Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, Editor's Choice Awards

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(4)

Algal oil gives control of long-chain omega-3 levels in full-cycle production of Atlantic salmon, without detriment to zootechnical performance and sensory characteristics
Santigosa, E., Olsen, R. E., Madaro, A., Trichet, V. V., & Carr, I. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(4), 861–881

This study assessed the suitability of partial or full (100%) replacement of fish oil (FO) with microalgal oil (AO) in Atlantic salmon diets. This represents a novel approach as it is one of the first studies to follow fish through the entire production cycle from post-smolt (145 g) to a 3 kg harvest size. Three experimental trials were conducted consecutively and fish were fed a control diet containing FO as the main source of omega-3 LC-PUFA, with test diets containing graded levels of AO and other plant oils (rapeseed and soybean). No differences in zootechnical performance were found and results showed that AO replacement did not negatively affect growth, muscle quality, or EPA/DHA levels in fish fillets. A variety of sensory characteristics were also compared and raw salmon muscle from fish fed AO diets had favourable odor, taste, texture, appearance, or color. This study clearly demonstrated the suitability of AO as an effective alternative ingredient in salmon feeds and fully supports the idea that AO is a suitable FO replacement for salmon feeds and greater use of AO would reduce the marine footprint associated with aquafeeds.

Are all benefits equal? An exploratory analysis of coastal perspectives of seafood farming expansion in the United States
Shaughnessy, B. K., Almada, A., Thompson, K., Marvier, M., & Kareiva, P. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(4), 899–914.

This interesting study looks at how residents of coastal areas in western and northeastern US states view seafood farming and provides suggestions on how messaging on the benefits of aquaculture can be adjusted to influence public opinion. The economic importance of aquaculture is often emphasized as a benefit but in general, the US public is not well informed and unaware of other potential benefits of seafood farming. This study took a unique message-testing approach to survey 1) how opinions about seafood farming vary in relation to geography, prior familiarity with aquaculture, and sociodemographic attitudes; 2) how malleable opinions on aquaculture are; and 3) what benefits of marine aquaculture (especially seaweed farming) are viewed as reasons to support expansion of the industry.  It was found that attitudes and opinions of marine seafood farming are highly linked to prior familiarity with aquaculture, but that this is highly malleable. The researchers suggest that primary messaging should emphasize sustainability and environmental benefits and not economic or social benefits. Focusing more on this message for coastal residents may be important and represent a better tool for gaining public support for the expansion of seafood farming in the US.

Microencapsulated diets using thraustochytrids and macroalgae side streams for nursery rearing of Mytilus galloprovincialis spat.
Campanati, C., Arantzamendi, L., Zorita, I., Juez, A., & Aldridge, D. C. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(4), 994–1012.

Bivalve production is expanding globally and mussel farming plays an important role in such expansion. This study looks at ways to improve hatchery spat production for the European mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The basis of spat production relies on having reliable diets that can be applied in a cost-effective manner. The authors conducted feeding trials that tested a variety of diets to determine if there were differences in growth and survival.  What they found was that microencapsulated feeds produced by using a mixture of micro and macroalgae provided 100% substitution in the diet of M. galloprovincialis spat. Growth and survival were similar in comparison to a commercial diet control and other treatments. They suggest that using microencapsulated feeds for spat production can replace commercial microalgal diets and significantly reduce feed costs.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(3)

A review of influencing factors on a recirculating aquaculture system: Environmental conditions, feeding strategies, and disinfection methods
Li, H., Cui, Z., Cui, H., Bai, Y., Yin, Z., & Qu, K. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(3), 566–602

With advances in recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) technology, the authors of this review provide an overview of numerous elements associated with these systems, their importance, and their impact on RAS efficiency. It is clear that RAS has many advantages and possible benefits over other production strategies, but the requirements for efficient operation coupled with the need to balance critical parameters present large challenges. Fully understanding factors such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, density, photoperiod, feed rates, and disinfection methods is essential. Such parameters must be optimized based on species requirements and continually monitored to keep within appropriate ranges. Implementing new technologies that provide a visual assessment of fish behavior and feeding response can help ensure optimal conditions are maintained. RAS will undoubtedly play an increasing role in the expansion of aquaculture into the future. However, RAS must be cost-effective and efficient for the production of high-quality aquaculture products at the scale needed to satisfy the many different markets. This review provides a theoretical framework for the further development of RAS for aquaculture production.

Application of zymetin and super PS probiotics in hatchery, nursery, and grow-out phases of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and their impact on culture environment, production, and economics

Azad, M. A. K., Islam, S. S., Ghosh, A. K., Hasanuzzaman, A. F. M., Smith, A. J., Bir, J., Ahmmed, M. K., Ahmmed, F., Banu, G. R., & Huq, K. A. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(3), 645–665

Freshwater prawn probiotic study:
The use of probiotics for aquaculture has been shown in some cases to have a range of benefits but this can be highly dependent on various biotic and abiotic factors. This study explored the effect of two commercially available probiotics, zymetin, and super PS, on economics, production, and the environment when applied during the culture of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Three treatments were tested that consisted of 1) probiotics utilized in the nursery and during grow-out; 2) probiotics utilized during just the grow-out phase; and 3) no probiotic controls corresponding to each treatment.  Interestingly, it was found that when probiotics were applied during the entire culture cycle there was improved growth and production, environmental conditions, and better feed utilization.

Transcriptome analyses profiles of dietary L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii, liver
Wang, C., Sun, X., Lu, S., Wang, L., Li, J., Fan, Z., Wu, D., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Jiang, H., Han, S., & Liu, H. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(3), 734–748.

In this study, growth improvements were observed in sturgeon following dietary supplementation with 1.0% Ala-Gln. In addition, the authors took a transcriptomic approach to determine differential gene expression in the livers of fish fed supplemented or unsupplemented diets.  Several genes were either upregulated or downregulated, including those associated with amino acid and lipid metabolism, immune responses, and signal transduction.  It was suggested that the identification of Ala-Gln sensitive genes could lead to the development of biomarkers aimed at monitoring the nutritional effects of dipeptides.

Although more studies are required, this work lays the foundation for identifying key pathways and mechanisms that link nutrition and immunity in species such as sturgeon. This approach may also assist in the formulation of more complete diets and contribute to improved fish health and performance

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 54(1)

Water quality, waste production, and off-flavor characterization in a depuration system stocked with market-size Atlantic salmon Salmo salar
Davidson, J., Redman, N., Crouse, C., & Vinci, B. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(1), 96–112.

Many challenges come with land-based finfish aquaculture. This study looks at water quality changes during remediation of off-flavor that can accumulate in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). To eliminate off-flavor from salmon flesh, depuration may be necessary. Therefore, the authors emphasize the need to understand water quality and waste production in the context of depuration, discharge requirements, or repurposing water back into the RAS. This study evaluated these parameters for 311 salmon ranging in size from 5–6 kg.  These fish were reared to this size in a freshwater RAS and then moved to a depuration tank. Feed was withheld one day prior to transfer and fish remained off-feed for the 7 days of the study. It was found that within hours after stocking, levels of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), and total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) increased sharply then declined.  By the end of the trial TSS and TP were low but TAN plateaued, suggesting catabolism of somatic tissue. Geosmin and 2-methylisoboreol levels were also low throughout the study. This work represents the first comprehensive analysis of water quality and waste production metrics during the depuration process of RAS-produced Atlantic salmon. Recommendations from this study include extending the duration of preliminary feed withholding prior to transfer into depuration systems and reintroducing depuration system water strategically within RAS to rapidly remove residual solids and ammonia r prior to water reuse. These data provide important water quality measures to consider in design or configuration of existing or new RAS facilities.

The role of aquafeeds in abalone nutrition and health: A comprehensive review
Bullon, N., Seyfoddin, A., & Alfaro, A. C. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(1), 7–31.

In this review paper, the authors synthesize recent literature with a focus primarily on nutritional and health benefits of abalone feeds. Such feeds tend to include macroalgae (seaweed) as the primary feed component and in some countries, seaweed is cultivated and harvested specifically for feeding of abalone. However, in many cases abalone farms utilize formulated feeds extensively. Most land-based abalone farms use formulated feeds containing various levels of seaweed and other plant and animal based ingredients. Despite such feed options, there are major gaps in understanding the nutritional requirements of abalone and a need for industry to drive research priorities in this area. The authors state that a range of nutritional research topics should be explored including long-term evaluation of aquafeeds across seasons and life stage.  In addition, economic assessment of feed production costs, environmental impacts, histological studies on the effects of alternative ingredients on digestive health of abalone, and nutritional aspects of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture of abalone are all areas where more information is needed. With increasing production of abalone for commercial and restoration aquaculture, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of what we know and identifies many priority areas for future abalone nutrition research.

Cost of regulations on US catfish farms
Hegde, S., Kumar, G., Engle, C., & van Senten, J. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture SocietyJ, 54(1), 32–53.

Regulations and their economic impact on aquaculture producers has been a hot topic and this study provides insights into specific regulatory compliance costs and the burden they pose to US catfish farms. Survey interviews were conducted in the major catfish-producing states, and the results indicated that the US catfish industry spends approximately $45 million on regulatory costs annually.  Environmental regulations related mostly to the management of piscivorous birds was found to have the greatest cost (approximately $18 million) followed by labour regulations, and taxes/insurance. Interestingly, it was found that regulatory costs on smaller farms (<80 ha) were 2.6 times higher on average than larger farms of >300 ha. Results from this study highlight the overall economic effect of regulatory action on US catfish aquaculture. This is important, and by identifying which regulations impact this well-established industry it may be possible for policymakers to more efficiently implement existing and/or new regulations that lessen the burden to US producers.

Characterization of supply of marine finfish species with potential for commercial growth in the United States
Engle, C. R., van Senten, J., & Schwarz, M. H. (2023). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 54(1), 54–72.

Global marine finfish aquaculture production is high, but this is not the case in the United States (US), where 84% of foodfish production comes from freshwater. Marine production in the US has advanced slowly and is represented primarily by salmon and red drum.  This study was aimed at filling knowledge gaps by analysing 20 marine finfish species that were identified as commercial ready aquaculture candidates. The authors evaluated global and US aquaculture production, US commercial and recreational landings, and imports of these species. It was found that commercial landings for 17 of the 20 candidate species had declined, which would represent a potential for farmed products to fill supply gaps and capture lost market shares. Interestingly, recreational landings for 14 these species were higher than commercial landings. The paper identified a number of challenges and suggested that follow-up studies are needed to better define consumer preferences, substitutability of some finfish species, and the effects of recreational landings on demand.  For most marine species, with the exception of sablefish and Atlantic cod, commercial supply was low indicating that market demand may also be low and startup farms would need to be small scale until such markets grew. The volume of imported marine finfish that comes into the US was suggested as a major competition to the success of US marine fish farming. Overall, the markets currently represent low volume and to be economically viable, producers will need to develop strong logistical support so delivery of high quality fresh product, consistent in size and quality, can be achieved year-round.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 53(5)

The impact of COVID-19 on aquaculture in China and recommended strategies for mitigating the impact
Yuan, Y., Miao, W., Yuan, X., Dai, Y., Yuan, Y., & Gong, Y. (2022) Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(5), 933–947.

This preliminary investigation assessed the impact of COVID-19 on aquaculture in China. Questionnaire surveys were sent out to aquaculture stakeholders along the industrial chain in two provinces during the period of strict control and after control measures were lifted. The authors found that due to delayed harvest, fish stocks were held-up in ponds and normal farming was interrupted. Farmers and traders were impacted more severely by the pandemic than other sectors and the authors recommend strategies and measures to cope with the pandemic and other similar risks in the future. Results should guide the aquaculture industry in minimizing the impact of the pandemic and assist with recovery in the post-pandemic period.

Toward integration of sea cucumber and cockles with culture of shrimps in earthen ponds in Kenya
Magondu, E. W., Fulanda, B. M., Munguti, J. M., & Mlewa, C. M. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(5), 948–962.

This study utilized sea cucumbers and cockles in the first trial application of an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) system for pond culture of shrimp in Kenya. IMTA was compared with monoculture of shrimp in these intertidal earthen ponds. Following a comparison of harvest weight gain, an economic analysis revealed an increase in net income under IMTA and a cost benefit ratio of 1.77 higher than the monoculture system. Such findings support the integration of these species and pond IMTA technology for coastal mariculture production in Kenya.

