• Issue

    Global Change Biology: Volume 27, Issue 16

    i-ii, 3699-3950
    August 2021

ISSUE INFORMATION

Free Access

Issue Information

  • Pages: i-ii
  • First Published: 13 July 2021

RESEARCH REVIEW

Integrating resilience with functional ecosystem measures: A novel paradigm for management decisions under multiple-stressor interplay in freshwater ecosystems

  • Pages: 3699-3717
  • First Published: 29 April 2021
Description unavailable

Impacts of anthropogenic drivers are evident on water quality change worldwide, yet the collateral/synergetic ecosystem effects induced by multiple stressors interplay in freshwater ecosystems remain unpredictable. This review presents a novel synthesis fostering new grounds for essential ways to not only evaluating the aquatic ecosystems but also acquiring knowledge in the mechanisms that underpin resilience and adaptive capacity of water resources dynamism and sustainable management of ecosystem change. These are necessary more especially under continued multifaceted anthropogenic-climate-environmental impacts.

PRIMARY RESEARCH ARTICLES

Disturbance type and species life history predict mammal responses to humans

  • Pages: 3718-3731
  • First Published: 22 April 2021
Description unavailable

Human activity and land use change are driving declines in many animal species while benefiting others, but predicting which species will successfully coexist with humans remains a challenge. We compiled detection data for 24 mammal species from 61 populations across North America and showed that species life history traits were strong predictors of their responses to human footprint (landscape modification), with increasing footprint favoring smaller, less carnivorous, faster-reproducing species. Positive and negative effects of direct human presence (e.g., recreation, hunting) were distributed more randomly across species, with apparent winners and losers across a range of body sizes and dietary guilds.

Open Access

Regime shift tipping point in hare population collapse associated with climatic and agricultural change during the very early 20th century

  • Pages: 3732-3740
  • First Published: 15 May 2021
Description unavailable

Up to the beginning of the 20th century, numbers of hares shot throughout Ireland were stable but fluctuated in a roughly 8-year cycle synchronous with a similar cycle in autumn weather. Thereafter, cycles disappeared in both the climate and hare numbers with the latter declining dramatically throughout the 20th century associated with agricultural change. The tipping point in the detected regime shift occurred decades before similar population collapses observed in other farmland species during the late 20th century – evidence of the impact of early global change on wildlife.

Open Access

Forests buffer the climate-induced decline of body mass in a mountain herbivore

  • Pages: 3741-3752
  • First Published: 16 May 2021
Description unavailable

Climate change is known to affect key life history traits, such as reproduction, survival and body mass in many species. Our results show that the temporal decline in body mass of Alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra is less pronounced in areas with greater proportion of forest cover, therefore suggesting a buffering effect of forests against climate change impacts. Assessments of the consequences of climate change on the life history traits and population dynamics should thus consider the plasticity of the species with respect to the use and availability of different habitat types (Drawings: Hubert Zeiler).

Open Access

Centennial relationships between ocean temperature and Atlantic puffin production reveal shifting decennial trends

  • Pages: 3753-3764
  • First Published: 24 May 2021
Description unavailable

The relationship between puffin chick production and sea surface temperature is investigated using a 131-year time series of puffin harvest. The sign of the correlation switched several times, being strongly negative during the early 20th century Arctic warming period and during the most recent decades, and positive otherwise. The best model is non-linear and non-stationary and presents a partial explanation of the recent puffin population declines.

Open Access

Thermal acclimation increases the stability of a predator–prey interaction in warmer environments

  • Pages: 3765-3778
  • First Published: 19 May 2021
Description unavailable

We show that acclimation to higher temperatures increased the energetic efficiency of a freshwater invertebrate predator by reducing the thermal sensitivity of metabolic and feeding rates. This resulted in greater stability of population dynamics, as acclimation to higher temperatures increased the biomass of both the predator and its prey with warming. These findings indicate that phenotypic plasticity can act as a buffer against the impacts of environmental warming.

