• Issue

    Earth Surface Processes and Landforms: Volume 46, Issue 1

    i, 1-320
    January 2021

Cover Image

Free Access

Cover Image

  • Pages: i
  • First Published: 21 January 2021
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The cover image is based on the Original Article Reflections on the History of Research on Large Wood in Rivers by Frederick J. Swanson et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/esp.4814.

The cover image depicts Large wood in Lookout Creek, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, western Cascade mountains, Oregon, USA, which is the location of studies of effects of large wood on river geomorphology and ecology. The image was created using a "painting-with-light" technique by David Paul Bayles and is part of his Outside of Time - Forest Landscapes collection published in Terrain.org, where he explains his motivations and methods. Used with permission of the photographer.

Issue Information

Free Access

Issue Information

  • Pages: 1-2
  • First Published: 21 January 2021

ESEX Commentaries

Open Access

Biogeomorphology, quo vadis? On processes, time, and space in biogeomorphology

  • Pages: 12-23
  • First Published: 10 October 2020
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  • Linking ecological and geomorphic processes across different spatio-temporal scales is the main research challenge in biogeomorphology.
  • The translation of biogeomorphic knowledge into management techniques for environmental systems remains a challenge.
  • Future biogeomorphic studies should include the spatio-temporal scales relevant to the organism(s) under investigation.
  • Biogeomorphic studies should cover at least one full-time period bounded by two disturbance events (relevant to the species under investigation), but also investigate the geomorphic work done during disturbance events, in order to put estimates of engineering capacity of biota into a wider perspective.
  • Biogeomorphology has practical applications in management and policy, especially with regards to nature-based solutions.

State of Science

Free Access

Glaciers, rock avalanches and the ‘buzzsaw’ in cirque development: Why mountain cirques are of mainly glacial origin

  • Pages: 24-46
  • First Published: 19 February 2020
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Cirque distribution by altitude and aspect is closely related to climate and the distribution of former glaciers. It does not relate to earthquakes that produce deep-seated rock-slope failures. Cirques are found on all rock types and have distinct morphometry. Glaciers oversteepen headwalls so that rock-slope failures extend cirque length and width.

Reflections on the history of research on large wood in rivers

  • Pages: 55-66
  • First Published: 24 January 2020
Description unavailable

  • Large wood in rivers has been a subject of study since the early 20th century, but the field has expanded greatly since the 1980s.
  • Roles and regimes of streamflow, sediment, and large wood are now recognized as the essential interactive components of fluvial geomorphic systems.
  • Research has made important advances through intensive, sustained investigations focused on critical issues, such as environmental hazards in mountain landscapes, protection and restoration of river ecosystems, and roles in global carbon dynamics.

Open Access

Resistance of salt marsh substrates to near-instantaneous hydrodynamic forcing

  • Pages: 67-88
  • First Published: 21 May 2020
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Salt marsh stability reflects, at least in part, the cumulative interaction of forcing and resistance over time. We review marsh resistance by outlining how substrate properties may affect marsh substrate stability, the spatial variation in these properties, and how they both affect, and are affected by, salt marsh processes. We then discuss how the cumulative impact of these interactions over annual to decadal timescales affects marsh stability.

Insects as zoogeomorphic agents: an extended review

  • Pages: 89-109
  • First Published: 02 July 2020
Description unavailable

• Insects, as the most diverse and abundant class of animals on Earth, are considered as major agents of geomorphic change, beyond the well-known considerations about social ants and termites.

• A large overview of the primary and secondary geomorphic impacts of entomofauna is provided, based on naturalistic evidence and available quantitative data.

• Overall, this review article integrates a broad range of scales and approaches, from micro-scale landform analysis to continental-scale sediment budgets, and from long-term evolutionary trends to shorter-term Holocene changes.

The potential of portable luminescence readers in geomorphological investigations: a review

  • Pages: 131-150
  • First Published: 10 August 2020
Description unavailable

The development of functional portable luminescence readers over the last decade provides practitioners with the capability to acquire luminescence signals from geological materials relatively rapidly, which allows for expedient preliminary insight when working with complex depositional systems of late Quaternary age. Basic features of the portable reader are outlined and studies performed using the instrument over the last decade reviewed. Future directions are also explored.

Open Access

Bayesian geomorphology

  • Pages: 151-172
  • First Published: 07 September 2020
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Geomorphologists rarely use Bayesian methods in their research, often relying instead on model averages that largely miss out on the variability of form and process. The aim of this article is to introduce the Bayesian toolkit to scientists concerned with Earth surface processes and landforms, and to show how geomorphic models might benefit from probabilistic concepts. I briefly review the use of Bayesian reasoning in geomorphology, and outline the corresponding variants of regression and classification in several worked examples.

Open Access

Limits to scale invariance in alluvial rivers

  • Pages: 173-187
  • First Published: 24 September 2020
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Do widely used power-law scalings and scale invariances hold for rivers of all sizes, gradients, and grain sizes? Do perceived differences between different types of river relate to departures from simple scaling? The answers are ‘no’ and ‘yes’. Departures from simple scale relations explain the different transport regimes of coarse- and fine-bed rivers and the distinctive nature of torrents and mega rivers.