Determinants of inefficiency in shrimp aquaculture under environmental impacts: Comparing shrimp production systems in the Mekong, Vietnam
Le, N. T. T., Hestvik, E. B., Armstrong, C. W., & Eide, A. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(5), 963–983.

The authors apply the Cobb–Douglas stochastic production frontier function to evaluate intensive and extensive systems for shrimp production in Vietnam. From a survey of 436 white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the Mekong Area, it was shown that farmers with self-reported experiences of drought have higher production efficiency, and those experiencing irregular weather had reduced efficiency. Education and feeding practice/stocking density adjustments were found to increase extensive culture efficiency. Furthermore, longer crop duration was found to increase intensive farm efficiency but decrease extensive farm efficiency. Interestingly efficiency for both technologies increased in locations further from the sea and decreased for both with disease occurrence.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 53(4)

A StAR-like gene involved in carotenoid metabolism and inner shell color in the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii
Zhang, J., Guo, B., Zhang, M., Li, J., & Bai, Z. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(4), 848– 859.

Coloration of freshwater mussels and their pearls are important qualitative parameters for their value. Adjusting color with dietary supplementation is possible, however the importance of genetic factors in coloration through pigment accumulation is uninvestigated. Zhang et al. isolated a cDNA sequence of HcStAR-like gene, from the freshwater pearl mussel, Hyriopsis cumingii. The gene was localized at the outerfold of the mantle and the joints to the middle fold. The expression levels of the gene were significantly positively corelated with golden shell coloration. The results of this study strongly indicate the involvement of the gene in carotenoid accumulation in the organism and inner shell pigmentation of the mussel.  


Antiviral activities of Glycyrrhiza uralensis components against Singapore grouper iridovirus.
Li, M., Liu, M., Wei, H., Huang, L., Yu, Q., Huang, S., Li, J., & Li, P. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(4), 894– 909.

Emerging pathogens with high fatality rates, such as Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), have significant impacts on finfish aquaculture. There is an urgent need for prevention and treatments of SGIV. Li et al. tested the effect of the traditional medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza uralensis against SGIV in controlled laboratory experiments. The aqueous extract of G. uralensis was highly effective in reducing infection activity of SGIV in exposed cell cultures and also destroyed virus particle structures. Effects were concentration -dependent and may be the result of interruption of virus particle binding to cell receptors and virus replication in host cells. The aqueous extract has great potential for application is urgently needed treatment for SGIV infection.


Dietary poly-β-hydroxybutyrate supplementation can effectively improve growth, digestive enzyme activities, immune-related gene expression, disease resistance, and intestinal mucosal barrier of gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio.
n, P., Wang, Z., Lv, T., Li, X., Tian, H., Zhang, Y., Cang, P., Chi, S., Sun, Y., & Qiao, G. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53( 4), 816– 835.

Gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio, is an extremely important freshwater aquaculture species in China. Bacterial and viral infections cause significant losses in carp aquaculture and interest has arisen in the application of dietary Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in gibel carp culture in an attempt to promote growth and enhance immunity. Using six experimental diets with PHB conclusion ranging from 0.5 to to 8%, Liu et al. tested immune response gene expression and intestinal enzyme activities. A 4% dietary inclusion of PHB increased intestinal enzyme activities significantly while inclusion of 0.5% upregulated immune response genes after 60 days. Mucosal protection of the epithelia was also increased at an inclusion of 4%. The authors conclude that PHB supplementation ranging between 0.5 and 4% for 30 to 60 days is highly beneficial for gibel carp culture.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 53(3)

Evaluation of different artificial light technologies for indoor aquaponic production of Bibb lettuce, Lactuca sativa var. capitata, and compact basil, Ocimum basilicum var. Genovese.
Shultz, R. C., Coyle, S. D., Bright, L. A., Hager, J. V., & Tidwell, J. H. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(3), 703–713.

The lighting required for plant growth in temperate aquaponics applications can constitute significant energy cost and must be as efficient as possible in terms of growth stimulation and energy efficiency. In this study metal halide, fluorescent, light-emitting diode (LED), and induction lighting technologies were compared on indoor production of lettuce and basil with tilapia. LED lighting outperformed all other technologies in terms of plant growth induction. The authors argue that LED produces greater red spectra and higher Red:Blue ratios than other lights which appears to be advantageous for plant growth in aquaponics.

The use of plant extracts to control tilapia reproduction: Current status and future perspectives.
Abaho, I., Masembe, C., Akoll, P., & Jones, C. L. W. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(3), 593–619.

The use of synthetic hormones to control the reproduction of tilapia destined for grow-out is either increasingly unpopular or legislated against. The use of plant-based products as alternatives to hormonal treatment is thoroughly reviewed by Abaho et al. in this article. The efficacy and administration of 20 different plants and their extracts are described. The authors identify gaps in existing knowledge ranging from extraction methods and dosages, through to effect on fish tissue quality. Recommendations for use and for future studies to refine and standardise plant and extract use are provided.

Establishment andcharacterization of a cell line from ictalurid catfish.
Aarattuthodi, S., Dharan, V., Khoo, L., & Bosworth, B. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(3), 620–638.

Understanding virus impacts, along with the development of antiviral treatments and vaccines require exceptional in vitro experimental research. Developing cell lines, in this case for catfish, the most important aquaculture fish in the US, is imperative to allow in vitro studies aiming at continued improvement of fish health management. Using tissue explantation and enzymatic digestion methods on catfish fin tissues, Aarattuthodi et al. established and optimised growth of a viable hybrid catfish cell line, creating a valuable resource for future in vitro studies.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 53(2)

Effects of histidine on growth performance of North American Atlantic salmon. 
Peterson, B. C., Burr, G. S., & Gaylord, G. T. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(2), 401– 410.

Establishing amino acid requirements for Atlantic salmon based on performance and feed efficiency is important as ever greater levels of alternative diet ingredients are applied in commercial settings. Histidine has been secondary to other amino acids in previous research. In graded controlled feeding experiments Peterson et al. were able to establish a requirement of 0.9% histidine in diets to ensure optimal growth. Previous study results indicating tendency towards cataract formation below 1.4% histidine were not confirmed.

Temperature and salinity adaptability of the coral reef topshell Tectus pyramis.
Ou, Z., Liu, W., & He, M. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(2), 527– 541.

The previously common coral reef topshell Tectus pyramis is a highly valued fishery species now the focus of breeding and restocking efforts in Asia. Fundamental understanding of optimal physicochemical parameters and adaptability is essential to ensuring successful release in restocking efforts. Graded Temperature and salinity exposure experiments over a period of 9 days revealed a significant reduction in tolerance and adaptive capacity amongst smaller animals, most likely to be included in restocking releases. Optima of 30 degrees Celsius and 33 ‰ salinity were identified based on mortality, respiration and nitrogen excretion.  


Trophic interactions and metal transfer in marine ecosystems driven by the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus aquaculture.
Loaiza, I., De Boeck, G., Alcazar, J., Campos, D., Cárdenas-Alayza, S., Ganoza, M., Gómez-Sanchez, M., Miglio, M., & De Troch, M. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(2), 452– 474.

High-value scallop aquaculture is established along the highly productive Peruvian coast and is considered a pivotal industry, but also a potential source of metal bioaccumulation in higher tropic levels, including fisheries targeted species. Loaiza et al. reveal stable isotope enrichment at five sites along the coast and show that scallops are key within the ecosystem as a food source, and have a major role in metal transfer, particularly Arsenic to higher trophic levels.

Journal of World Aquaculture 53(1)

Controlled spawning and rearing of the sea cucumber, Parastichopus tremulus
Schagerström, E., Christophersen, G., Sunde, J., Bakke, S., Matusse, N. R., Dupont, S., & Sundell, K. S. (2022). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(1), 224–240. (2022)

The majority of sea cucumber fisheries are overexploited and first steps to aquaculture novel species in Europe, where fishing pressure is increasing, are rare. Spawning and larval rearing protocols are essential to the sustainable use of sea cucumber species worldwide. Schagerström et al. successfully apply established methods to Parastichopus tremulus, a species of great interest in northern Europe. Successful larval development after spawning indicates that relatively standard culture protocols with adapted temperature regimes can be applied to this species. Fine tuning of the protocols is suggested including feed and temperature optimisation, plus improved handling. 

Factors influencing Chinese consumer attitudes on the safety of aquatic products
Dai, Y., Yuan, Y.-M., Yuan, Y., Zhou, Z., & Zhang, H. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(1), 47–59. (2022)

Consumer attitudes and consumption patterns are changing rapidly across the world’s largest seafood market, mainland China. Dai et al. show that preference for food safety is replacing necessity amongst consumers across China. Consideration for the health implications for the aged and the very young are important in this shift in product preference. Meeting current and future consumer demands in China requires a focal shift towards product safety, potentially at the cost of overall production volume.

Measurement and analysis of technological progress bias in China's mariculture industry
Sun, Y., & Ji, J. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 53(1), 60–76. (2022)

Ji et al. in their recent study apply a data envelopment analysis to calculate input biased technological progress as an index in China’s mariculture industry. Early industry development depended heavily on factor input and expansion of scale, classic for extensive development. The authors argue, however, that continued growth requires technological progress and corrected pricing of labor and ecosystem services (in the form of sites). Input of technological progress remains too low and must be addressed. The authors argue that technological innovation must be encouraged, and resource dependence including environmental inputs must be reduced through government intervention. Workers need to be appropriately remunerated and product pricing along with costs for mariculture area access need to be defined and set accordingly to allow healthy and sustainable industry development.

Journal of World Aquaculture 52(6)

Assessment of bivalve carrying capacities and seeding densities in aquaculture areas of Jiaozhou Bay, China, using ecological modeling and the food balance.
Liu, X., Zhang, M., Wang, Z., & Wang, B. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(6), 1178– 1193. (2021).

Bivalve aquaculture and the culture of other extractive organisms is increasingly popular globally as a sustainable marine food production. With increasing popularity and culture densities it is imperative that ecosystem carrying capacities are understood and respected. In their latest study Liu et al. take an ecological modelling approach to bivalve aquaculture in Jiaozhou Bay, China. They are able to show a clear seasonality of carrying capacities for all bivalve species studied and link reduced carrying capacity to increased temperatures. Their results indicate a clear linkage between primary production and carrying capacity for all species. The authors provide recommendations for reductions in seeding densities for key species, as well as providing a novel and suitable modelling method for others to apply.

A method for minimizing the zone of low water flow velocity in a bottom center drain circular aquaculture tank.
Sin, M-G, An, C-H, Cha, S-J, Kim, M-J, Kim, H-N. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(6), 1221– 1233. (2021).

Low water velocities, poor mixing and solids deposition can lead to suboptimal conditions in circular aquaculture tanks. Optimisation of tank inflows and design have been approached frequently. However, Sin et al. apply mathematical modelling using computed fluid dynamics to tank design and water in-flows. Their aim is to remove low-velocity zones and optimise water quality in land-based tank systems. They validate their modelling results in real-tank systems. Using an adjustable vertical nozzle pipe with several water outlets along the pipe length, they are able to achieve valuable reductions in low-velocity areas of tanks and vast improvements in mixing. Results provide practical methods for improving water quality and animal health in land-based culture systems.

In vitro efficacy of Quillaja saponaria extracts on the infective life-stage of ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi.
Cañon Jones, H. A., Schlotterbeck Suarez, T., Castillo-Ruiz, M., Cortes Gonzalez, H., Asencio, G., Latuz, S., & San Martín, R.  Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(6), 1234– 1242. (2021). 

Triterpinoid saponins are naturally occurring chemicals which may be a promising alternative to synthetic antiparasitic treamtents. In their recent study, Cañon Jones et al. tested various concentrations of Quillaja saponaria extract on larval Caligus rogercresseyi, which is responsible for sea lice infestations in the southern hemisphere. Concentrations of 500 ppm extract were sufficient to kill or stun infective larvae, with efficiency increasing with periods of exposure. With high levels of efficacy and negligible environmental concerns related to its use, Quillaja saponaria extract may be a valuable addition to the tools available to aquaculture producers battling the significant economic and animal welfare challenges created by sea lice infestations. Future studies must determine extract effects on salmonids and suitable treatment methods.

Journal of World Aquaculture 52(5)

Climate change challenges and opportunities for seaweed aquaculture in California, the United States.
Kübler JE, Dudgeon SR & Bush D. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(5), 1069-1080. (2021).