Oyster biomineralization under ocean acidification: From genes to shell

  • Pages: 3779-3797
  • First Published: 08 May 2021
Description unavailable

This article presents an integrated analysis of DNA methylation, gene expression and shell mechanical properties of Crassostrea hongkongensis under ocean acidification (OA). C. hongkongesnsis were found to be moderately resilient under OA with unchanged shell mechanical properties despite signs of severe dissolution. DNA methylation and gene expression showed subtle changes under OA, however, the correlation between them was insignificant.

Unusual characteristics of the carbon cycle during the 2015−2016 El Niño

  • Pages: 3798-3809
  • First Published: 01 May 2021
Description unavailable

Global carbon cycle is strongly affected by extreme climate events. Here, we reveal unusually co-occurring high atmospheric CO2 growth rate (CGR) and high CO2 seasonal-cycle amplitude (SCA) during the latest extreme El Niño event in 2015–2016, a phenomenon different to the significant negative correlation between CGR and SCA sizes as observed for other El Niño events. Modelling analysis suggests that this anomalous carbon cycle behavior in 2015–2016 is likely due to the offset of the strong warming-induced spring carbon uptake over the northern extra-tropical land by a negative carbon uptake anomaly in autumn via enhanced soil moisture deficit and more litter decomposition.

Open Access

Low-intensity frequent fires in coniferous forests transform soil organic matter in ways that may offset ecosystem carbon losses

  • Pages: 3810-3823
  • First Published: 21 April 2021
Description unavailable

Fire changed the proportion of soil organic matter that is resistant to decay or stabilized onto mineral surfaces, which were coupled with declines in decomposition. This suggests that low-intensity fires may promote mineral soil C storage in pools with long mean residence times in coniferous forests, presenting one benefit of prescribed burning to carbon storage in forests.

Interannual variation in rainfall modulates temperature sensitivity of carbon allocation and flux in a tropical montane wet forest

  • Pages: 3824-3836
  • First Published: 01 May 2021
Description unavailable

Reducing climate-carbon cycle uncertainty requires improved quantification of the independent and interactive effects of variable and changing temperature and precipitation regimes on C inputs to, cycling within and loss from tropical forests. Here we: (a) measured litterfall, soil respiration and total belowground C flux (TBCF); (b) examined how variation in annual rainfall (AR) alters the apparent temperature dependency (Q10) of these fluxes; and (c) quantify stand-level C allocation responses to mean annual temperature (MAT) and AR. We found that for the tropical montane wet forest studied here, variations in light, water, and nutrient availability interact to strongly influence productivity (litterfall+TBCF), the sensitivity of above and belowground C fluxes to rising MAT (Q10 of FS, litterfall and TBCF), and C allocation patterns (TBCF:[litterfall+TBCF]).

Anthropogenic disturbances caused declines in the wetland area and carbon pool in China during the last four decades

  • Pages: 3837-3845
  • First Published: 24 May 2021
Description unavailable

We used the human influence index (HII) as a quantitative measure to evaluate the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on wetlands in China in the last four decades. We found that both wetland area and carbon pool decreased from 4.11 × 105 km2 and 15.2 Pg C in the 1980s to 2.14 × 105 km2 and 7.6 Pg C in the 2010s, about 50% reduction. The positive relationship between the HII values—which have increased 17% during the time period—and wetland decreases in many regions across China indicates that anthropogenic disturbances have been a major factor causing wetland destruction in recent decades.

Rapid functional shifts across high latitude forests over the last 65 years

  • Pages: 3846-3858
  • First Published: 16 May 2021
Description unavailable

Using forest inventory data (1951–2016) across Canada, we show that tree functional composition has shifted toward fast-growing deciduous broadleaved trees over time. Boreal forests, but not temperate forests, have also shifted rapidly toward higher drought tolerance. The rapid functional shifts in boreal forests are associated with rising atmospheric CO2. Our results suggest the greater vulnerability of boreal forests than temperate forests under ongoing global environmental changes.

Higher biomass partitioning to absorptive roots improves needle nutrition but does not alleviate stomatal limitation of northern Scots pine

  • Pages: 3859-3869
  • First Published: 01 May 2021
Description unavailable

We demonstrate that increased investment in absorptive roots in cold-adapted populations of Scots pine enhances accumulation of needle nutrients, permitting alleviation of nutrient deficiency. Trees from those populations tend to allocate a higher percentage of fine-root biomass to absorptive roots relative to trees from the south, both in the field and in the common garden (a). They have lower concentrations of needle nitrogen (b) and phosphorus (c) when growing in situ but higher nitrogen and phosphorus when grown in a fertile common garden. Populations sampled in situ along transects are shown in grey and provenances in the common garden are shown in black. MAT is mean annual temperature.

