
Open AccessThis journal is a subscription journal that offers an open access option. You’ll have the option to choose to make your article open access after acceptance, which will be subject to an APC. For more information on this journal’s APCs, please see the Open Access page.
Please click here for more information on Wiley’s compliance with specific Funder Open Access Policies.
Preprint policyPlease find the Wiley preprint policy here.
This journal accepts articles previously published on preprint servers like arXiv, bioRxiv, or PeerJ PrePrints, or on the authors’ own website. You may also post the submitted version of a manuscript to a preprint server at any time. However, any such submissions must not have been published in a scientific journal, book or other venue that could be considered formal publication. Authors must inform the editorial office at submission if their paper has been made available as a preprint. You are requested to update any pre-publication versions with a link to the final published article.
Wiley’s Data Sharing policy where you will be able to see and select the data availability statement that is right for your submission. Sample statements are available here.
Data Reporting policySince July 2020 this journal requires authors of papers that present results of gel electrophoresis and/or blots to provide at submission original unprocessed images for every result presented, for the journal’s files. See the respective section below (‘Reporting Western Blots and other electrophoretic results’) for the detailed data reporting policy.
Not complying with the standards and policies explained below may be a reason for an immediate rejection without further detailed comments or review.
In general, authors must be prepared to show the underlying data for all results presented upon request.
Data CitationPlease review Wiley’s Data Citation policy.
FundingYou should list all funding sources in the Acknowledgments section. You are responsible for the accuracy of their funder designation. If in doubt, please check the Open Funder Registry for the correct nomenclature.
AuthorshipAll listed authors should have contributed to the manuscript substantially and have agreed to the final submitted version. Review editorial standards and scroll down for a description of authorship criteria.
Contributions from anyone who does not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed, with permission from the contributor, in an Acknowledgments section (for example, to recognize contributions from people who provided technical help, collation of data, writing assistance, acquisition of funding, or a department chairperson who provided general support). Prior to submitting the article all authors should agree on the order in which their names will be listed in the manuscript.
Joint first or senior authorship: In the case of joint first authorship a footnote should be added to the author listing, e.g. ‘X and Y should be considered joint first author’ or ‘X and Y should be considered joint senior author.’
Artifical Intelligence Generated Content
Artificial Intelligence Generated Content (AIGC) tools—such as ChatGPT and others based on large language models (LLMs)—cannot be considered capable of initiating an original piece of research without direction by human authors. They also cannot be accountable for a published work or for research design, which is a generally held requirement of authorship, nor do they have legal standing or the ability to hold or assign copyright. Therefore—in accordance with COPE’s position statement on AI tools—these tools cannot fulfill the role of, nor be listed as, an author of an article. If an author has used this kind of tool to develop any portion of a manuscript, its use must be described, transparently and in detail, in the Methods or Acknowledgements section. The author is fully responsible for the accuracy of any information provided by the tool and for correctly referencing any supporting work on which that information depends. Tools that are used to improve spelling, grammar, and general editing are not included in the scope of these guidelines. The final decision about whether use of an AIGC tool is appropriate or permissible in the circumstances of a submitted manuscript or a published article lies with the journal’s editor or other party responsible for the publication’s editorial policy.
Author Name Change PolicyIn cases where authors wish to change their name following publication, Wiley will update and republish the paper and redeliver the updated metadata to indexing services. Our editorial and production teams will use discretion in recognizing that name changes may be of a sensitive and private nature for various reasons including (but not limited to) alignment with gender identity, or as a result of marriage, divorce, or religious conversion. Accordingly, to protect the author’s privacy, we will not publish a correction notice to the paper, and we will not notify co-authors of the change. Authors should contact the journal’s Editorial Office with their name change request.
Correction to authorshipIn accordance with Wiley’s Best Practice Guidelines on Research Integrity and Publishing Ethics and the Committee on Publication Ethics’ guidance, Cell Biochemistry & Function will allow authors to correct authorship on a submitted, accepted, or published article if a valid reason exists to do so. All authors – including those to be added or removed – must agree to any proposed change. To request a change to the author list, please complete the Request for Changes to a Journal Article Author List Form and contact either the journal’s editorial or production office, depending on the status of the article. Authorship changes will not be considered without a fully completed Author Change form. [Correcting the authorship is different from changing an author’s name; the relevant policy for that can be found in Wiley’s Best Practice Guidelines under “Author name changes after publication.”]
ORCIDThis journal requires the submitting author to provide an ORCID (a unique author identifier) when submitting the manuscript to help distinguish the manuscript from the work of other researchers. The ORCID needs to be populated with the current affiliation and contact data as well as previous publications (if applicable); an empty ORCID is not acceptable and may lead to immediate rejection. Please refer to Wiley’s resources on ORCID for additional information.
