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- IssueVolume 26, Issue 9637-751September 2021
- Pages: 637-640
- First Published: 09 September 2021
Front cover: Advances in optogenetic techniques, in which light-activated proteins that respond to specific wavelengths are expressed in specific cells, have made it possible to manipulate the activity of specific nerves in many animal species including mammals with high temporal and spatial precision. The method of using optical fiber for light irradiation (right) is highly invasive and restricts behavior of animal. However, new methods to overcome this problem have emerged. Some examples are a method of using implantable wireless light-emitting devices (top left), and a method of injecting upconversion nanoparticles that emit visible light in response to near-infrared (NIR) lights that reach deep into the body (center; the light emitted from Uchideno-kozuchi (magic mallet) of Daikokuten is NIR). Designed by TRAIS Co., Ltd. (Kobe, Japan).
Necdin: A purposive integrator of molecular interaction networks for mammalian neuron vitality
- Pages: 641-683
- First Published: 02 August 2021
Necdin interacts with major regulatory proteins such as E2F1, p53, neurotrophin receptors (TrkA, p75NTR), Sirt1 and PGC-1α, which serve as highly connected hubs of protein–protein interaction networks for mitosis, apoptosis, differentiation, neuroprotection and energy homeostasis. By integrating these networks, necdin promotes the vitality of mammalian neurons.
miR-29c-3p regulates TET2 expression and inhibits autophagy process in Parkinson's disease models
- Pages: 684-697
- First Published: 04 June 2021
Elevated autophagy accompanied by decreased miR-29c-3p and increased TET2 levels in the MPTP-induced PD mouse model and MPP+-intoxicated SH-SY5Y cells. miR-29c-3p overexpression decreased autophagy in the SNpc (including DA neurons) of PD mice and MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, TET2 was proved to be targeted and downregulated by miR-29c-3p, and the inhibitory effects of miR-29c-3p upregulation on autophagy in MPP+-intoxicated SH-SY5Y cells were reversed by TET2 overexpression.
Red light-regulated interaction of Per-Arnt-Sim histidine kinases with partner histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins in Physcomitrium patens
- Pages: 698-713
- First Published: 04 June 2021
Two histidine kinases (HKs) of a moss plant showed nuclear localizations and interactions with their partner proteins, as unprecedented features in land plant HKs. Moreover, red light triggered cytoplasmic interactions of these HKs with the partner proteins. Functional implications of the uniqueness of these HKs are discussed, mainly from the evolutionary viewpoint.
TAZ inhibits acinar cell differentiation but promotes immature ductal cell proliferation in adult mouse salivary glands
- Pages: 714-726
- First Published: 17 June 2021
We generated adMOB1DKO mice in which both MOB1A and MOB1B were TAM-inducibly deleted when the animals were adults. Three weeks after TAM treatment, adMOB1DKO mice exhibited smaller submandibular glands (SMGs) than controls with a decreased number of acinar cells and an increased number of immature dysplastic ductal cells.
Expression of Cds4/5 of Arabidopsis chloroplasts in E. coli reveals the membrane topology of the C-terminal region of CDP-diacylglycerol synthases
- Pages: 727-738
- First Published: 24 June 2021
Bacterial CdsA, a member of CDP-diacylglycerol synthase, is involved not only in phospholipid biosynthesis but also in biosynthesis of glycolipid MPIase, an essential glycolipid that catalyzes membrane protein integration. We found that both Cds4 and Cds5 of Arabidopsis chloroplasts complement the cdsA knockout by supporting both phospholipid and MPIase biosyntheses. Comparison of CdsA and Cds4/5 revealed that the C-terminal region of Cds homologues forms a reentrant loop, of which structure is important for the Cds function.
Microtubule inhibitors identified through nonbiased screening enhance DNA transfection efficiency by delaying p62-dependent ubiquitin recruitment
- Pages: 739-751
- First Published: 01 July 2021
Non-biased high-throughput screening for over 4,000 compounds revealed microtubule inhibitors such as colchicine and vinblastine enhance transfection efficiency. These microtubule inhibitors increase transfection efficiency by suppressing p62 phosphorylation that leads to the degradation of transfected DNA.