While aquaculture of macroalgae is in the early stages of development in California, United States, there is a significant need for rapid development in the face of climate change. Warmer waters are affecting nutrient supply and causing mass mortalities in harvested wild species. Climate change resilient seaweeds including Golden kombu and Laminaria farlowii were tested in the current study to determine growth rates under varying conditions. In tests early life stages of Golden kombu showed potential as a summer crop for future Californian seaweed aquaculture. Physiological screening as exhibited in this study can be applied to select optimal species for culture in the coming decades.

The effect of distal-end trimming on Saccharina latissima morphology, composition, and productivity.
Grebe, G. S., Byron, C. J., Brady, D. C., St. Gelais, A. T., & Costa-Pierce, B. A. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(5), 1081–1098. (2021).

In order to attempt to optimise crop management strategies in expanding kelp cultivation, Grebe et al. applied distal-end trimming techniques to Saccharina latissima grown in the Western Gulf of Maine, United States. They analysed not only performance characteristics of the kelp, but also applied economic calculations to the resulting crop yields. Trimming Saccharina latissima sporophytes to 60 cm reduced daily yield initially but significantly improved late-season yield and crop retention. From an economic perspective the trimming offered early-season biomass to be marketed by the farmer, which may demand a price premium. It also ensured better overall final kelp yield. If these can be appropriately economically exploited, distal-end trimming is highly recommended and represents a viable way new crop management strategy.


Seasonal and interannual production of sea lettuce (Ulva sp.) in outdoor cultures based on commercial size ponds.
Zertuche-González JA, Sandoval-Gil JM, Rangel-Mendoza LK, Gálvez-Palazuelos AI, Guzmán-Calderón JM & Yarish C. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(5), 1047–1058. (2021)

Onshore and offshore seaweed production are essential to meeting rapidly increasing demand for seaweeds as food. Onshore production offers advantages in terms of control of various physicochemical parameters including nutrient supply, light and temperature. Tests of pond-based culture with a selected Ulva strain were conducted over a period of more than two years. Ponds were managed with basic fertilisation and water exchanges followed by three-weekly harvest protocols and reseeding. Peaks of production were recorded in spring and autumn/fall with summer and winter providing the lowest productivity respectively. Growth appeared most dependent on average temperature which was optimal between 17 and 23°C. A long-term study like this with accurate repeated measurements provides an excellent baseline for future commercial operations.


Journal of World Aquaculture 52(4)

Evaluating zooplankton in traditional and split-pond systems for raising golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas.
Kaimal, S., & Kelly, A. M. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(4), 881-894. (2021)

Golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, are the most important baitfish species in US aquaculture. Kaimal and Kelly in their latest study compared split-pond and traditional earthen pond systems to determine the effect of pond type on available zooplankton. While it was proposed that the split pond systems may offer zooplankton refuges in the waste treatment unit, in fact the traditional pond systems had significantly higher zooplankton densities. The most significant impact on fish performance parameters was shown to be the lack of additional feeding in split pond systems, while the largest impact on survival remained the well-known external impacts of bird and snake depredation.

Transgenic camelina oil is an effective source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in diets for farmed rainbow trout, in terms of growth, tissue fatty acid content, and fillet sensory properties.
Osmond, A. T. Y., Arts, M. T., Bazinet, R. P., Napier, J. A., Han, L., & Colombo, S. M. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(4), 961-986. (2021)

Sustainable sources of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are essential to fed aquaculture development and growth. Oils from plants such as Camelina sativa, genetically engineered to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may offer an alternative to fish oil. Osmond et al. fed low (12.5 g/kg) and high (130 g/kg) transgenic Camelina sativa oil diets, and a fish oil control diet to juvenile rainbow trout. Results clearly show that Camelina sativa oil is nutritionally suitable for trout. All trout growth performance data were the same across all treatments, however the low Camelina sativa oil diet had lower fillet EPA content. Stable isotope analysis confirmed DHA storage in tissue from different dietary sources.  The high Camelina sativa oil diet produced firmer and more intensely coloured trout fillets.


Characterization of Vibrio sp. strain AB15 and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain NB14 from the biofloc of shrimp culture ponds capable of high ammonia and nitrite removal efficiency.
Dou, L., Chen, W., Pan, L., & Huang, F. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(4), 843-858. (2021)

Isolating suitable bacterial strains from biofloc promises the opportunity of finding useful probiotic strains for removal of nitrogenous wastes. Dou et al. isolated and cultured two facultative anaerobic strains Vibrio sp. strain AB15 and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain NB14 from shrimp ponds and investigated their removal efficiencies of ammonia and nitrite. At optimal conditions the strains both removed upwards of 90% of both wastes. The isolates were harmless to shrimp and inhibited common pathogenic Vibrio species at concentrations of 105–108 CFU/mL.  These strains have significant potential for use as probiotics in shrimp ponds to maintain biosecurity and water quality under high nitrogen loads.

Journal of World Aquaculture 52(3)

The status of spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) as a technologically feasible species for U.S. marine aquaculture.
Blaylock, R., Saillant, E., Apeitos, A., Abrego, D., Cason, P., & Vega, R.  Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(3): 526–540. (2021)

Blaylock et al. summarize the nearly 50 years of research into lifecycle closure, culture systems and proposed commercial production of spotted seatrout in their review of this technologically feasible species for US marine aquaculture. The review covers not only early advances in broodstock husbandry, spawning and extensive larval rearing development during the 1970s but also details studies applying intensive closed system rearing. These have successfully reduced cannibalism and brought ongrowing of 500 g fish forward to within one year total production time. Pond production remains economically unfeasible due to the inability to control cannibalism and other management problems. The authors highlight the need to address economic questions, to drive diet optimization and to transfer technologies for improved production and before commercial production can begin.

Advancing production of marine fish in the United States: Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, aquaculture.
Stieglitz, J. D., Hoenig, R. H., Baggett, J. K., Tudela, C. E., Mathur, S. K., & Benetti, D. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(3): 566–581. (2021) 

Olive flounder or Japanese flounder is a candidate species for aquaculture in the United States, but is also produced at large scales in Asia especially in Korea and the Peoples Republic of China. Its extremely high value as a food species has already driven its international commercialization, as has its comparatively simple production during grow out. In their study of Stieglitz et al. look into the economic practicalities of production in the United States particularly in salt water recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and discuss the efficiency not only of olive flounder production but also of marine RAS in the US. They identify positives for olive flounder production in aquaculture as flatfish wild catch landings have reduced. The authors identify olive flounder as a prime candidate for land-based marine finish production in the United States in terms of economic potential, and environmental and social acceptability. The need for cost-effective production facilities is linked to availability of under-utilized waterfront properties and facilities and the existing ability of US suppliers to provide seedstock and information on production is highlighted.

The status of Florida pompano, Trachinotus carolinus, as a commercially ready species for U.S. marine aquaculture.
Weirich, C. R., Riley, K. L., Riche, M., Main, K. L., Wills, P. S., Illán, G., Cerino, D. S., & Pfeiffer, T. J. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 52(3): 731–763. (2021)

Aquaculture of Florida pompano has developed over two distinct periods since the 1950s in the United States. Initial attempts in the 1950s-80s were made using a variety of holding facilities including ponds, coastal enclosures, tanks and even floating cages to on-grow wild caught juveniles. Hormone induced spawning was introduced in the 1970s and larval culture initiated. However, most efforts failed to achieve growth of any merits beyond 200 g due to numerous nutritional and production system limitations. In the 2000s there was a resurgence of interest in pompano aquaculture whereby larval reproduction and lab rearing were successfully refined to allow mass production of juveniles at a variety of different laboratories. With the simplification of juvenile production, new challenges have arisen related to rearing and grow out, although production of circa 500 g fish within 12 months is now possible. Future research should focus on refinements which improve overall economic feasibility. These include broodstock development through selective breeding, optimization of feed production and provision to ensure optimal grow out, along with health optimization, improved marketing and well-grounded economic studies to support accelerated commercialization.

Journal of World Aquaculture 52(2)

The impact of aquaculture field school on the shrimp and milkfish yield and income of farmers in Demak, Central Java.
Widowati LL, Ariyati RW, Rejeki S and Bosma RH. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 52(2); 362-377. 

Successful training of traditional farmers to adopt new methods can have rapid and upscalable benefits in many aquaculture contexts. Widowati et al. followed the production performance of a group of 125 traditional milkfish and shrimp farmers in Indonesia following a 16-day aquaculture field training school teaching Low External Input Sustainable Aquaculture (LEISA), during one cropping season. They determined increase in yield of milkfish and shrimp and calculated economic benefits of the training.  Adopters of the LEISA practices exhibited a threefold increase in shrimp yield and an increase of nearly US$1,000 per hectare per annum in economic yield. The payback time on investment for the $1,060 course was less than a year and overall rate of return for adopters surveyed was around 1.8. Results clearly indicate the benefits of low cost training in vastly increasing economic yield to this group of farmers who represent nearly 80% of the production area in Indonesia. By quantifying these benefits the authors clearly show an economic value in training and indicate how overall agriculture productivity can be increased at a national scale through simple and upscalable environmentally beneficial vocational training activities.

Bioeconomic modeling of oyster farming in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan
Kamiyama R, Miyata T and Takahashi H. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 52(2):418–434. 

Kamiyama et al. investigated Japanese marine aquaculture, in particular oyster farming within the Miyagi Prefecture in Japan, through the development of a bioeconomic model. Bioeconomic models can be particularly useful in aiding management decisions especially during periods of high-impact change, such as temperature extremes and instability caused by climate change. The authors developed three scenarios in their model. These mirrored low, moderate and high prevailing temperatures. Models showed that oyster farm profitability could be increased by early harvesting starting in late October or early November. High temperatures reduced the profit of farming when compared to current conditions indicating a likely economic impact of climate change-induced temperature increases. Overall, the final economic model and scenarios provide a baseline for successful management of the industry to support new investment and development to adapt towards changing economic and climate realities.

Acceptance of insect meal in aquaculture feeding: A stakeholder analysis for the Italian supply chains of trout and seabass.
Mulazzani L, Madau FA, Pulina P and Malorgio G. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 52(2):378–394. 

The use of meal from a variety of candidate insect species as a replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture diets has been proposed and promoted for many years. The authors of the current study investigated potential users’ acceptance of insect meal in diets for two European aquaculture species of high interest. The results indicated that a direct economic assessment primarily related to the cost of feed and its effect on growing animals is complemented by a different set of considerations, which relate to needs of specific farm and business models. Results show that farmers, feed producers and insect producers must consider final product destinations, large retailers’ requirements, processing practicalities, digestibility and solid waste production. These are important in addition to the more obvious aspects such as feed price, feed conversion ratio and feed performance variability. Barriers to insect meal acceptance are, on the one hand, predictable and very much related to industrywide parameters of diet quality. On the other hand, customer-specific requirements play an important role and must be addressed individually in order to assure market penetration.

Effect of a phytogenic feed additive on the growth performance and immunity of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, fed a low fishmeal diet.
Kesselring J, Gruber C, Standen B and Wein S. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 52(2):303–315. 

Compensating the negative effects of high levels of fishmeal replacement in shrimp diets promises to improve the environmental and economic performance of shrimp farming worldwide. In their recent study, Kesselring et al. were able to improve the growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei fed a diet with only 5% fishmeal by the supplementation of a phytogenic feed additive made of extracts from aromatic plants. The inclusion of 0.4% of the photogenic product improved shrimp growth and immune response when compared to those fed a control diet. Supplementation improved overall growth performance to the level of animals fed formulated diet with 24% fishmeal over the same two months. Integrating such additives in formulated shrimp diets will allow future inclusion of alternative proteins at higher levels resulting in economically and ecologically more viable shrimp diets for global aquaculture.

Journal of World Aquaculture 52(1)

Preliminary assessment of large‐scale co‐culture of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) with the Babylon snail (Babylonia areolata) in earthen ponds and in raceways.
Dobson, GT, Duy, NDQ, Southgate, PC. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 52(1); 138–154

Gregory Dobson and coauthors trailed two tropical invertebrates Holothuria scabra (sandfish) and Babylonia areolata in two large‐scale co‐culture experiments, one indirect and one direct, to evaluate growth performance and nutrient uptake. In the first trail in earthen ponds, Babylonia were held at high density in a central net pen and fed trash fish, with sandfish surrounding the pen at low density. Sandfish growth was high but Babylonia growth was similar to values for fed monoculture. In the second trial, a direct co-culture was applied in concrete raceways. Sandfish density was doubled and Babylonia density reduced by one-third. Results showed large increases in the growth performance of both species, with Babylonia growth twice that of monoculture. Total N was also 20% lower in co-culture sediments. Results are highly promising for future co-culture at commercial scales.