Public Author Information: The identity of the submitting and/or corresponding authors must be traceable through an institutional e-mail-address. In case this is not available, please send a pre-submission query.
If the submitting and/or corresponding author is not clearly traceably through ORCID and institutional address, the paper may be rejected without a review.
Reproduction of Copyright MaterialIf excerpts from copyrighted works owned by third parties are included, credit must be shown in the contribution. It is your responsibility to also obtain written permission for reproduction from the copyright owners. For more information visit Wiley’s Copyright Terms & Conditions FAQ.
The corresponding author is responsible for obtaining written permission to reproduce the material "in print and other media" from the publisher of the original source, and for supplying Wiley with that permission upon submission.
Cover LettersSubmissions should include a cover letter. The cover letter must state that the manuscript has not been submitted or published at any other journal, the researchers’ compliance with local, state and national regulations for use of animal or human subjects, and anything else the author wishes for the editor to know. This could be specific questions the author wishes for reviewers to address, or suggestions for reviewers.
Free Format submission
Cell Biochemistry & Function now offers Free Format submission for a simplified and streamlined submission process.
Before you submit, you will need:
- Your manuscript: this should be an editable file including text, figures, and tables, or separate files – whichever you prefer. All required sections should be contained in your manuscript, including abstract (which does need to be correctly styled), introduction, methods, results, and conclusions. Figures and tables should have legends. Figures should be uploaded in the highest resolution possible. If the figures are not of sufficiently high quality your manuscript may be delayed. References may be submitted in any style or format, as long as it is consistent throughout the manuscript. Supporting information should be submitted in separate files. If the manuscript, figures or tables are difficult for you to read, they will also be difficult for the editors and reviewers, and the editorial office will send it back to you for revision. Your manuscript may also be sent back to you for revision if the quality of English language is poor.
- An ORCID ID, freely available at https://orcid.org. (Why is this important? Your article, if accepted and published, will be attached to your ORCID profile. Institutions and funders are increasingly requiring authors to have ORCID IDs.)
- The title page of the manuscript, including:
- Your co-author details, including affiliation and email address. (Why is this important? We need to keep all co-authors informed of the outcome of the peer review process.)
- Statements relating to our ethics and integrity policies, which may include any of the following (Why are these important? We need to uphold rigorous ethical standards for the research we consider for publication):
- data availability statement
- funding statement
- conflict of interest disclosure
- ethics approval statement
- patient consent statement
- permission to reproduce material from other sources
- clinical trial registration
To submit, login at https://wiley.atyponrex.com/journal/cbf and create a new submission. Follow the submission steps as required and submit the manuscript.
Your ManuscriptManuscripts can be uploaded either as a single document (containing the main text, tables and figures), or with figures and tables provided as separate files. The main manuscript file can be submitted in Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) or LaTex (.tex) format.
If submitting your manuscript file in LaTex format via Research Exchange, select the file designation “Main Document – LaTeX .tex File” on upload. When submitting a Latex Main Document, you must also provide a PDF version of the manuscript for Peer Review. Please upload this file as “Main Document - LaTeX PDF.” All supporting files that are referred to in the Latex Main Document should be uploaded as a “LaTeX Supplementary File.”
Your main document should include (recommended formatting):
• A short informative title containing the major key words. The title should not contain abbreviations (see Wiley's best practice SEO tips);
• A short running title of less than 40 characters;
• The full names of the authors with institutional affiliations where the work was conducted and the full contact details of the lab/institute where the work was conducted, institutional e-mail-addresses need to be provided at least for submitting and/or corresponding author. Authors should add a footnote for the author’s present address if this is different from where the work was conducted;
• Unstructured Abstract: The Abstract should be clearly written in 300 words or less and should succinctly state the objectives and the working hypothesis of the study, experimental design, major observations and conclusions, and their major significance. The abstract should be intelligible to scientists in general and should thus be free of specialized jargon and abbreviations. References should generally not be cited in the abstract, but if they are, the complete citation should be given. Please mention the main keywords.
• Significance Statement: Each manuscript submission must include a Significance Statement that will be published as part of the final manuscript. This should be a short statement (less than 120 words) that explains why the manuscript is important. It should state the purpose of the research – why was this work carried out? It should state what the key findings are, and why the data matter – what is the potential impact of this study on future research? The Significance Statement should be written in plain language that could be generally understood. However, it should NOT be a shortened version of the abstract.
• 5-7 keywords: Keywords should be taken from those recommended by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) browser list at www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh.