Open Access

Large potential for crop production adaptation depends on available future varieties

  • Pages: 3870-3882
  • First Published: 17 May 2021
Description unavailable

Variety adaptation could potentially outweigh climate change induced production losses and increase global production by 19%. Therefore, new adapted crop varieties are required. In 2100, about 40% of global cropland could require new adapted crop varieties to avoid yield losses from climate change. However, under high level of warming, the risk increases that adapted crop varieties are not available, because regional temperatures could exceed temperature ranges of currently grown cultivars. Thus, regional breeding efforts are required to face the challenge.

Improved phenological escape can help temperate tree seedlings maintain demographic performance under climate change conditions

  • Pages: 3883-3897
  • First Published: 11 May 2021
Description unavailable

Deciduous tree seedlings in temperate forests rely on phenological escape in spring to access light and assimilate positive carbon balances that allow them to survive and grow throughout the rest of the growing season. However, climate change is shifting leaf-out phenology for seedlings and canopy trees alike and it is yet unknown if this will result in differences in access to spring light for understory trees. Here, we found that climate change will increase seedling access to light in spring, but that reduced summer precipitation and hotter temperatures will lead to net negative changes in seedling performance.

Open Access

Soil organic carbon in irrigated agricultural systems: A meta-analysis

  • Pages: 3898-3910
  • First Published: 15 May 2021
Description unavailable

Irrigated agriculture is expanding across the globe, but the effects of irrigation on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are poorly understood. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine changes in SOC on irrigated agricultural sites. In contrast to many agricultural systems, which tend to lose soil carbon with time, we found that SOC increased by 5.9% on irrigated sites, overall. SOC increases were greatest in surface soils, in finer-textured soils, in drier climates and under sprinkler irrigation.

Plant evolution overwhelms geographical origin in shaping rhizosphere fungi across latitudes

  • Pages: 3911-3922
  • First Published: 16 May 2021
Description unavailable

Plant invasions have been shown to impose great threats to aboveground biotic communities; however, invasive impacts on soil biota remain ambiguous. By first integrating phylogenetic and biogeographical approaches and combining observational and experimental studies, we show that plant invasions had a weak impact on the soil fungi, partially due to stronger controls of plant evolution on rhizosphere fungi and rapid adaptation of native fungi to these invasive species. Moreover, rhizosphere fungal composition was more variable between invasive plants than between native plants at middle latitudes, potentially creating spatial variations in plant-soil interactions and in turn invasion dynamics.

Spatial biases of information influence global estimates of soil respiration: How can we improve global predictions?

  • Pages: 3923-3938
  • First Published: 01 May 2021
Description unavailable

We parameterized a machine learning model using a dataset of over 10,000 measurements of soil respiration. Global soil respiration is estimated to be 96.5 Pg C year−1 with an uncertainty of 30.2 (mean average error) and 73.4 (standard deviation) Pg C year−1. Global heterotrophic respiration (Rh) ranged between 53.3 and 53.5 Pg C year−1. These results support current global estimates of Rs but highlight spatial biases that influence model parameterization and interpretation and provide insights for design of environmental networks to improve global-scale Rs estimates.

Long-term nitrogen input alters plant and soil bacterial, but not fungal beta diversity in a semiarid grassland

  • Pages: 3939-3950
  • First Published: 16 May 2021
Description unavailable

Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition is an important component of global environmental change. Our work provides novel empirical evidence that N deposition differentially influences the assembly trajectories of communities of plants and their co-occurring soil microbes. With increasing N input, plant communities are increasingly governed by deterministic processes and fungal communities remain largely regulated by stochastic processes, whereas the importance of stochastic processes first increases then decreases for bacterial communities. These contrasting patterns indicate differences in the assembly mechanism of plant and soil microbial communities, with important implications for understanding aboveground–belowground interactions under anthropogenic N deposition.