Effect of understocking density of channel catfish fingerlings in intensively aerated multiple‐batch production.
Kumar, G, Wise, D, Li, M, Aarattuthodiyil, S, Hegde S, Rutland, B, Pruitt, S, Griffin, M, Khoo, L. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 52(1) 30– 40.

Catfish farming in the US has changed greatly in the past 40 years and the practice of multiple‐batch production is established as the preferred method of raising channel catfish. Aeration and stocking rates have also steadily increased however clear stocking density recommendations are lacking for intensification. Kumar et al understocked three density treatments 17,484, 20,612, and 26,124 fingerlings/ha (mean weight = 40 g/fish) to 12 ponds and followed yields, survival, growth and feeding rate. All densities exhibited positive cash-flow and were validated as suitable understocking densities.  If sub-marketable yield/fish was taken into account as revenue, the three treatments performed at very similar levels of economic return. Where sub-marketable fish were excluded from revenue calculations, higher density understocking offered diminished net returns and higher breakeven prices.

Effects of salinity on growth characteristics and osmoregulation of juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus 1766), reared in potassium‐amended inland saline groundwater.
Antony, J, Reddy, AK, Sudhagar, A, Vungurala, HK, Roy, LA. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 2021; 52(1) 155– 170

Saline inland water and groundwater are problematic for agriculture but offer potential for aquaculture of marine or salt-tolerant species. Antony et al. found juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, survival was 0% in raw saline groundwater at salinities up to 15 g/L. They then compared juvenile cobia growth in potassium (K+)‐amended saline groundwater (100% K+ fortified) and reconstituted seawater at salinities of 5, 10, and 15 g/L. Survival improved to 100% in all treatments and all performance parameters including growth were similar across treatments at the end of the 60 day experiment. Osmoregulation was normal among cobia in K+‐amended saline groundwater and overall results show growth can be optimized for cobia in salinities up to 15 g/L saline groundwater if it is suitably K+‐amended.

Journal of World Aquaculture 51(6)

Hyperintensive stocking densities for Litopenaeus vannamei grow‐out in biofloc technology culture system.
da Silveira, LGP, Krummenauer, D, Poersch, LH, Rosas, VT, Wasielesky, W. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(6); 1290–1300

Intensive biofloc systems, if optimised, have the potential to reduce resource requirements for shrimp production. Hyperintensive systems, with extremely high stocking densities, offer the advantage of viable large output shrimp production at minimal space / water requirements. In order to determine optimal stocking rates, de Silveira et al. stocked L. vannamei at densities of 500, 625 and 750 shrimp / m3 in triplicate tanks in biofloc and followed shrimp growth and water quality parameters. Results indicated the two highest stocking densities were optimal in terms of overall yield, despite animals in the highest density exhibiting significantly lower growth rates over the experimental period. The authors noted that hyperintensive stocking requires close management of key water parameters such as DO.

Effects of rearing density on growth, physiological responses, and flesh quality in juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum).
Silva VA, Trushenski J, Schwarz MH, Cavalli RO. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(5):1301–1312.

Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, is an exciting emerging aquaculture finfish species, however, previous studies indicate it is susceptible to stress when reared at high densities. In order to determine potential trade-offs in economic benefits of high density against stress-related reductions in growth and product quality, Silva et al. held Cobia at three densities ranging from 3.30 kg/m3, through 6.67 kg/m3 to 13.15 kg/m3. While most measures of feeding activity, condition and stress indicators did not differ between treatments, there was a significant negative effect of increased stocking density on weight gain and accordingly specific growth rate. Product quality, in this case faster rigor mortis development, was also found in fish held at high densities.

Discriminant analysis of four cultured populations of the pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii, using morphology and single-nucleotide polymorphism markers.
Huang J, Xu M, He M. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society; 51(6):1373–1385.

Pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata martensii, is a commercially valuable aquaculture species in the South China Sea. As losses due to disease outbreaks and poor water quality have increased, so has the need to find suitable markers to identify commercial populations and better understand their diversity, especially those used in and affected by artificial breeding. Huang et al. used multivariate analysis of oyster morphology and 25 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map gene flow between Shenzhen (SZ), Hainan (HN), Zhanjiang (ZJ), and hybrid (HY) populations. Results indicate frequent gene flow between HN and HY to such a degree they can be considered the same population. The most genetically removed population is from SZ and can be considered independent. The results are of importance when selecting future broodstock and maintaining stock diversity in future.  

Effect of feeding frequency on the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, during the pilot-scale nursery phase of a superintensive culture in a biofloc system.
Wasielesky W. Jr., Bezerra AX.. Poersch L., Banderó Hoffling L., Krummenauer D. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(5):1175-1191. 

Biofloc systems for shrimp production are of increasing importance in Brazil and globally, yet feeding regimes must be optimal for management of animals, system water quality and economic viability. Comparing feeding frequencies in a pilot nursery system, Wasielesky et al. show that reducing feeding frequency to one event per day allows time and cost reductions without affecting water quality or shrimp performance. Using lower feeding frequencies takes advantage of the nutritional support offered by bioflocs to improve system economic efficiency.

Larval growth, survival, and partial budget analysis related to replacing Artemia in larval culture of six freshwater ornamental fishes
Lipscomb TN, Patterson JT, Wood AL, Watson CA, DiMaggio MA. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(5), 1132-1144.

There is a strong reliance on Artemia among ornamental producers for early life stages of many ornamental fish species. Finding viable alternatives could diversify supply, reduce a variety of industry costs, and improve resilience.  Larvae of the ornamental species Corydoras aeneus, Synodontis eupterus, Synodontis nigriventris, Pterophyllum scalare, and Trichogaster lalius larvae all performed as well or better in terms of survival, feeding, and standard length when fed specific microparticulate diets over a period of 14 days. Net economic benefits arise with microparticulate diet feeding, which represents a physiologically and economically feasible alternative to Artemia for ornamental fish larval culture.

Effect of genetic line, protein source, and protein level on growth, survival, and immune‐related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei.
Rodriguez‐Anaya LZ, Casillas‐Hernández R, Flores‐Pérez MB, et al. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(5), 1161– 1174.

Two lines of Litopenaeus vannamei, one optimised for growth and one for white spot syndrome virus resistance, were each fed six dietary treatments at three protein levels. Genetic line was the primary determinant of both survival and growth rates but there was significant interaction between all variables, influencing immune response as measured by gene expression. Feeding plant-based protein at a level of 30-35% of diet was sufficient to obtain acceptable growth and survival without compromising immune response. Results can inform diet formulation to achieve optimal yields at suitable diet cost.

First report of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 outbreak in cultured gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio at low temperature.
Ouyang P, Zhou Y, Wang K, et al. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(5):1208– 1220. 

Herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis (HVHN), caused by Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV‐2), is an infectious disease affecting the genus Carassius with high morbidity and mortality. Outbreaks are not usually reported at temperature extremes. However, in late 2018, a disease outbreak was reported among cultured gibel carp in ZiGong, Sichuan Province, China at water temperatures of 10°C. Observations, clinical signs, examinations and histological assays indicated an HVHN outbreak, which was confirmed by PCR testing for CyHV‐2. Infections were reenacted at 13°C with 50% mortality. Overall results indicate HVHN risk outside previously considered temperature ranges for gibel carp.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 51(4)

Cost drivers and profitability of U.S. pond, raceway, and RAS aquaculture
Engle C, Kumar G, van Senten, J. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(4), 847-873.

Decision-makers looking to address sluggish aquaculture growth in the United States can benefit from this thorough analysis of aquaculture enterprise budgets. Engle et al. reveal in their latest article that RAS enterprises producing key species (Atlantic salmon, trout, and tilapia) generally fail to show profitability in the United States, although there are a few U.S. RAS that have operated profitably for more than 15 years. Scaling up RAS enterprises helped to reduce the per unit product losses but all RAS remained unprofitable. The authors identify improving labor and capital productivity as ways to improve RAS profitability beyond upscaling. Pond production of catfish, trout and largemouth bass all exhibited greater labor and capital productivity and were shown to be profitable in the long term. Systems with high variable costs could increase profitability with improved FCR and higher labor productivity.

Potential growth and nutrient removal of Kappaphycus alvarezii in a fish floating-net cage system in Sekotong Bay, Lombok, Indonesia
Kambey SB, Sondak CFA, Chung I. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(4), 944-959.

Integrating macroalgae and other extractives into intensive net-cage systems is novel in tropical nations, where large potential for integration exists. The authors of this study were able to show that high value Kappaphycus alvarezii grew significantly faster in fish farms containing pompano, grouper and Asian sea bass, when compared to control sites. Results also showed a significant uptake of N and P outputs by the algae, with six kilograms of seaweed absorbing up to a third of the cage outputs of NH4 + and PO43- on average during daylight hours. Overall K. alvarezii is shown to be well-suited to reducing net-cage nutrient outputs while producing a valuable new product.

Phosphorus in the culture of the Amazon river prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) and tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) farmed in monoculture and in integrated multitrophic systems
Flickinger DL, Dantas DP,  Proença1 DC,  David FS, Valenti WC. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(4), 1002-1023.

Phosphorous budgets were examined in a variety of monoculture and integrated multitrophic systems combining Amazon river prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum and tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum to determine the efficiency of integrated models. The integrated multitrophic systems exhibited the most efficient conversion of phosphorous from the diet provided into biomass; however, the greatest amount of phosphorous deposition (up to 70%) occurred into the pond sediments. The inclusion of a deposit-feeder or similar species capable of sediment consumption and bioturbation is suggested to improve the phosphorous efficiency in similar integrated multitrophic systems.

A review of reported seaweed diseases and pests in aquaculture in Asia
Ward GM. Faisan Jr JP, Cottier-Cook EJ, Gachon C, Hurtado AQ, Lim PE, Matoju I, Msuya FE, Bass D, Brodie J. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(4), 815–828.

Seaweed culture is expanding and diversifying globally, as are seaweed uses. Ward et al. offer a thorough review of the diseases and pests that have emerged or become more prevalent in the past few years, and which are affecting seaweed production performance and quality. Taking Asia as the primary center of production worldwide, they summarize the diseases reported for the main aquaculture species and offer information on mitigation and management measures including suggestions for future practices.  Improved diagnostic capacity and understanding of causes of disease, combined with better monitoring of these factors in conjunction with environmental conditions are identified as key future directions.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 51(3)

A novel marine algal oil containing both EPA and DHA is an effective source of omega‐3 fatty acids for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss )

Santigosa, E, Constant, D, Prudence, D, Wahli, T, & Verlhac‐Trichet, V. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(3), 649-665.

Omega‐3 fatty acids (FA) must come from alternative sources in order for fed aquaculture to grow in the future. Santigosa et al. (2020) assessed the performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed with algal oil as a novel eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) source and compared this with animals fed a diet containing fish oil. EPA and DHA digestibility was extremely high. The FA profile of fillet tissue very closely followed the diet inclusion, indicating fillet Omega-3 profiles can be improved with appropriate oil inclusion. These results in combination with excellent growth and blood parameters show algal oil containing EPA and DHA is an efficient source of omega‐3 FAs for cultured salmonids.

Functional diets improve survival and physiological response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to amoebic gill disease

Mullins, J, Nowak, B, Leef, M, Røn, Ø, Eriksen, TB, & McGurk, C. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(3), 634-648.

Amoebic gill disease (AGD), caused by the amoeba Paramoeba perurans, has drastic effects on salmon growth and survival. When Mullins et al. (2020) tested four functional diets in a controlled feeding and challenge trial and found that adding arginine, microadditives, and vitamins C and E improved survival, with arginine being a particularly important pathogen protector. Protective gill mucus had more lysozymes and polysaccharides in treated fish and was more viscous. Overall, functional diet formulations are shown to be a potential method to prevent AGD.

Effects of stocking density of Chinese soft‐shelled turtle and interactions between cultivated species on growth performance and the environment in a turtle–rice coculture system.

Zhao, J, Zou, Y, Chen, H, Xu, J, Liang, Z, & Xu, H. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(3), 788-803.