• Main body: formatted as introduction, materials & methods, results, discussion. Footnotes to the text are not allowed and any such material should be incorporated into the text as parenthetical matter.
• Acknowledgments: Contributions from anyone who does not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed, with permission from the contributor, in an Acknowledgments section. Financial and material support should also be mentioned. Thanks to anonymous reviewers are not appropriate.
• Conflict of Interest Statement: Authors will be asked to provide a conflict of interest statement during the submission process. For details on what to include in this section, see the ‘Conflict of Interest’ section in the Editorial Policies and Ethical Considerations section below. Submitting authors should ensure they liaise with all co-authors to confirm agreement with the final statement.
• Data Availability Statement: Authors will be asked to provide a data availability statement during the submission process. For details on what to include in this section, see the ‘Data Availability Statement’ section in the respective section above.
• Figures legends must be added beneath each individual image during upload AND as a complete list in the text, after the main body and the references. Legends should be concise but comprehensive - the figure and its legend must be understandable without reference to the text. Include definitions of any symbols used and define/explain all abbreviations and units of measurement.
• Appendices (if relevant)
Figures and Supporting Information should be supplied as separate files:
• Figures: Although authors are encouraged to send the highest-quality figures possible, for peer-review purposes, a wide variety of formats, sizes, and resolutions are accepted. Click here for the basic figure requirements for figures submitted with manuscripts for initial peer review, as well as the more detailed post-acceptance figure requirements.
No more than 8 figures may be presented, approximately equivalent of 3 pages-worth total.
Please be aware that all figures submitted with a manuscript to Cell Biochemistry and Function are screened for image manipulation. If manipulation is detected, the Author’s Institution may be contacted. Please also check the Data Reporting Policies regarding Reporting Western Blots and other electrophoretic results here.
• Supporting Information is information that is not essential to the article but provides greater depth and background, or e.g. gives data from control experiments. It is hosted online and appears without editing or typesetting. It may include tables, figures, videos, datasets, etc.
Click here for Wiley’s FAQs on Supporting Information.
Note: if data, scripts, or other artefacts used to generate the analyses presented in the paper are available via a publicly available data repository, authors should include a reference to the location of the material within their paper. See section “Data Sharing, Data Availability, and Data Reporting” for more details.
|Article Type||Description||Word Limit||Abstract / Structure||Other Requirements|
|Research Articles||reports of new research findings or conceptual analyses that make a significant contribution to knowledge||should not exceed 5000 words (including references, and table and figure legends) and contain no more than five display elements (figures and tables)||Yes, unstructured||Conflict of Interest Statement, Data Availability Statement|
|Reviews||discussing the state of the art of a particular and relevant topic||up to 10 000 words||Yes, unstructured||Conflict of Interest Statement, Data Availability Statement|
|Rapid communications||should have the same style as research articles||up to 1000 words (excluding references)||contain only a single figure|
peer review model. Papers will only be sent to review if the Editor-in-Chief determines that the paper matches the scope of the journal, reaches the adequate priority, and meets the appropriate quality and relevance requirements.
In-house submissions, i.e. papers authored by Editors or Editorial Board members of the title, will be sent to Editors unaffiliated with the author or institution and monitored carefully to ensure there is no peer review bias.
Wiley's policy on the confidentiality of the review process is available here.
ReviewersPlease suggest at least four reviewers who are not from the same countries as any of the authors and not from the Editorial Board.
Guidelines on Publishing and Research Ethics in Journal ArticlesThe journal requires that you include in the manuscript details IRB approvals, ethical treatment of human and animal research participants, and gathering of informed consent, as appropriate. In some cases the Editor-in-Chief may request specific evidence of animal or human ethics agreements awarded by local or national bodies. You will be expected to declare all conflicts of interest, or none, on submission. Please review Wiley’s policies surrounding human studies, animal studies, clinical trial registration, biosecurity, and research reporting guidelines.
This journal follows the core practices of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and handles cases of research and publication misconduct accordingly (https://publicationethics.org/core-practices).
This journal uses iThenticate’s CrossCheck software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Read Wiley’s Top 10 Publishing Ethics Tips for Authors and Wiley’s Publication Ethics Guidelines.
Figure screening policy: All figures submitted with a manuscript to Cell Biochemistry and Function are screened for image manipulation. In case manipulation is detected, the Author’s Institution may be contacted.
Data reporting policiesCell Biochemistry & Function has implemented stringent policies on data reporting to help ensure integrity of the research reported in the Journal and increase the transparency of the editorial processes. Not complying with the standards and policies explained below may be a reason for a rejection without further detailed comments or review. Authors must be prepared to show the entire underlying data for all results presented, whether they are specifically mentioned here or not.