Morphodynamic research challenges for braided river environments: Lessons from the iconic case of New Zealand

  • Pages: 188-204
  • First Published: 10 October 2020
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Managing both aggradation-related flooding hazards and pressures to take land and irrigation water from braided rivers is critical to the rivers’ future sustainable management in New Zealand. Physical and numerical modelling are important for better understanding the associated morphological processes braided rivers undergo. Treating braided rivers as connected systems, transcending from range-front alluvial fans to hāpua, is needed for quantifying the complex morphodynamic changes which are observed.

Open Access

What is wrong with post-fire soil erosion modelling? A meta-analysis on current approaches, research gaps, and future directions

  • Pages: 205-219
  • First Published: 12 October 2020
Description unavailable

The application of post-fire erosion models is not homogeneously distributed worldwide regarding the model type used or where larger areas are affected. Further efforts are required in the adaptation of erosion models to burned conditions, addressing post-fire infiltration, burn severity, and post-fire mitigation measures. Future studies on post-fire soil erosion modelling could consider using a multidisciplinary model combination as well as including uncertainty analysis in predictions for better communication of the scientific outputs.

Gully prevention and control: Techniques, failures and effectiveness

  • Pages: 220-238
  • First Published: 09 November 2020
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Gully erosion is a major environmental problem, posing significant threats to sustainable development. However, insights on techniques to prevent and control gullying are scattered and incomplete, especially regarding failure rates and effectiveness. This review aims to address these issues and contribute to more successful gully prevention and control strategies by synthesizing the data from earlier studies.

Research Articles

High-resolution fjord sediment record of a receding glacier with growing intermediate proglacial lake (Steffen Fjord, Chilean Patagonia)

  • Pages: 239-251
  • First Published: 10 October 2020
Description unavailable

Fjord sediments are one of the best high-resolution archives of glacier variability. Our results show that growing intermediate proglacial lakes result in a progressive decrease in downstream sediment grain size until the lake area reaches a threshold. In parallel, sediment retention in such a lake increases but it can be compensated by accelerating glacier shrinkage, resulting in stable sedimentation rates in the fjord downstream.

Seven decades of hydrogeomorphological changes in a near-natural (Sense River) and a hydropower-regulated (Sarine River) pre-Alpine river floodplain in Western Switzerland

  • Pages: 252-266
  • First Published: 10 October 2020
Description unavailable

70 years of hydropower exploitation drastically reduced typical habitats such as bare sediments (-95% area reduction), shifted habitat abundance and distribution to more terrestrial habitats like mature forest, and increased floodplain stability because of general vegetative colonization within the parafluvial. This triggered essential active channel and floodplain narrowing (up to 62% width reduction). These results and their relationship with flood variables can contribute to restoration action plans such controlled flooding and sediment replenishments in floodplain rivers of the Alps.

Hillslope sediment fence catch efficiencies and particle sorting for post-fire rain storms

  • Pages: 267-279
  • First Published: 21 October 2020
Description unavailable

Drawing of a hillslope sediment fence and the equipment used to measure the runoff and sediment that overtopped the fence with summaries of observed catch efficiencies and particle sorting.

Evaluating young fluvial terrace riser degradation using a nonlinear transport model: Application to the Kongur Normal Fault in the Pamir, northwest China

  • Pages: 280-295
  • First Published: 16 October 2020
Description unavailable

We use a calibrated nonlinear model based on a numerical discretization scheme to fit the profiles of two risers and their ages are 7.3 ± 0.5 and 4.0 ± 0.2 kyr, respectively, consistent with terrace surface ages determined independently. In contrast, two linear morphological ages overlap within uncertainty and fail to distinguish between two young terrace risers. This comparison shows the advantage of the nonlinear model in constraining ages of the young scarps.

Open Access

Impact of an 0.2 km3 Rock Avalanche on Lake Eibsee (Bavarian Alps, Germany) – Part I: Reconstruction of the paleolake and Effects of the Impact

  • Pages: 296-306
  • First Published: 17 October 2020
Description unavailable

The Eibsee rock avalanche detached from Mount Zugspitze and impacted and destroyed Paleolake Eibsee. Paleolake Eibsee was larger than modern Lake Eibsee; the rock avalanche deposit covers the northern half of the paleolake. The complementary application of geomorphology, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and sedimentology allows for ERT calibration at seven different sites, where materials (rock avalanche, bedrock, lake clay, mixed sediments) and effects of the impact (bulldozing, bulging, overriding of secondary lobes, splashing of boulders) can be distinguished.

Open Access

Impact of an 0.2 km3 Rock Avalanche on Lake Eibsee (Bavarian Alps, Germany) – Part II: Catchment Response to Consecutive Debris Avalanche and Debris Flow

  • Pages: 307-319
  • First Published: 17 October 2020
Description unavailable

Sedimentological, geophysical and geomorphological investigation in and around Lake Eibsee allows to decipher three rock-slope failures from Mount Zugspitze: (i) the Eibsee rock avalanche ~4000 cal yr BP; (ii) a debris avalanche in the aftermath; and (iii) a large debris flow ~3740 cal yr BP. The Eibsee rock avalanche was re-dated to a refined age of 4089–3876 cal yr BP. The coincidence with major events in the Fernpass rockslide cluster increases the likelihood of a prehistoric earthquake trigger.

Erratum

Free Access

Erratum

  • Pages: 320
  • First Published: 21 January 2021