Chinese soft‐shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) were grown in a turtle–rice coculture system at varying densities. Co-culture resulted in significantly increased yields of rice and turtles over rice monoculture with and without fertilization. Turtle survival increased with density to a maximum recommended density of 10 turtles/m2. Nutrient efficiency improved and water nutrient losses were significantly improved over turtle monoculture.

Cross‐protective potential of a live‐attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine against Edwardsiella piscicida in channel (Ictalurus punctatus) and channel × blue (Ictalurus furcatus) hybrid catfish.

Griffin, MJ, Greenway, TE, Byars, TS, Ware, C Aarattuthodiyil, S, Kumar, G, & Wise DJ. (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(3), 740-749.

The culture of channel × blue catfish hybrids in the southeastern United States is increasingly impacted by the pathogen Edwardsiella piscicida. Griffin et al (2020) assessed the crossprotective potential of a live‐attenuated E.ictaluri vaccine against E. piscicida using multiple immunization and challenge tests. Bath immunization with E. piscicida protected challenged channel catfish against E. ictaluri under multiple feeding regimes and holding temperatures.  Oral immunization with a feed mix containing an attenuated E. ictaluri vaccine protected channel catfish against intracoelomic injected E. piscicida at high and low bacterial densities. Hybrid catfish immunized by combined attenuated E. ictaluri oral/bath vaccination were protected against low-density E. piscicida and E. ictaluri. A live‐attenuated E. ictaluri vaccine appears, on the basis if these results, to be able to protect channel and hybrid catfish against E. piscicida.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 51(2)

Performance and welfare of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. post‐smolts in recirculating aquaculture systems: Importance of salinity and water velocity

Ytrestøyl, T., Takle, H., Kolarevic, J., Calabrese, S., Timmerhaus, G., Rosseland, B. O., Teien, H. C., Nilsen, T.O., Handeland, S.O., Stefansson, S.O., Ebbesson, L.O.E., and Bendik F. Terjesen (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(2)

Larger post‐smolt Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, can be produced in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) to shorten sea cage growout and improve survival. This study showed lower salinity improved growth rate, while higher water velocity generally had a positive effect on growth, irrespective of salinity. Lower salinity also resulted in lower FCR in fish on-grown from 250 to 450 g. Fish at higher salinity exhibited overall reduced welfare with higher mortality, elevated plasma cortisol levels, higher incidence of cataracts, and a higher expression of stress‐induced genes in the skin.

Validation of Edwardsiella ictaluri oral vaccination platform in experimental pond trials

Wise, D.J., Greenway, T.E., Byars, T.S., Kumar, G., Griffin, M.J., Khoo, L.H., Chesser, G. and John Lowe (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(2) 

Oral vaccinations promise significant economic benefits beyond loss reductions in finfish aquaculture. Wise et al (2020) evaluated oral delivery of a live-attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine to Channel catfish fingerlings under simulated commercial conditions. Vaccination increased the survival and total yield while also improving FCR and feed fed. Yields in fingerling operations were estimated to improve more than $3,500/ha ($1,400/acre) over three years of operation.

Effect of a peptide complex on the defense mechanism of shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus against pathogens and changes in environmental parameters

Linh, N.T.H., Sudhakaran, R., Itami, T., and Yousuke Taoka (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(2) 

Pathogens combined with variations in abiotic conditions can severely effect animal health. Peptide complex extracted from chicken egg yolk stimulated the immune system of Kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, in response to pathogens and changes in environmental parameters. Under Vibrio challenge, temperature and salinity stress the administration of the peptide complex was effective in enhancing immune response and the tolerance of Kuruma shrimp to environmental changes.

First assessment of the potential for coculture of sandfish (Holothuria scabra) with Babylon snail (Babylonia areolata) in Vietnam

Dobson, G.T., Duy, N.D.Q., and Paul C. Southgate (2020). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(2) 

Tropical invertebrate cocultures are few but of high potential value. The authors of this study cultured sandfish, Holothuria scabra, at low (25 ind/m2; 46.75 g/m2), medium (50 ind/m2; 93.5 g/m2), and high (100 ind/m2; 187 g/m2) densities in monoculture and with Babylon snail, Babylonia areolata at 400 ind/m2 (208 g/m2). Sandfish survival was lower in coculture treatments but sandfish weight gain and absolute growth rate were around 37% greater in coculture. Land‐based pond coculture of sandfish and Babylonia development is strongly supported by the results.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 51(1)

Supplementing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) broodstock diets with choline and methionine improves growth in offspring

Cleveland, B.M., Leeds, T.D., Picklo, M.J., Brentesen, C, Frost, J and P.R. Biga. 2020. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(1). 

Nutritional programming responses can occur in offspring of broodstock fish fed diets with specific micronutrients. These can inform broodstock nutritional programmes to improve the performance of the next generation. Cleveland et al. (2020) supplemented rainbow trout broodstock diets with choline and methionine and found significant increases in final harvest weights among offspring of selected broodstock families fed supplemented diets. Choline and methionine are shown to be effective functional micronutrients for nutritional programing in rainbow trout. 

Aquaculture of the sand star, Astropecten indicus Döderlein, 1888, as a step toward the sustainable aquaculture of harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta Dana, 1852

Pratoomyot, J, Torcharoen, T, Thongra‐ar, P and A.P. Shinn. 2020. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(1). 

Ornamental harlequin shrimp, Hymenocera picta, require a diet of live sea stars, which are wild-collected. To make harlequin shrimp culture more sustainable, Pratoomyot et al. (2020) developed aquaculture methods for the sand star Astropecten indicus as an alternative live feed. Sand star spawning, larval rearing and settlement were successful, as was on-growing to maturity. Sand star were readily cultured under captive conditions, representing the first harvestable aquaculture of a sea star. 

Effect of plant density in coupled aquaponics on the welfare status of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

Baßmann, B, Harbach, H, Weißbach, S, and H.W. Palm. 2020. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(1). 

Aquaponics is highly valued for its nutrient efficiency as plants uptake dissolved nitrogenous and other wastes. The welfare of fish in relation to the plant type and stocking density is poorly investigated. Baßmann et al (2020) follow the behaviour and physiological stress indicators and reveal that aquaponics with high-density basil resulted in positive behavioral and stress responses. 

Off‐flavors in pond‐grown ictalurid catfish: Causes and management options

Craig S. Tucker and Kevin K. Schrader. 2020. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 51(1). 

Off-flavors often develop in Ictalurid catfish grown in ponds prior to harvest. Farmers consider off-flavored fish one of their main production problems, as they are undesirable to customers and unacceptable for processing, and harvest must be postponed while fish are purged. Tucker and Schrader (2020) review the causes, impacts and methods for prevention and treatment of off-flavors as well as providing a decision-making tool to aid management of off-flavors using the tools available.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 50(5)

Interactive effects of family and stocking density on survival and growth of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius.

Zhang, W., X. Chen, H. Jiang, Z. Wang, B. Wang, Y. Zhan, S. Qi, and Y. Chang. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(5):969-982. 

The sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius, is an important cultured species in China. Results from previous selective breeding studies have suggested interactive effects of genetics and culture practices. Zhang et al. (2019), in a 10-month growout trial conducted under commercial, sea-water conditions, found evidence of significant family by stocking density interactions on growth, suggesting that greater attention should be paid to these effects.

Controlling preharvest maturity in farmed Arctic char: A review from the Canadian perspective

Yossa, R., A. Bardon-Albaret, M. A. Chiasson, Q. Liu, J. Duston, T. Manning, and J. Benfey. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(5):894-907.  

Early maturation of Atlantic salmon raised in land‐based, closed containment water recirculation aquaculture systems has created economic challenges and spurred research efforts to identify appropriate management strategies. Yossa et al. (2019) review the current literature on early maturation in Arctic char, offering useful insights on knowledge gaps and research directions that have important implications for commercial production of this species.

Bacteriological water quality of recirculating aquatic systems for maintenance of yellowtail amberjack Seriola lalandi

E. Garcia-Mendoza, J. Cáceres-Martínez, R. Vásquez-Yeomans, and R. Cruz-Flores. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(5):934-953. 

Yellowtail amberjack Seriola lalandi are a valuable marine fish for which aquaculture technology has made considerable advances. Reducing disease losses in the hatchery phase would reduce fingerling costs. Garcia-Mendoza et al. (2019) present the first report on bacteriological quality in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for this species, contributing to understanding of disease management for this species and in land-based RAS.

Embryonic development in corkwing wrasse, Symphodus melops.

Gonzalez, E. B., I. Torstensnes, and M. Naito. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(5):993-1001. 

Development of efficient aquaculture methods for cleaner species used to control sea lice is critical to the Atlantic salmon net pen industry. Little is known of the basic reproductive biology of corkwing wrasse, Symphodus melops, principal cleaner fish species. Gonzalez et al. (2019) describe the embryonic development and effects of temperature on egg viability of this species, contributing to commercial efforts to culture cleaner fish for the Atlantic salmon industry.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 50(4)

Growth performance and hemobiochemical parameters in South African dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus, Sciaenidae) offered brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a feed additive.

Madibana, M.J. and V. Mlambo. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(4):815–826. 

Single-cell proteins have potential to enhance feed utilization in fish. Madibana and Mlambo (2019) evaluated the effect of graded levels of dietary inactivated brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, an emerging culture species. The maximum inclusion level of brewer's yeast that does not impair growth performance and health of dusky kob was determined to be 50 g/kg.

Optimizing stocking density and microalgae ration improves the growth potential of tropical black-lip oyster, Saccostrea echinata, larvae. 

Nowland, S.J., W. A. O’Connor, and P. C. Southgate. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(4):728–737. 

While hatchery culture methods are well developed for a number of temperate oyster species, similar information is not available for many tropical oysters. A key bottleneck to the culture of the black-lip rock oyster, Saccostrea echinata, is the availability of spat. Nowland et al. (2019) conducted a series of experiments from which recommendations for key hatchery culture parameters for each major larval stage of the black-lip rock oyster were developed.

Production of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease toxin is affected by addition of cell-free supernatant prepared from AI-2-producing Vibrio harveyi mutant.

Pumkaew, M., S. Taengchaiyaphum, S. Powtongsook, W. Pungrasmi, and K. Sritunyalucksana. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(4):878–886. 

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease results in serious shrimp mortalities through two virulent binary toxins produced by a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND). Quorum sensing (QS) is known to regulate toxin production, perhaps through involvement of the AI-2 molecule. Pumkaew et al. (2019) showed that furanone inhibited AI-2 activity and reduced toxin production, suggesting potential avenues for management of VPAHPND infection.

Apparent digestibility and protein quality evaluation of selected feed ingredients in Seriola dumerili.

Tomás-Vidal, A., R. Monge-Ortiz, M. Jover-Cerdá, and S. Martínez-Llorens. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(4):842–855. 

Continued advancements in aquaculture of marine species depend upon development of cost-effective feeds. Less-expensive alternatives to fishmeal are needed, but the suitability of feed ingredients depend largely on their respective digestibility. Tomás-Vidal (2019) assessed and report the apparent nutrient digestibility and protein quality of 12 different commercially available ingredients for the Mediterranean yellowtail, Seriola dumerili.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 50(3)

The future of genetic engineering to provide essential dietary nutrients and improve growth performance in aquaculture: Advantages and challenges.
Osmond, A.T. Y. and S. M. Colombo. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(3):490–509.

Rapid advances in genetic engineering technologies offer new opportunities to enhance efficiencies and growth in aquaculture, but also pose new challenges. Osmond and Colombo (2019) review the literature related to genetic engineering with a focus on improving aquaculture through nutrition by developing novel fatty acids and amino acids from plant oils, plant meals, and yeast. Consumer acceptance challenges are also discussed.

Regulatory costs on U.S. salmonid farms
Engle, C.R., J. van Senten, and G. Fornshell. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(3):522–549.

Concerns over whether U.S. aquaculture is over-regulated have increased. Engle et al. (2019) measured the national on-farm regulatory cost burden on U.S. salmonid farms to be $16.1 million per year, averaging $150,506 per farm and $1.23 per pound. Effluent discharge regulations were the most costly, and regulatory costs were 18 times greater on small farms. The regulatory burden not only increased farm costs but has also constrained growth of the industry.

To what extent can maternal inherited immunity acquired from a crustacean-enhanced diet improve the performance and vitality of the offspring and enhance profitability of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?
Abdel-Rahim, M. M., A. T. Mansour, M. H. Mona, M. M. El-Gamal, and M. M. El Atafy. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(3):550–574.