This journal requires authors of papers that present results of gel electrophoresis and/or blots to provide original unprocessed images for every result that has been used for display in the figures, for the journal’s files. Authors should submit them as “Original Image” or may choose to publish the unprocessed images in the journal’s Supporting Information section. The journal will only consider manuscripts for review and publication if the authors have provided original unprocessed gel electrophoresis images.
The uncut, original blot should be presented for each figure shown in the manuscript. All blots from the original materials should be clearly marked with regards to the figure number, and those elements used should be highlighted in the original materials using a dotted line to encircle the relevant band(s). Requirements for gels and blots presented in the paper:
All images must have sufficient resolution and quality.
Rearranging bands, composing images from multiple experiments such as splicing lanes from multiple blots to fabricate a specific experimental outcome, image processing leading to a distortion of the originally contained information or similar operations and editing are in general forbidden and will lead to immediate rejection without further review. This behavior may be considered as scientific misconduct and lead to further investigation.
Molecular size markers should be included on each gel/blot and positive and negative controls must be included where relevant.
Replicates are necessary for all experiments including gels and blots, and authors should be prepared to submit them for review upon request. The number of repetitions should be clearly indicated in the Figure legend.
Quantitative and semi-quantitative blotsQuantification of Western blot/Protein expression data employing PC-based scanning software (e.g. AIDA image analyzer) is mandatory for comparative analysis (e.g. different concentrations of a drug used, or demonstration of the extent of a RNAi-based silencing). General statements of “higher” or “lower” expression level of a certain protein are not acceptable.
All quantifications must be performed on signals falling within the linear range of response (for example, bands used in quantification must not be overexposed or overloaded) and authors should be prepared to demonstrate it.
Quantitative comparisons between different gels are discouraged; if they are being presented, this must be clearly indicated.
First LookAfter your paper is accepted, your files will be assessed by the editorial office to ensure they are ready for production. You may be contacted if any updates or final files are required. Otherwise, your paper will be sent to the production team.
Wiley Author ServicesWhen an accepted article is received by Wiley’s production team, the corresponding author will receive an email asking them to login or register with Wiley Author Services. You will be asked to sign a publication license at this point as well as pay for any applicable APCs.
Copyright & LicensingIf a paper is accepted for publication, the author identified as the formal corresponding author will receive an email prompting them to log in to Author Services, where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be required to complete a copyright license agreement on behalf of all authors of the paper.
You may choose to publish under the terms of the journal’s standard copyright agreement, or Open Access under the terms of a Creative Commons License. Standard re-use and licensing rights vary by journal. Note that certain funders mandate a particular type of CC license be used. This journal uses the CC-BY/CC-BY-NC/CC-BY-NC-ND Creative Commons License.
Self-Archiving Definitions and Policies: Note that the journal’s standard copyright agreement allows for self-archiving of different versions of the article under specific conditions.
ProofsAuthors will receive an e-mail notification with a link and instructions for accessing HTML page proofs online as a pdf. Authors should also make sure that any renumbered tables, figures, or references match text citations and that figure legends correspond with text citations and actual figures. Proofs must be returned within 48 hours of receipt of the email.
Cell Biochemistry & Function offers rapid publication via Wiley’s Early View service. Early View articles (first online Version of Record) are published on Wiley Online Library before inclusion in an issue of the Cell Biochemistry & Function. Note there may be a delay after corrections are received before the article appears online, as the proofs are carefully reviewed. Once the article is published in Early View, no further changes to the article are possible. The Early View article is fully citable using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and carries an online publication date.
When an article is published online:
- The author will receive an email alert (if requested).
- Authors can share a link to their published article through social media.
- The author will have free access to the paper (after accepting the Terms & Conditions of use, they can view the article).
- For non-open access articles, the corresponding author and co-authors can nominate up to ten colleagues to receive a publication alert and free online access to the article.
Article Promotion SupportWiley Editing Services offers professional video, design, and writing services to create shareable video abstracts, infographics, conference posters, lay summaries, and research news stories for your research – so you can help your research get the attention it deserves.
Publication ChargesThere are no mandatory charges to authors publishing in Cell Biochemistry & Function.
Authors may choose to publish in an open access format, which carries a fee (see the sections on Open Access and on Copyright & Licensing).