Continued improvement in production efficiency and profitability are essential for the continued growth of aquaculture. Abdel-Rahim et al. (2019) found that crustacean-enhanced broodstock diets of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) resulted in improved survival, growth, swim bladder inflation, condition factor, and improved tolerance of post-larvae to salinity/temperature stress tests. Resulting improvements in efficiency were shown to improve profitability.

Cost–benefit analysis of two culture methods that influence pearl production from the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera
Johnston, B., D. Hine, P. Kishore, and P. C. Southgate. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(3):510–521.

Pearl farmers in Polynesia commonly use the ear-hanging method to culture pearl oysters while panel-net methods are used in other countries to produce higher quality pearls. Johnston et al. (2019) used whole-farm data to develop the first economic analysis of culture methods for the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera. While panel-net methods had a somewhat greater average cost, savings in labor costs resulted in greater profitability of panel-net methods.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 50(2)

A future vision for disease control in shrimp aquaculture. World Aquaculture Society
Flegel, Timothy W. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(2):249–266.

Disease outbreaks cause serious economic losses and disrupt supply chains. In this review paper, Flegel (2019) presents a vision for the future control of diseases using shrimp aquaculture as an example. Recent research advances on the nature of shrimp-pathogen interactions are reviewed along with a discussion of promising new directions that involve “immune priming” and “trained immunity” of RNA interference and endogenous viral elements.

Emergence of Edwardsiella piscicida in farmed channel ♀, Ictalurus punctatus × Blue ♂, Ictalurus furcatus, hybrid catfish cultured in Mississippi
Griffin, M.J., S. R. Reichley, W. A. Baumgartner, S. Aarattuthodiyil, C. Ware, J. M. Steadman, M. Lewis, P. S. Gaunt, L. H. Khoo, and D. J. Wise. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(2):420–432.

Hybrid catfish have been considered more disease resistant than channel catfish. Griffin et al. (2019) furthered efforts to understand the newly described Edwardsiella piscicida for which hybrids have been shown to be more susceptible. Phenotypical and molecular identities of archived isolates from disease case submissions from 2013 to 2017 confirmed that hybrid catfish accounted for 89% of the presumptive E. piscicida cases and documented associated gross and histological lesions.

Effect of different feeding levels of plant ingredient-based feed on fillet fatty acid profile, carcass trait, and sensory characteristics of Indian major carps in earthen pond polyculture.
Pradhan, C., S. S. Giri, S. N. Mohanty, and R. Narasimmalu. 2019. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(2):374–389.

An important goal of aquaculture nutrition research in recent years has been to reduce the use of fishmeal. Pradhan et al. (2019) furthered this effort by developing recommendations for feeding levels of plant ingredient-based feeds for Indian major carps. Importantly, this evaluation was conducted under commercial production conditions. Further analysis revealed little effect on carcass traits, sensory characteristics, and consumer acceptance.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 50(1)

Testing of a pond-side molecular diagnostic tool for the detection of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp aquaculture.
Minardi, D., K.S. Bateman, A. Kuzdzal, M. Stone, J. Avant, R. Condliffe, P. Brotherton, M. Laverick, K. Sritunyalucksana, O. Itsathitphaisarn, P. Baoprasertkul, and G.D. Stentiford. 2019.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Scociety 50(1):18-33. 

White spot sundrome virus (WSSV) is the most economically important diseas of shrimp, and early diagnostic is critical to minimize losses. Current diagnostic methods are expensive, time consuming, and require specialized laboratory equipment and personnel. Minardi et al. (2019) describe the development and application of a new diagnostic test that is easy to use on farms by non-experts. It is affordable and results are available in 70 minutes. 

Update on early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease by April 2018.
Prachumwat, A., S Taengchaiyaphum, N. Mungkongwongsiri, D.J. Aldama-Cano, T.W. Flegel, and K. Sritunyalucksan. 2019.
Journal of World Aquaculture Society 50(1):5-17.

Early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) first appeared in 2009 causing serious losses of shrimp. Prachumwat et al. (2019) describe the length of time to identify the causative agent, develop rapid detection methods, and reviews genomic and proteomic studies of VPAHPND isolates from different countries. The paper further presents the need for a global cooperative emergency response network for disease outbreaks.

Tolerance of lumpfish, Cyclopterus lumpus, to freshwater bath treatment for amoebic gill disease, Neoparamoeba perurans, infection and efficacy of different treatment regimens.
Treasurer, J. and T. Turnbull. 2019.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(1):42-53.

Amoebic gill disease is a major problem for the cleaner fish species most frequently used in salmon farming, the wrasse species and lumpfish, for control of sea lice. Treasurer and Turnbull (2019) report results of studies on the use of freshwaterbath treatments for amoebic gill disease. High efficacy of reducing amoebic numbers was achieved with: 5-hour treatment at 0 ppt salilnity; 3-hour treatment of 0, 3, Or 5 ppt salinity; and 3-day treatment at 15 ppt.

Dietary protein requirement for juvenile mandarini fish, Siniperca scherzeri.
Sankian, Z., S. Khosravi, Y-O Kim, and S-M Lee. 2019.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 50(1):34-41.

Mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri, is a highly-valued fish in China, but decreased wild landings have created market shortages. Farmed mandarin fish are primarily fed live fish of other species, and formulated feeds are not available for manderin fish. Sankian et al. (2019) investigated the dietary protein level of juvenile mandarin fish, finding that juvenile mandarin fish need a relatively high level of crude protein (614 g/kg) in their diets.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 49(6)

Effects of dietary scallop and squid hydrolysates on growth of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax; California yellowtail, Seriola lalandi; and barramundi, Lates calcarifer.
Lee, C.M., B. Volson, B. Kang, P.D. Karayannakidis, E. Gamez, J. Miller, G. Betty, C. Andrikos, A. Attwater, and D.A. Bengtson. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture society 49(6):971–984.

Squid processing byproducts and scallop viscera contain high protein levels and good amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Lee et al. (2018) evaluated hydrolysates developed from these byproducts in a series of feeding trials. Inclusion of hydrolysates improved feed attractability and growth in early juvenile, but not growout stages of European seabass and California yellowtail, but no discernible benefit was found with barramundi.

Molecular cloning and characterization of a putative ecdysis-triggering hormone receptor (ETHR) gene from Macrobrachium nipponense.
G-X Liang, H-T Fu, H Qiao, S-M Sun, W-Y Zhang, S-B Jin, Y-S Gong, S-F Jiang, Y-W Xiong, and Y Wu. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(6):1081–1094.

The molting process in crustaceans is complex and requires coordinated gene expression of multiple regulatory chemical messengers. Liang et al. (2018) cloned the full-length complementary DNA of a putative ETHR gene of Macrobrachium nipponense (ETHR). The brain was found to be the major functional site of ETHR activity, and study results indicated that the putative ETHR is closely involved in the molting process of M. nipponense.

Plant products in compounded diets are effectively utilized by American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.
Reigh, R. and M.B. Williams. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(6):1014–1018.

In spite of the importance of alligator farming in several regions of the world, little is known about their nutritional requirements. Reigh and Williams (2018) compared combinations of commercial and experimental, plant-based diets over a 328-d trial. Results indicated that the American alligator can effectively utilize plant products in a compounded diet and that additional research on optimizing the use of selected plant products in alligator feeds is warranted.

Economics of alternative catfish production technologies.
Kumar, G., C. R. Engle, T. R. Hanson, C. S. Tucker, T. W. Brown, L. B. Bott, L. A. Roy, C. E. Boyd, M. S. Recsetar, J. Park, and E. L. Torrans. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(6):1039–1057.

U.S. catfish production has become increasingly more intensive. Kumar et al. (2018) compared the economics of three new production systems under a uniform set of economic assumptions. The split-pond system resulted in the lowest cost/kg, followed by that of intensively aerated ponds, with the highest cost/kg from in-pond raceways. Risk analysis showed that intensively aerated ponds may be preferable during times of adverse feed and fish prices.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 49(5)

Nutritional contribution of biofloc within the diet of growout and broodstock of Litopenaeus vannamei, determined by stable isotopes and fatty acids.
Magaña-Gallegos, E., R. González-Zúñiga, G. Cuzon, M. Arevalo, E. Pacheco, M. A. J. Valenzuela, G. Gaxiola, E. Chan-Vivas, K. López-Aguiar, and E. Noreña-Barroso. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(5):919–932

Biofloc production contributes to growth of aquaculture animals through its effect on water quality and as a food source for shrimp. Magaña-Gallegos et al. (2018) used stable isotope and fatty acid analysis to determine the relative contributions of feed sources to shrimp growth and reproduction. Biofloc particle sizes ≥250 𝛍m contributed the most to the growth of shrimp, but artemia, polychaetes, and semi-moist feed were important for shrimp egg production.

Supplementation of protein hydrolysates to a low-fishmeal diet improves growth and health status of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus.
Khosravi, S., H.T.D. Bui, M. Herault, V. Fournier, K-D Kim, B-J Lee, K-W Kim, and K-J Lee. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(5):897–911.

Protein hydrolysates are considered to be high-quality protein sources for aquaculture, but while previous work has suggested that protein hydrolysates can act as immunostimulants, their immunological effects on important commercial species such as the olive flounder have not been examined. Khosravi et al. (2018) found that several types of protein hydrolysates used as dietary supplements improved growth and health of juvenile olive flounder fed a low fishmeal diet.

Response of pond-raised fingerling hybrid catfish, ♀ Ictalurus punctatus × ♂ Ictalurus furcatus, to dietary protein concentrations and sources.
Li, M.H., D. J. Wise, C. C. Mischke, G. Kumar, and P. M. Lucas. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(5):912–918.

Feed costs for fingerling fish tend to be greater than those for foodfish due to greater protein requirements. Production studies that include economic analysis provide important information to improve economic returns from fish production. Li et al. (2018) found that it was more economical to produce hybrid catfish fingerlings with a 28% protein diet (as compared to 32% and 35% protein) in spite of the greater feed conversion ratio of the lower protein diet.

Design and cost analysis of a self-contained mobile laboratory for commercial-scale aquatic species cryopreservation.
Childress, W.M., R. H. Caffey, and T.R. Tiersch. 2018.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(5):805–826.

Advances in cryopreservation techniques for aquaculture species hold potential for substantial improvements in overall production efficiencies for a number of species. However, widespread adoption is limited by the lack of on-site facilities for high throughput cryopreservation. Childress et al. (2018) designed and analyzed the costs of a self-contained mobile laboratory for commercial-scale cryopreservation of aquatic species.

Journal of the World Aquaculture 49(4)

Addressing Reproductibility in Cryopreservation, and Considerations Necessary for Commercialisation and Community Development in Support of Genetic Resources of Aquatic Species
Torres, L. and T.R. Tiersch. 2018
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(4):644–663

Cryopreservation techniques have been developed for many aquatic species, but commercial use has lagged behind that of cryopreserved germplasm in terrestrial livestock industries. Torres and Tiersch (2018) reviewed the factors underlying the need for standardized procedures, terminology, and reporting guidelines, identified major sources of irreproducibility, and provided recommendations to address reproducibility and to influence commercial development.

Replacing Soybean Meal with Alternative Protein Sources in Diets for Pond-raised Hybrid Catfish, ♀ Ictalurus punctatus × ♂ Ictalurus furcatus
Li, M.H., B.G. Bosworth, and P.M. Lucas. 2018
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(4):755–760

 Increased soybean meal prices have spurred searches for alternative feed ingredients to replace soybean meal in diets for hybrid catfish. Li et al. (2018) found that soybean meal can be replaced completely by a combination of cottonseed meal and one or two alternatives such as distillers dried grains with solubles, peanut meal, or porcine meat and bone meal. These alternative diets had no effect on production and processing characteristics, or fillet proximate composition.

Effect of Two Novel Experimental Microdiet Types on Growth, Survival, and Pigmentation during the Weaning Period of the Fine Flounder, Paralichthys adspersus, Larvae
Orihuela, L., M. Montes, J. Linares, A. Castro, L. Carrera, and J. P. Lazo. 2018 
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(4):770–779

 The quality of microdiets for cultured marine fish larvae is critical to successful weaning and is affected by the manufacturing processes used. Orihuela et al. (2018) compared two novel types of experimental microdiets for weaning fine flounder larvae. While both types showed promise, the particle-assisted rotational agglomeration process produced smaller, less-dense particles that reduced the sinking rate and increased chances for larvae to detect and ingest the diet.

Effects of Integrated Shrimp Farming in Vietnam
Phung, H.G. and D.B. Pham. 2018
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(4):664–675

Shrimp exports from Vietnam, a leader in global shrimp supply, are produced primarily by small-scale farmers who are often less able to comply with food safety and environmental sustainability requirements. Phung and Pham (2018) developed a value chain analysis that showed that integrated shrimp farming is more effective than an industry structure composed primarily of small-scale and independent farms.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(1)

Impact of Climate Change on the Technical Efficiency of Striped Catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Nguyen, L.A., T. B. V. Pham, R. Bosma, J. Verreth, R. Leemans, S. De Silva, and A. O. Lansink
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(3):570-581

Pangasius farming in Vietnam is a major aquaculture industry. Identification of factors that affect input efficiency on pangasius farms would be useful. Nguyen et al. (2018) used a data envelopment approach to show that technical efficiency was greater on downstream farms due to lower energy costs, while most mid- and upstream farmers had lower efficiency scores due to the need to pump water and stock more often. Salinity intrusion reduced efficiency scores.

Food Conditions and Water Salinity Affect Survival and Growth of Golden Mandarin Fish, Siniperca sherzeri, Larvae through Transcriptional Regulation of Growth and Lipometabolic Genes
Yang, H., E. Hu, J.T. Buchanan, and T.R. Tiersch
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(3):590-600

The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding is a critical time for many larval fish. Therefore, understanding the effects of culture conditions on survival and growth during the first feeding stage can be critical. Yuan et al. (2018) found, through feeding trials and analysis of transcriptional regulation of growth and lipometabolic genes, that a mixed diet of Megalobrama amblycephala larvae (natural prey) and Artemia at 5 ppt salinity improved growth and survival.

Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Carbon Concentrations in Some Common Aquaculture Feeds.
Chatvijitkul, S., C.E. Boyd, and D. A. Davis.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(3):477-486

Continued efforts to reduce aquaculture impacts on water quality requires data on key nutrient concentrations in feeds. Chatvijitkul et al. (2018) measured nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon concentrations of 203 aquaculture feed samples for three life stages (starter, fingerling, and growout) of seven common aquaculture species/groups. Results provide useful data for other studies and show that crude protein can be used as an estimate of nitrogen concentration. /p>

Factors Driving Aquaculture Technology Adoption.
Kumar, G., C. Engle, and C. Tucker
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(3):447-476

New aquaculture technologies emerge constantly as research leads to breakthroughs in culture methods, production systems, feeds and feeding practices, and other types of management practices. Too often, however, many new advances are not adopted by the aquaculture industry. Kumar et al. (2018) review the literature on factors that drive adoption of aquaculture technologies and summarizes several factors that influence adoption decisions by farmers.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(1)

Dissolved Oxygen and Aeration in Ictalurid Catfish Aquaculture
Boyd, C.E., E.L. Torrans, and C.S. Tucker
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(1):7-70

Dissolved oxygen management in pond-based aquaculture is critical to successful commercial production of a wide variety of species worldwide. Boyd et al. (2018) provide a comprehensive review that details decades of research on dissolved oxygen dynamics in Ictalurid catfish ponds and hatcheries and the evolution of its management through mechanical aeration over time.

A Strategy for Sperm Cryopreservation of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, for Remote Commercial-scale High-throughput Processing
Yang, H., E. Hu, J.T. Buchanan, and T.R. Tiersch
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(1):96-112

High-throughput cryopreservation techniques have potential to substantially reduce costs associated with maintaining broodstock of commercially-important species with long-generation intervals and large body sizes. Yang et al. (2018) report development of a streamlined protocol for high-throughput commercial-scale production and quality control for Atlantic salmon.

Growth, Survival, and Whole-body Proximate and Fatty Acid Composition of Haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus L., Postlarvae Fed a Practical Microparticulate Weaning Diet
Lall, S.P., L.M. Lewis-McCrea, and S.M. Tibbetts.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(1):83-95

Reducing production costs of marine finfish fingerlings is an important step in further growth and development of mariculture worldwide. Lall et al. (2018) report development of a practical microparticulate weaning diet for haddock that out-performed more expensive imported diets at a lower cost and can be easily produced by laboratory researchers and farm managers.

Quantitative Dietary Taurine Requirement for California Yellowtail, Seriola lalandi
Salze, G.P., K.R. Stuart, D.O. Jirsa, D.A. Davis, and M.A. Drawbridge
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 49(1)

Dietary taurine requirements have not been determined quantitatively for Seriola spp., in spite of the recognition that taurine is required for several Seriola species. Salze et al. (2018) determined that, for maximum growth and protein deposition efficiency, the dietary taurine requirement in Seriola lalandi is 0.26%. Taurine deposition efficiency decreases markedly after 0.64%.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(6)

Comparison of protective efficacy between formalin-killed and aroA gene-knockout Vibrio anguillarum vaccines in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus
S. H. Choi, D. S. Kim and K. H. Kim
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(6):854-859

Development of effective vaccines has been critical to the growth and development of aquaculture. Choi et al. (2017) showed greater effectiveness of an aroA gene-knockout Vibrio anguillarum vaccine in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, (the most important commercial farmed fish in Korea) as compared to the currently available formalin-inactivated vaccines.

Locally grown oysters in Hawai‘i: chef preference and local premium?
J. Q. Chen, M. C. Haws, Q. S. W. Fong and P-S. Leung
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(6):972-980

Demand for locally-grown food appears to have increased, but there is a lack of research data on preferences and price effects of locally grown fish and shellfish. Chen et al. (2017) found that chefs in Hawai’i who had oysters on their menus preferred fresh and locally-grown oysters, even on an as-available basis, and were willing to pay a price premium of $5.25 per dozen oysters.

Design characteristics of spiral aerator
S. M. Roy, S. Moulick and B. C. Mal
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(6):898-908

A variety of commercially available aerators are used in aquaculture throughout the world. Given that aeration rates have generally increased, improvements in aerator design have potential to improve production efficiency. Roy et al. (2017) evaluated the performance of a new spiral aerator design and identified the least-cost rotational speed under differing pond conditions.

Effects of dietary lipids on the growth performance, survival, and digestive enzymes of juvenile cuttlefish, Sepia lycidas
Q. Han, Y. Wang, T. Lv, Q. Han and X. Jiang
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(6):963-971

Cuttlefish are of commercial importance in Japan and China, but work is needed to fully define nutritional requirements for the various species of interest. Han et al. (2017) examined effects of dietary lipids on growth, survival, and digestive enzymes of juvenile cuttlefish, Sepia Lycidas, and suggested an optimal dietary lipid level of 9.56%. 

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(5)

An analysis of nearly one billion dollars of aquaculture grants made by the US federal government from 1990 to 2015
Love, D.C., I. Gorski, and J.P. Fry
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(5):689-710

Investment in research is critical to on-going innovations that contribute to growth and development of aquaculture. Love et al. (2017) analyzed U.S. federal grant funding over a 25-year period. Species, topics, and disciplines that received the most grant support were identified. The analysis reported an approximately 37-fold return on the investment in aquaculture research.

Methionine Requirement for Juvenile White Seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, Using Nonlinear Models
Salze, G.P., D.A. Davis, D.O. Jirsa, and M.A. Drawbridge
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(5):729-740

Methionine is often the first limiting amino acid in plant protein sources such as soybeans, and determination of its requirements for important commercial species such as white seabass is critical to be able to formulate tailored, practical feeds. Salze et al. (2017) concluded that the methionine requirement for juvenile white seabass was 0.88%.

Innovative Egg Custard Formulation Reduced Rearing Period and Improved Survival of Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Larvae
Sin, N.N.N. and R. Shapawi
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(5):751-759

While Artemia sp. are used widely around the world as live feeds for larvae, its high cost is problematic. Sin and Shapawi (2017) found that readily available, lower-cost ingredients such as poultry byproduct meal and palm oil use in an egg custard formulation reduced the rearing period and improved survival of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, larvae, when combined with Artemia sp.

Imidazole-dicarboxylic Acid Nickel Complex as a Novel Grafting Agent for Pearl Oyster, Pinctada martensii
Ji, L., W. Song, J. Guo, Y. Wang, and L. Cai
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(5):711-717

In pearl production, a critical step is the surgical implantation of a nucleus and a piece of mantle tissue into the gonad of a recipient pearl oyster. Ji et al. (2017) found that a novel synthesized grafting agent, imidazole-dicarboxylic acid nickel complex, has potential to promote wound healing after mantle implantation, promote nacre secretion, and enhance oyster immunity

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(4)

Linkages and Trust in the Value Chain for Small-scale Aquaculture in Asia
Pomeroy, R., H. Navy, A. Ferrer, and A.H. Purnomo
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(4):542-554

Linkages and partnerships have become increasingly important for aquaculture businesses. However, small-scale producers often find it difficult to participate in value chains and may find themselves in a weaker bargaining position as a result. Pomeroy et al. (2017) review linkages and trust in value chains for small-scale aquaculture in Asia. The case studies presented for Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, and the Philippines provide a framework from which to develop response strategies to enhance sustainability and competitiveness.

Assessing the Reliability of Water-Test Kits for Use in Pond Aquaculture
Naigaga, S., C.E. Boyd, P. Gaillard, H.A. Abdelrahman, and J.J. Molnar
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(4):555-562

Water quality testing kits are used frequently on aquaculture farms because they tend to be relatively inexpensive, easy to use, and provide fairly rapid results. While some older test kits have been shown to be reliable, others have not. Naigaga et al. (2017) evaluated several new test kits that have become available based on the decision that the manager would make following test results. Study results revealed that different kits were more reliable for different variables tested, and recommendations for appropriate uses are provided.

Development and Application of a Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection of Aeromonas salmonicida
Du, Y., Y. Liu, P. Xiao, L. Meng, and P. Liu
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(4):574-582

Aeromonas salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis, is a ubiquitous disease of salmonids. Traditional detection methods are based on plate cultures, but A. salmonicida has also been associated with a physiological state in some environments in which viable organisms cannot be cultured. Du et al. (2017) developed a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect A. salmonicida. Study results suggest that the qPCR assay is specific and sensitive for detection of A. salmonicida, with potential for routine testing and research.

Growth of Hatchery-reared Juveniles of the Australasian Sea Cucumber, Australostichopus mollis, Fed with Artificial and Natural Diets
Zamora, L.N., K.H. Maxwell, and A.G. Jeffs
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(4):643-655

Market demand for farmed sea cucumbers has increased rapidly with declining wild stocks. However, information necessary for development of artificial diets for early juveniles is scarce. Australostichopus mollis has been co-cultured successfully with shellfish in New Zealand. Zamora et al. (2017) showed the feasibility of artificial diets to replace naturally available ingredients. Given the high-value export market, such research has potential to lead to greater supplies of hatchery-reared juveniles for expansion of sea cucumber production.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(1)

Embodied resources in fish and shrimp feeds
Chatvijitkul, S., C.E. Boyd, and D.A. Davis
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(1):7-19

The sustainability of resource use in aquaculture production is widely recognized as an essential goal, but the lack of quantitative metrics and indices to measure and compare sustainability among alternative production methods makes it difficult to make clear choices. Chatvijitkul et al. (2017) present a methodology that can be used to measure the resources embodied in feed, the major production input for many aquaculture species. This methodology can be used to compare the relative sustainability of various production systems and species.

Forecasting the genetic impacts of net pen failures on Gulf of Mexico cobia populations using individual-based model simulations
Darden, T.L., J.D. Robinson, A.E. Strand, and M.R. Denson
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(1):20-34

Efforts to develop policies to allow permitting of net pen culture in the Gulf of Mexico have been on-going in the U.S. However, there are concerns over the potential genetic impact of escapes from net pens on wild populations. Darden et al. (2017) simulated short-term (50-year) impacts of net pen failures on the genetics of wild cobia, Rachycentron canadum, in the Gulf of Mexico. Results point to the importance of appropriate source populations and best management practices for broodstock selection to minimize adverse environmental impacts from net pens.