Resource Identification InitiativeThe journal supports the Resource Identification Initiative, which aims to promote research resource identification, discovery, and reuse. This initiative, led by the Neuroscience Information Framework and the Oregon Health & Science University Library, provides unique identifiers for antibodies, model organisms, cell lines, and tools including software and databases. These IDs, called Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs), are machine-readable and can be used to search for all papers where a particular resource was used and to increase access to critical data to help researchers identify suitable reagents and tools.
You will be asked to use RRIDs to cite the resources used in your research where applicable in the text, similar to a regular citation or Genbank Accession number. For antibodies, you should include in the citation the vendor, catalogue number, and RRID both in the text upon first mention in the Methods section. For software tools and databases, please provide the name of the resource followed by the resource website, if available, and the RRID. For model organisms, the RRID alone is sufficient.
Additionally, you must include the RRIDs in the list of keywords associated with the manuscript.
To Obtain Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs):
- Use the Resource Identification Portal, created by the Resource Identification Initiative Working Group.
- Search for the research resource (please see the section titled “Search Features and Tips” for more information).
- Click on the “Cite This” button to obtain the citation and insert the citation into the manuscript text.
If any difficulties in obtaining identifiers arise, please contact [email protected] for assistance.
- Antibodies: "Wnt3 was localized using a rabbit polyclonal antibody C64F2 against Wnt3 (Cell Signaling Technology, Cat# 2721S, RRID: AB_2215411)"
- Model Organisms: "Experiments were conducted in c. elegans strain SP304 (RRID:CGC_SP304)"
- Cell lines: "Experiments were conducted in PC12 CLS cells (CLS Cat# 500311/p701_PC-12, RRID:CVCL_0481)"
- Tools, Software, and Databases: "Image analysis was conducted with CellProfiler Image Analysis Software, V2.0 (http://www.cellprofiler.org, RRID:nif-0000-00280)"
Upon its first use in the title, abstract, and text, the common name of a species should be followed by the scientific name (genus, species, and authority) in parentheses. For well-known species, however, scientific names may be omitted from article titles. If no common name exists in English, only the scientific name should be used.
Genetic NomenclatureSequence variants should be described in the text and tables using both DNA and protein designations whenever appropriate. Sequence variant nomenclature must follow the current HGVS guidelines; see varnomen.hgvs.org, where examples of acceptable nomenclature are provided.
Sequence DataNucleotide sequence data can be submitted in electronic form to any of the three major collaborative databases: DDBJ, EMBL, or GenBank. It is only necessary to submit to one database as data are exchanged between DDBJ, EMBL, and GenBank on a daily basis. The suggested wording for referring to accession-number information is: ‘These sequence data have been submitted to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession number U12345’. Addresses are as follows:
- DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ): www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp
- EMBL Nucleotide Archive: ebi.ac.uk/ena
- GenBank: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank
Proteins sequence data should be submitted to either of the following repositories:
For papers describing structural data, atomic coordinates and the associated experimental data should be deposited in the appropriate databank (see below). Please note that the data in databanks must be released, at the latest, upon publication of the article. We trust in the cooperation of our authors to ensure that atomic coordinates and experimental data are released on time.
- Organic and organometallic compounds: Crystallographic data should not be sent as Supporting Information, but should be deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) at ccdc.cam.ac.uk/services/structure%5Fdeposit.
- Inorganic compounds: Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe (FIZ; fiz-karlsruhe.de).
- Proteins and nucleic acids: Protein Data Bank (rcsb.org/pdb).
- NMR spectroscopy data: BioMagResBank (bmrb.wisc.edu).
This journal accepts artwork submissions for Cover Images. This is an optional service you can use to help increase article exposure and showcase your research. For more information, including artwork guidelines, pricing, and submission details, please visit the Journal Cover Image page.
Cover Image Submissions
Wiley Editing Services offers a professional cover image design service that creates eye-catching images, ready to be showcased on the journal cover.
The following points provide general advice on formatting and style.
General Style Points
- Language: Cell Biochemistry & Function uses US spelling; however, authors may submit using either option, as spelling of accepted papers is converted during the production process.
- Abbreviations: In general, terms should not be abbreviated unless they are used repeatedly and the abbreviation is helpful to the reader. Initially, use the word in full, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation only.
- Units of measurement: Measurements should be given in SI or SI-derived units. Visit the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) website for more information about SI units.
- Numbers: Numbers under 10 are spelt out, except for: measurements with a unit (8mmol/l); age (6 weeks old), or lists with other numbers (11 dogs, 9 cats, 4 gerbils).
- Trade Names: Chemical substances should be referred to by the generic name only. Trade names should not be used. Drugs should be referred to by their generic names. If proprietary drugs have been used in the study, refer to these by their generic name, mentioning the proprietary name and the name and location of the manufacturer in parentheses.