Evaluating the effects of a short-term feed restriction period on the behavior and welfare of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, parr using social network analysis and fin damage
Jones, H.A.C., C. Nobel, B. Damsgård, and G. P. Pearce
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(1):35-45

The welfare of animals produced for food is a growing concern worldwide, but there are few quantitative studies that have evaluated fish behavior and welfare implications of production practices. Jones et al. (2017) used social network analysis to examine the effects of short-term feed restrictions on behavioral interactions of Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar, and fin damage. This study demonstrated the applicability of social network analysis in studies of fish welfare in demonstrating changes in fish behavior in response to short-term feed restrictions.

Ethnobotanical uses and antimicrobial properties of plants in small-scale tropical fish farms: the case of Indonesian fish farmers in Java (Indonesia)
Caruso, D., A. M. Lusiastuti, T. Taukhid, J-C Avarre, M. Yuhana, and S. Sarter
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 48(1):83-92

A growing interest in alternatives to antibiotics to treat disease in aquaculture has led to research on a variety of compounds. To more effectively screen prospective plants, Caruso et al. (2017) used an ethnobotanical survey and indicators to select 18 plants commonly used to treat diseases on fish farms in Indonesia for further analysis. Fifteen of the plants selected demonstrated antibacterial activity. This study demonstrated the utility of ethnobotanical methods as an effective screening mechanism to identify plant compounds for further in-depth analysis.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4)

A review of factors influencing maturation of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with focus on water recirculation aquaculture system environments.
Good, C. and J. Davidson
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):605-632

Early maturation of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, has resulted in economic losses particularly in land-based RAS production systems that constitute an emerging production system for commercial production of Atlantic salmon. This paper reviews the literature related to factors that have been associated with early maturation of salmonids. It also summarizes research that has focused specifically on the effects of precocious maturation of Atlantic salmon on growth and production in land-based RAS systems.

Effects of Bdellovibrio and like organisms on survival and growth performance of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.
Guo, Y., L. Yan, and J. Cai.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):633-645

Bdellovibrio, a Gram-negative predatory bacteria, have been suggested for use as a biocontrol agent to possibly substitute for antibiotic use or as a type of probiotic. Guo et al. (2016) examined the effect of Bdellovibrio on growth and survival of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, in a static water tank rearing system. Survival and growth of juvenile turbot were significantly greater with the Bdellovibrio treatment than in the control. Results show that there may be potential for use of Bdellovibrio as a probiotic in coldwater fish aquaculture production.

Impact of the community-based fish culture system on expenditure and inequality: evidence from Bangladesh
Haque, A.B.M. and M. M. Dey
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):646-657

Global leaders have adopted international goals proposed by the United Nations to reduce income inequality and poverty globally. Fish consumption was identified as a priority to improve food and nutritional security in Bangladesh. Haque and Dey (2016) developed an empirical analysis of the effect of community-based fish culture systems on household expenditures and inequality in Bangladesh. Community-based fish culture systems were found to have an equalizing effect on food, clothing, and health care expenditures.

Slow-release coated copper sulfate as an algicide for aquaculture.
Viriyatum, R. and C.E. Boyd
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):667-675

Copper sulfate is frequently used as an algicide in catfish ponds to reduce cyanobacteria and allow fish flavor to improve, but re-treatment is often necessary. Viriyatum and Boyd (2016) evaluated the effectiveness of a coated copper sulfate product that provided a controlled release of copper over time. The coated copper sulfate product provided a similar level of phytoplankton control as weekly treatments of copper sulfate crystals over a 4-month period. No negative effects on catfish survival, production, or feed conversion were found.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4)

Influence of a Bacterial Amendment on Water Quality in Small Research Ponds for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, Production
Li, Y. and C.E. Boyd
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):464-469

The use of bacterial amendments in ponds to improve water quality has increased over time, particularly those used to remove ammonia nitrogen. Li and Boyd (2016) evaluated a selected bacteria amendment for use in channel catfish ponds, based on laboratory evidence of some degree of effectiveness. However, results of the pond trial showed no difference in water quality variables from the treatments. Thus, in well-managed catfish ponds, no benefit was found from use of the bacterial amendment.

Influence of stocking density on growth performance, antioxidant status, and physiological response of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximu, reared in land-based recirculating aquaculture system
Jia, R., B-L Liu, C. Han, B. Huang, and J-L. Lei
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):587-599

Higher stocking densities can result in lower production costs, but may also result in reduced growth and physiological condition. Jia et al. (2016) examined the effects of stocking density for turbot on growth, physiological parameters, and antioxidant status. No differences were found up to a biomass of 26 kg/m3, above which significantly negative differences were observed. This study provides useful findings for managers to choose appropriate stocking densities for culture in recirculating aquaculture systems of this important commercial species.

Effects of dietary protein source and feeding regime on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fatty acids, and quality characteristics of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fillets.
Gai, F., P.G. Peiretti, A. Brugiapaglia, and L. Gasco
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):496-507

Identification of alternative protein sources to substitute for fishmeal in aquaculture diets has been a target of nutrition research studies for many years. However, the decision of an aquaculture business to change diets must consider various effects not just on growth and feed conversion ratios but also on the quality and taste of the end fillets. Gai et al. (2016) report results from a comprehensive study of alternative diets evaluated with different feeding regimes from growth of the trout through to the taste of the fillets.

Development and evaluation of an ultrasound imaging reproductive index based on the ovarian cycle of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus
Novelo, N.D. and T.R. Tiersch
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(4):526-537

Ultrasonography has been shown to be an effective means to assess the reproductive state of channel catfish ovaries by providing a direct view of ovarian development. Novelo and Tiersch (2016) developed a reproductive index of seven classifications of ovarian development based on ultrasound images. The technique was particularly useful to identify fish that would not spawn and shows potential for application in commercial catfish hatcheries. Such ultrasound methodologies may have application for commercial hatchery production of other species.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(3)

Aquaculture techniques for crappie, Pomoxis spp., culture
Culpepper, C.M. and P.J. Allen
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(3):10.1111/jwas.12283.

Crappie are a popular sportfish in the United States. A number of state hatcheries raise crappie to enhance natural stocks for anglers, and there is interest in raising them commercially. Culpepper and Allen (2016) review the life history and culture methods for crappie from reproduction and spawning to larval rearing. Recent advances in hybridization, triploidy, and out-of-season spawning are also reviewed. Recommendations for research to enhance both recreational and commercial production are presented.

Costs and risk of catfish split-pond systems. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
Kumar, G, C. Engle, and C. Tucker
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(3):10.1111/jwas.12271.

Split ponds are a new production system that is being adopted by U.S. catfish farmers to enhance productivity. Kumar et al. (2016) present a comprehensive economic analysis that examines the costs and risks associated with split-pond production of catfish. Based on commercial farm data, the analysis addresses key economic questions and provides guidance for those considering investing in the new systems. With proper planning and management, split ponds appear to be profitable for catfish production and may have potential for other species.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene and associations with growth traits in the golden pompano, Trachinotus blochii.
Wu, Changsong, G. Wu, G. Zhang, Q. Wang, J. Luo, and G. Chen.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(3):10.1111/jwas.12272.

Improvements in genetic selection methods that result in enhanced growth have potential to improve profitability of a variety of aquaculture species, particularly for emerging species such as pompano. Wu et al. (2016) identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leptin-a gene likely associated with growth traits. Two polymorphisms were identified that could lead to development of molecular markers for selection programs.

Preliminary assessment of biofouling on offshore mussel farms.
Atalah, J, L.M. Fletcher, G. A. Hopkins, K. Heasman, C. M. C. Woods and B. M. Forrest
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(3):10.1111/jwas.12279.

There are few options for managing biofouling problems on commercial mussel farms. Atalah et al. (2016) compared biofouling on offshore farms raising the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus, with inshore farms raising the same species. Study results suggested that offshore locations had relatively impoverished populations of biofouling communities. Thus, newly established offshore farms may have greater potential to reduce biofouling if adequate preventive measures are taken to avoid introducing problematic organisms.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(2)

A Fish of Weedy Waters: Golden Shiner Biology and Culture
Stone, N.M., A. M. Kelly, and L. A. Roy. 2016
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(2):doi10.11111/jwas.12269.

Golden shiners are an important, native forage fish in natural aquatic systems in the U.S. that have also been cultured for more than a century. Culture techniques were developed and promoted by state/federal agencies and universities to replace indiscriminate harvest from natural waters. Stone et al. (2016) provide a comprehensive review of the biology and culture of the golden shiner, including the natural history and ecology of this species and commercial production practices.

Vaccination of Full-sib Channel Catfish Families Against Enteric Septicemia of Catfish with an Oral Live Attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri Vaccine
Peterson, B.C., C. Flora, M. Wood, B.G. Bosworth, S. M. Quiniou, T.E. Greenway, T.S. Byars, and D.J. Wise. 2016
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(2):doi10.1111/jwas.12264.

Development of effective vaccines is a critical step in managing the aquatic animal health of important aquaculture species. Enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) has resulted in substantial losses in the U.S. catfish industry for many years. Peterson et al. (2016) report that a live attenuated Edwardsiella ictaluri vaccine developed was effective in reducing mortality due to ESC infection. Moreover, the study found that the vaccine was equally effective across 20 families of channel catfish in spite of varying mortalities among families of non-vaccinated fish.

Use of Grain Distillers Dried Yeast in Practical Diets for Juvenile Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei
Achupallas, J.M., Y. Zhou, and D.A. Davis. 2016
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(2):doi10.1111/jwas.12267

The environmental sustainability of aquaculture has been enhanced by the substitution of fishmeal with plant-based protein sources such as soybean meal, often supplemented with amino acids. Increased prices of soybean meal have led to a continued search for alternative sources. Achupallas et al. (2016) reported that grain distillers dried yeast (GDDY), a bioethanol byproduct, can be used as an alternative protein source up to 300 g GDDY/kg of diet in practical diets of juvenile Pacific white shrimp in clear-water systems without lysine supplementation.

Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate-to-lipid Ratio on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Digestive Enzyme Activities, and Hepatic Enzyme Activities in Juvenile Large Yellow Croaker, Larimichthys crocea
Xing, S., R. Sun, X. Pan, J. Ma, W. Zhang, and K. Mai. 2016.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(2):doi10.1111/jwas 12259

Yellow croaker is the third most important mariculture species farmed in China. Improved understanding of the nutritional requirements of this desired fish in China has potential to reduce feed and overall production costs. Xing et al. (2016) determined that a diet with 21.13% carbohydrates and 8.87% lipids, with a carbohydrate:lipid ratio of 2.38 was appropriate for juvenile large yellow croakers. Moreover, the study found that yellow croaker could, to some extent, utilize carbohydrate sources of energy as effectively as lipid sources.

Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(1)

Alkalinity and hardness: critical but elusive concepts in aquaculture.
Boyd, C.E., C.S. Tucker, and B. Somridhivej. 2016.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(1):6-41.

Claude Boyd, Craig Tucker, and Benjaporn Somridhivej review the complex, and not always well understood, effects of alkalinity and hardness as related to aquacultural production. While alkalinity and hardness are familiar to aquaculturists, the interactions of these variables with water quality and aquacultural production are not always well understood. The complex nature of the biological and chemical effects of alkalinity and hardness are discussed and clarified in this review paper.

Biosecurity versus profits: a multiobjective model for the aquaculture industry.
Dresdner, J. and M. Estay. 2016.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(1):61-73.

The Chilean salmon industry experienced severe losses due to disease outbreaks in 2007 that resulted in a new set of regulations to improve biosecurity and reduce the risk of future losses. However, regulations impose additional costs on an industry that have potential to reduce its competitiveness. Jorge Dresdner and Manuel Estay developed an analytical model to calculate the values of trade-offs associated with the additional costs of improved biosecurity and the benefits of reducing future salmon losses. Their results point to the need for careful evaluation of such trade-offs to identify regulatory policy levels that achieve the intended results while avoiding costly excessive regulation.

Development of a model to simulate nitrogen dynamics in an integrated shrimp-macroalgae culture system with zero water exchange.
Sánchez-Romero, A., A. Miranda-Baeza, M. E. Rivas-Vega, J. A. López-Elias, L.R. Martinez-Córdova, and A. Tejeda-Mansir. 2016.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 47(1):129-138.

Integrated aquaculture has become an important focus of research designed to further enhance the overall sustainability of intensive aquaculture production. Adolfo Sánchez-Romero and his co-authors modeled the nitrogen dynamics in integrated shrimp and seaweed culture in a recirculating aquaculture system. Their study contributes to understanding of the interactions among shrimp, seaweed, and various types of bacteria in a recirculating and zero water exchange system.